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9 Immune system.docx 2

9 Immune system.docx 2 - Immune system I 2 main types a...

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Immune system I. 2 main types a. Acquired a.i. Develop over time a.ii. Specificity a.iii. Memory a.iii.1. If you get exposed to chicken pox virus, the body makes memory cells so the next time you are exposed the body makes antibodies so fast that it will be cleared before you even present symptoms a.iv. Major cells: lymphocytic cells a.iv.1. T-cells- made and generated mainly during fetal development a.iv.1.a. starts in red bone marrow with hematopoietic stem cells (stem cells that can make all different blood cell lines). Hematopoietic stem cells differentiated into lymphocytes. Once they are made they migrate to the thymus. a.iv.1.b. In the thymus, thymopoietin turns the lymphocyte into T-cell by attaching surface molecules onto lymphocytes so they will be able to interact with specific pathogens and recognize the certain surface molecules. a.iv.1.c. We do not want T-cells to respond to self antigens, so the T-cells get presented with self-antigen. If they fail when exposed to self antigen, they are going to be destroyed via apoptosis. a.iv.1.c.i. 95-98% fail this test and get destroyed a.iv.1.c.ii. 2-5% pass test a.iv.1.d. Once pass test, T-cells leave thymus and go to secondary lymph (lymph nodes) and become naive/virgin T-cells inactivated, waiting to encounter specific antigen and become activated a.iv.2. B-cells- a.iv.2.a. Undergo similar process but it all occurs in the bone marrow a.iv.2.b. First found in chickens in the Bursa of Fabricious (why its called B-cells) a.iv.2.c. On become B-lymphocytes in bone marrow, they travel to secondary lymph and are also called naive/virgin B-cells **most of this (for B and T cells) occur primarily during fetal development b. Innate b.i. Present and fully functional from day 1 b.ii. Nonspecific immune system b.ii.1. React to any pathogens, viruses, bacteria b.ii.2. Acid in the stomach b.iii. Cells: b.iii.1. Macrophages b.iii.2. Neutrophils b.iii.3. Can respond to any particular pathogen (no specificity) b.iii.4. The way they react to different pathogen is through PRRs (pattern recognition receptors) b.iii.4.a. Recognize broad molecules that are found on pathogens b.iii.4.b. Ex: all gram negative bacteria have protein LPS so this can be recognized by PRRS; some PRRs recognize flagella on some bacteria.
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II. Clonel Selection Theory of Antibodies a. Founded by Sir MacFarlane Burnette; won Nobel Prize for his work
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