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1969 - 1980 Nixon Ford Carter years

1969 - 1980 Nixon Ford Carter years - Nixon distrusts...

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Nixon distrusts everyone – his White House staff forms a “fortress” that isolates him by taking charge of issues for him – without Congress or the cabinet Nixon’s moderation promised return to the politics of accommodation characteristic of the Eisenhower era Democratic Congress Focuses on making federal bureaucracy function more efficiently Successful in shifting responsibility for social problems from Washington to state & local authorities “revenue sharing” = federal funds dispersed to state & local agencies to meet local needs $2.5 billion/year cap on welfare used to fund programs previously done by federal gov. Shifts desegregation to courts’ responsibilities delays & hatred of Supreme Court Nixonomics (economy) Inherits growing inflation and massive deficit spending from Vietnam cost of living rises 5% in 1968 Nixon first ops for reduction in gov. spending & FRB raising interest rates Leads to disaster – inflation continues, first major recession since 1958, unemployment rises Biggest business failure is the Penn Central Railroad In August 1971, announces a 90-day freeze on wages & prices devaluation of the dollar end of recession Foreign policy is given top priority with Kissinger Views the Cold War as a great-power rivalry to be managed & controlled, not won Détente = relaxation of tension (strategic retreat) US no longer in position of primacy Russians have great military but weak economy & rivalry with China Uses American trade to induce Soviet cooperation & improves relations with China (the “China card”) SALT I (Strategic Arms Limitation Talks) underway since 1969, signed in 1972 with Brezhnev 1.) Limited the two superpowers to 200 ABMs (anti-ballistic missiles) each 2.) Froze the number of offensive ballistic missiles for five years MIRVs (multiple independently targeted reentry vehicles) ensures US’s strategic advantage Symbolic as the first step toward control of the nuclear arms race Nixon & Vietnam Three-part plan: 1.) Gradual withdrawal of American troops & training of S.V. forces to take over combat 2.) Renewed bombing (most controversial) Begins raids/strikes in neutral Cambodia domestic protests in US Kent State Univ., Ohio (1970) – kills 4, wounds 11; 2 dead are innocent bystanders Jackson State College, Missouri – 2 African-Americans killed Nixon calls protestors “bums” intent on “blowing up” campuses 3.) Hard line in negotiations with Hanoi (N.V.) Truce is signed January 27, 1973 (“disguised surrender” of U.S.) All American prisoners are released U.S. removes troops from South Vietnam in sixty days The Yom Kippur War Oct. 16, 1973 – Egypt & Syria launch a surprise attack on Israel
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Oct. 17 OPEC announces a 5% cut in oil production each month until Israel gives up land taken in the Six Day
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