Victimology Book Exam 1 Review

Victimology Book Exam 1 Review - Chapter 1: What is...

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Chapter 1: What is Victimology? The Plight of Crime Victims Victim: individuals who experience injury, loss, or hardship for any reason Victimology: scientific study of the physical, emotional, and financial harm people suffer because of illegal activities o Investigate victim’s plight and the aftermath o Also curious to determine the extent to which the plight of persons harmed by criminals is ignored Studying Victimization Scientifically Subjective approach: issues are approached from the standpoint of morality, ethics, philosophy, personalized reactions, and intense emotions Objectivity: hallmark of any social scientific endeavor o Requires that observer try to be fair, open minded, even handed, dispassionate, neutral, and unbiased Sources of Bias Individual preferences and prejudices (arise from personal experiences) Language, concepts, theories, and research priorities can reflect the collective preferences and priorities of its founders and followers o Introduced victim-blaming orientation Influenced by surroundings and social environment Divisions within the Discipline Basic tenet of conservative thought is that everyone must be held strictly accountable for their decisions and actions Liberal tendency sees the scope of the field as stretching beyond crime to include criminal harm inflicted on persons by reckless corporate executives and corrupt government officials Radical/critical/conflict tendency seeks to demonstrate that the problem of victimization arises from the exploitative and oppressive relations that are pervasive throughout the social system Step 1: Identify, Define, and Describe Problem Step 2: Measure the True Dimensions of the Problem Step 3: Investigate How Victims are handled Plea negotiation: assailant admits their guilt in return for some concession Step 4: Gather evidence to test hypothesis Chapter 2: The Rediscovery of Crime Victims Rediscovery of Crime Victims Law and order movement: criminal justice system ought to crack down on deviants who disobeyed society’s rules Women’s movement Civil rights movement
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Civil liberties movement: primary focus is to preserve constitutional safeguards and due-process guarantees that protect suspects, defendants, and prisoners from abuses of governmental power by criminal justice officials Children’s right movement Gay rights movement Victimology Contributes to the Rediscovery Process Constructionist approach: focus on how concerns about being harmed are first raised, framed, and publicized Conflict approach: idea of inevitable clashes of opposing interest groups Stigma contests: realization that there is an ongoing struggle by victimized groups for respect and support in the court of public opinion Stage 1: Calling Attention to an overlooked problem Stage 2: Winning victories, implementing reforms Stage 3: Emergence of an opposition and development of resistance to further changes
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Victimology Book Exam 1 Review - Chapter 1: What is...

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