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1580 - 1660 Settlement

1580 - 1660 Settlement - 1580 to 1650 England Rapid...

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1580 to 1650 England Rapid population growth – expanded from 3.5-million to more than 5-million Strained agrarian economy – competition for food/land drove up prices “Wandering poor” (migrants from countryside to London) represented threat to order Pilgrims = people who separated themselves from the established Church of England Hoped to make a new life in Leyden (Holland) 1620s – Reign of James I (r. 1603 to 1625) & (his son) Charles I (r. 1625 to 1649) Fought constantly with elected members of Parliament Royal policies fueled popular discontent, especially its hostility to far-reaching religious reform 1629 Charles tried to rule w/out Parliament, but forced to recall Parliament in 1640 b/c no money Militant Puritans (w/ Parliament) demand restructuring of church English Civil War = Royalists vs. Parliamentarians until 1649 when Charles I is beheaded & Oliver Cromwell takes throne as “Lord Protector” until his death in 1660 1660 – Stuarts return to throne (James I’s family) with Charles II (r. 1660-85) and James II (r. 1685 – 88) Glorious Revolution (1688) – Protestants rise up against James II’s loosened restrictions on Catholics James II is sent into permanent exile Forced successor monarchs to surrender some prerogative powers and always rule w/ Parliament Why English colonists went to the New World 1. Religion – institute a purer form of worship 2. Economics - Own land and improve social position, primogeniture 3. Escape bad marriages, jail time, or lifelong poverty Economic considerations figured prominently, as did religion
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1. The Chesapeake Virginia and Maryland (a.k.a. “The Tobacco Coast”) Believed North American mainland contained resources of incalculable value – hoped to reap great profits and supply England with raw materials, especially to annoy or reveal the weaknesses of Catholic Spain Virginia Problem to initial settlement was money – no individual had enough to cover the expenses Joint-stock company = business organization in which scores of people could invest w/out fear of bankruptcy by purchasing a share of stock at a stated price, and at the end of several years recover the initial amount plus a portion of the company’s profits April 10, 1606 – James I issued the first Virginia charter to the London Company, authorizing the establishment of plantations in Virginia between present-day NC and the Hudson River December 1606 – Susan Constant , Godspeed , and Discovery set sail under Sir Thomas Smith Carried 104 men and boys to establish fortified outpost 100 miles up a navigable river Select Jamestown – site 30 miles from mouth of James River Low-lying ground is a disease-ridden death trap; contaminated drinking water Dispirited colonists immediately begin quarreling Cultural problem – men rotate performing crucial tasks, when not on duty, sit around In England, this was common b/c poor economy & little chance for work Behave as if expecting to become instantly rich, but find no gold or silver Pursuing personal interests only complicates the problem of survival
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1580 - 1660 Settlement - 1580 to 1650 England Rapid...

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