1700 - 1763 The British Empire in America

1700 - 1763 The British Empire in America - Population...

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Annual growth rate from 1700 to 1770 of 3% Natural reproduction was responsible for most of the growth Often traveled to backcountry (region of 800 miles from western Penn to Georgia) Largest group was Scots-Irish Discriminated against by Anglican English (Irish-Scots were Presbyterian) – exorbitant taxes Often entire congregations followed charismatic ministers, intent on replicating culture Carved out farms in western Penn frontier – were welcomed b/c formed barrier to Indians Germans – came from German Palatinate (upper Rhine Valley) Belonged to small pietistic Protestant sects Primarily came in hope of finding religious toleration By mid-century, more Lutherans were immigrating to Middle Colonies Looking to better their material lives Fiercely preserved traditional German culture – eventually forced to find new conditions Immigrants typically preferred to live with people of same background, and English suspicious of both Religious affiliations gave backcountry communities a pronounced moral character British courts also compelled people to come to America Transportation Act (1718) – allowed judges to send convicts to American colonies 50,000 convicts of minor crimes were transported – 75% were young men – to Chesapeake Came as indentured servants, but were feared by colonists of creating a dangerous “criminal class” Revolution forced British to redirect flow of convicts to Australia Native Americans Various Indian groups who contested English settlers for control of coastal lands suffered – war, disease Many eastern tribes became refugees – joined other tribes to establish multiethnic communities Concept of “middle ground” – never intended to isolate themselves b/c relied on white traders Maintained a strong, independent voice in commercial exchanges Survival depended on uncontrolled factors: Keeping old allies happy – they were not as valued by English as they were by French Contagious disease wrecked havoc – population dropped 72% between 1685-1790 European goods subtly eroded traditional structures of Native American authority Ordinary Indians bargained on own terms rather than consulting tribe leader – weakened resistance Spanish Borderlands Spanish Empire continued to shape borderlands well into eighteenth century Widely dispersed settlements – San Francisco, San Diego, Santa Fe, St. Augustine, San Antonio
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1700 - 1763 The British Empire in America - Population...

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