1788 - 1800 Party Politics

1788 - 1800 Party Politics - Washington as President...

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Washington as President Elected unanimously by the electoral college, with Adams as vice president Mastery of symbolic power in his grand trips in 1789 and 1791 – journeyed from Maine to Georgia Visibly brought the new federal government to the people First meeting of the U.S. Senate in 1789 Serious concern about setting government policy Quickly established executive departments 1789 – Departments of War (Henry Knox), State (Thomas Jefferson), and the Treasury (Alexander Hamilton) Edmund Randolph served as part-time Attorney General Constitution tied congressional representation to state population census 1790 at cost of $44,377.28 – hundreds of federal enumerators were dispatched to obtain accurate tally Final figure of 3,929,214 people (approx. 700,000 being slaves) Judiciary Act of 1789 Primarily work of Connecticut Congressman Oliver Ellsworth Created a Supreme Court staffed by a chief justice and five associate justices Set up thirteen district courts authorized to review the decisions of the state courts John Jay agreed to serve as Chief Justice Tariff of 1789 – tax of approx. 5% on imports Jefferson vs. Hamilton Reveals how a common political ideology, republicanism, could be interpreted in such vastly different ways that decisions about government policy turned friends into adversaries Both insisted they were working for the creation of a strong, prosperous republic in which commerce would play an important role Disagreed on how the US should fulfill its destiny Alexander Hamilton Advocated a strong central government Refused to be bound by strict wording of Constitution – called it “a shilly shally thing” (liberal interpretation) Advocated closer commercial and diplomatic ties with Great Britain Urged citizens to think in terms of bold commercial development Looked at Great Britain – with its elaborate system of banking and credit – as a model Voiced concerns about the role of the people in shaping public policy – Fear of democratic excess The gravest threat to political stability was anarchy Best hope for the survival of the republic lay with the country’s monied classes Thomas Jefferson Wanted opportunity to advance the democratic principles Assumed the strength of the American economy lay in its agricultural productivity rather than industrial potential The “immensity of land” represented the country’s major economic resource Recognized the necessity of change – encouraged farmers to participate in an expanding international market Expressed faith in the ability of the American people to shape policy Feared that uncontrolled government power might destroy their liberties Insisted that public officials follow the letter of the Constitution (literal interpretation) Greatest threat came from the corrupt activities of pseudo-aristocrats – on public credit, banking, and manufacturers Report on the Public Credit (January 14, 1790) Outstanding debt stood at approx. $54 million
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This note was uploaded on 02/25/2012 for the course HIST 3316 taught by Professor Bourgeios during the Fall '11 term at Texas State.

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1788 - 1800 Party Politics - Washington as President...

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