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Victimology Lecture Exam 1 Review

Victimology Lecture Exam 1 Review - Victimology Exam 1...

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Victimology Exam 1: Lecture Review January 28, 2008 History of the Victim o Primitive times: handled by individuals who took the law into their own hands, made the law and carried out punishment in form of revenge o Code of Hammurabi: revenge and cruelty Family and community helped victim if offender was not found o Indian tribes: collective or group response o victim justice system: sought retribution and revenge Retribution = eye for an eye o Victim justice system replaced with criminal justice system Victims now only witnesses, had to take matters in to their own hands to get retribution o If offender is known: suing is expensive, offenders are poor, civil actions are delayed o 1940: victim was rediscovered Not as individual worthy of sympathy, but as a partner to own demise o Typology: effort to categorize observations into logical groupings to reach a better understanding of the society around us Rape Crisis Centers o Late 1970’s – developed as a result of the federal funding from Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA) and National Center for the Prevention and Control of Rape o During early 1980’s – many had to close due to Reagan administration’s fiscal cuts Battered Woman’s Shelters o Movement established in 1990 – 1250 shelters throughout US and Canada o Funds raised using: alcohol taxes, bail forfeiture, state income tax check offs, surcharge on criminal fines, traffic offenses Victim Compensation Legislation o 1963 – New Zealand Crimes Compensation Tribunal o England in 1964 o 1965 – California, NY, Hawaii, Massachusetts o Offices should be opened in high crime neighborhoods 1989 study of NJ Violent Crime Compensation Board: only 8% of 45,000 victims filed a claim o Funding has increased – through federal, state, local, or county funds o Staff is predominantly full time professionals o First National Survey of Victim Service and Witness Assistance Programs by Dr. Robberts
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Explained court process, made referrals to other court agencies, provided court escort/accompaniment, help victim fill out compensation forms, educate public, advocate with victim’s employer, provide transportation to court Some repair broken locks, provide day car, emergency money, or food vouchers Victim precipitation is the degree to which the victim is responsible for his or her
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Victimology Lecture Exam 1 Review - Victimology Exam 1...

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