1660 - 1700 Establishing Society

1660 - 1700 Establishing Society - New England Colonies...

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New England Colonies Great migration of 1630/40s brought approx. 20,000 people to New England Total population by end of 1600s is approx. 120,000 Usually moved as whole families – reduced shock of New World experience Reason for population growth was survival, not fertility or early marriage Pure drinking water, cool climate that retarded disease, and a dispersed population The Family Believed God ordained the family for human benefit Single life was morally suspect and physically difficult Theoretical Godly Family: Wife shared responsibility of raising kids, but deferred to her husband for important decisions Suggested they “invented” grandparents b/c men lived long enough to become men of standing May have been one of first societies in recorded history where long life could be expected Contributed to social stability – traditions remained alive Life cycle of the family: Men generally brought farmland while women brought dowry worth one-half of man’s land Household is primarily a place of work w/ primary goal to feed the family Usually grew surplus = profit Generally lived in communities of their parents and grandparents Towns became collections of families Congregational churches built on family foundation Attention shifted to spiritual welfare of family as new society became established Problem: status of children within a gathered church As adults, baptized children needed to provide testimony of own “election” Half-Way Covenant (1662) = allowed grandkids of persons in full communion to be baptized By end of century, increasingly turn inward to address problems of lineage groups Education generally regarded as primarily a family responsibility 1647 – Mass. General Court ordered towns w/ more than 15 families to open elementary school Within a year, at least 11 elementary schools went into operation Large majority of males became literate, and literacy in women raised substantially Printing press operated in Cambridge as early as 1639 The New England Primer first published 1690 by Benjamin Harris – alphabet, Lord’s Prayer 1638 – Harvard College founded (first institution of higher learning), intended to train ministers Logic, rhetoric, divinity, several ancient languages 1702 – Yale College established Women’s Lives in Puritan New England Role of women is controversial – common law of subordination vs. “golden age” of working w/ husband Women worked on family farms, but did not necessarily do same jobs as men Usually handled separate tasks – cooking, washing, clothes making, dairying, gardening Raised poultry for surplus sale – allowed some economic independence Often described as “deputy husbands” Joined churches in grater numbers than men – “feminization of colonial religion”
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This note was uploaded on 02/25/2012 for the course HIST 3316 taught by Professor Bourgeios during the Fall '11 term at Texas State.

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1660 - 1700 Establishing Society - New England Colonies...

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