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Unformatted text preview: United States History Final Review 3. What were some of the most significant social and cultural changes in the maturation of urban American Society from 1830 to 1860? I. Maturation of Urban Society p. 304 a. Northern cities exploded became metropolitan centers i. The largest cities of the North anchored a nationwide network linked by canals, roads, railroads, and the telegraph ii. Expansion occurred so rapidly that few cities could handle the problems it brought disorderly, unsafe, unhealthy 1. spread of disease 2. cities lacked adequate taxing power to provide services for all 3. city governments too over b. Public Education i. Horace Mann advocated free, state-sponsored education 1. responded to the changes wrought by the market economy, urbanization, and immigration education he proposed would end misery and crime 2. public schools would teach children shared values 3. schools retained moral education, but dropped direct religious indoctrination c. Leisure Time i. In cities, dedicated spaces constituted a public sphere for people to socialize leisure became a commodity to be purchased ii. Leisure associated reflected ethnic, racial, and class divisions iii. Recreation and sports became more formal commodities to be purchased d. Americans became more literate i. Expansion of public education, majority of native-born Americans literate ii. Wide distribution of books, periodicals, newspapers, magazines e. As cities grew, their populations seemed increasingly fragmented ethnic, racial, and religious groups shared traditions in their own clubs and societies i. Urban elite inherited wealth ii. Urban slums 1. filled with poverty, illness, disability, old age, widowhood, desertion 2. mostly immigrants iii. Middle class distinct class appeared 1. family size dramatically decreasing 2. growth and specialization of trade rapidly increased their numbers 3. formed the backbone of the clubs and societies f. Immigrants i. With the immigration of new groups to the United States, with the black population growing, and with territorial expansion bringing Hispanics and more Indians into the country, native-born white Americans were increasingly confronted with people who did not look like them. ii. Native-born white Americans and German immigrants treated Irish as if they were nonwhites 1. anti-Catholic 2. economic competition stiffest among the lowest-paid and least desirable jobs 3. blamed for nearly all social problems, from immorality and alcoholism to poverty and economic upheaval iii. Americans viewed most Germans, especially Protestants, as white 1. Germans were stereotyped as had working, self-reliant, intelligent believed to fit more easily than the Irish into American culture iv. Know-Nothing 368, 318 1. nativists did not feel the Irish, a nonwhite, non-British race, were fit to participate in American politics 2. political movement 3. exploited nativist fear or foreigners and Catholics 4. strove to reinforce Protestant morality and restrict voting and office-holding to the...
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