1800 - 1815 Jefferson and Madison

1800 - 1815 Jefferson and Madison - Jeffersonian...

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Jeffersonian Republicanism = self-confident, assertive, racist, and having no intention of being relegated to low social status Limits of the Jeffersonian vision: hypocrisy of owning slaves 1810 Census 7,240,000 Americans (a jump of about 2 million in just ten years) Approx. 20% were black slaves Large population increase primarily a result of natural reproduction (few immigrants) Largest single group was children under the age of 16 Strong Regional Identities Formed Commerce & politics, perceived themselves as representatives of distinct subcultures – Southerners, New Englanders, Westerners People living south of the Potomac River began describing themselves as Southerners Shifting focus of attention result of awareness of shared economic interests & sensitivity to outside attacks on slavery Westward After 1790, flood of people rushed west to stake out farms on rich soil Followed northern route across Pennsylvania & New York into Northwest Territory Pittsburgh & Cincinnati became important commercial ports 1803 – Ohio joined the Union Territorial governments formed: Indiana – 1800 Louisiana – 1805 Michigan – 1805 Illinois – 1809 Missouri – 1812 Southerners poured into Kentucky & Tennessee Depended on water transportation – riverboats represented the only economical means of carrying agricultural products to markets Creative mixing of peoples of different backgrounds in a strange environment generated distinctive folkways Developed their own heros – Mike Fink, Daniel Boone, “alligatormen” of Kentucky & Tennessee Native Americans resist Substantial number lived in Ohio Valley Many dependent on trade with white people, ravaged by disease lack of unity Small groups, allegedly representing whole tribe’s interests, sold off huge pieces of land, often for whiskey/trinkets Some leaders attempt to revitalize cultures, encourage avoiding whites, alcohol, and to hold onto land Jeffersonian disclaimed any intention to destroy Indians – Jefferson talked of creating vast reservation beyond Mississippi Send federal agents to “civilize” the Indians into yeoman farmers Even most enlightened whites didn’t believe Indians possessed cultures worth preserving City Life Before 1820, the prosperity of US depended primarily on agriculture & trade 1810 – 84% of population was directly involved in agriculture Southerners – tobacco, rice, cotton North – livestock, cereal crops Major innovation was agricultural fair (1809 by Elkanah Watson) Done in hopes to improve animal breeding, offered prizes for best livestock in country Merchant marine transported a large share of the world’s trade Provided essential links between European countries and Caribbean colonies Success of the “carrying trade” depended on friendly relations between US and major European powers England & France begin seizing US ships in 1805 – national prosperity suffered Cities functioned chiefly as depots for international trade 7% of nation’s population lived in cities, most which owed livelihoods directly/indirectly to carrying trade
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