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1840 - 1860 Expansionism

1840 - 1860 Expansionism - Idea of Young America 1840-1850s...

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Idea of “Young America” 1840-1850s – politicians, writers, entrepreneurs frequently proclaimed themselves champions of “Young America” Entering a new era of commercial development, technological progress, and territorial expansion Progressive new generation – Young Americans – would lead surge of physical development Stood for positive attitude toward market economy and industrial growth, a more aggressive & belligerent foreign policy, and a celebration of America’s unique strengths & virtues Cultural & intellectual movement as well as economic & political Writers & critics – based in NYC – called for new & distinctive national literature, free of subservience to Euro themes/models Young American Ideal – idea of a young country led by young men into new paths of prosperity & greatness Identified primarily w/ young Democrats New discoveries of gold in west fostered economic growth, technological advances spurred industrialization, and increased immigration brought more people to populate lands newly acquired – by agreement or by force Movement to the Far West Pursued fertile land and economic opportunity; went for material gain, adventure, and (minorly) freedom from religious persecution Set the stage for annexations and international crises of 1840s Brought American attitudes into regions already occupied or claimed by Mexico or Great Britain The Borderlands of the 1830s Major dispute over the boundary between Maine & Canadian province of New Brunswick 1842- Sec of St Daniel Webster concluded agreement w/ Lord Ashburton – Webster-Ashburton Treaty Gave over half of disputed territory to US & established definite northeastern boundary w/ Canada US and Brit both claimed Oregon (Rockies to Pacific, 42 nd parallel to southern boundary of Alaska) 1818 – agreed to joint occupation for ten years; renewed indefinitely in 1827 Blocking equitable division was reluctance of both to surrender access to Columbia River basic & adjacent territory By 1820, about 40,000 Spanish populated Mexico borderlands, mainly sheep raisers and miners 1821 – Spain granted independence to Mexico Spain’s mercantilist policies had closed region to outside traders, but Republic of Mexico opened doors California – land of huge estates and enormous cattle herds; 34,000 Mexican & Indians; 21 missions (San Diego - Sonoma) 1833 – Mexican Congress’s “secularization act” emancipated Indians from church control & opened mission lands Left Indians landless as Mexican citizens were granted tracts of land Rancheros replaced padres as rulers Subject Indians to new & harsher form of servitude Flamboyant lifestyle & devotion to pleasure of rancheros captured fancy & envy of Americans By mid-1830s, Yankee merchants took up residence in Monterey, San Diego in order to conduct CA end of business Early 1820s, Mexico encouraged settlers from US to settle in Texas Granted Stephen F. Austin huge piece of land 1823 – three hundred families from US settled on Austin grant; w/in year population went to 2,021 Fertile & inexpensive land attracted many Americans
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