10 Cardiovascular System

10 Cardiovascular System - Cardiovascular System I. Effect...

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Cardiovascular System I. Effect of Estrogen on Cardiovascular System a. Statistics a.i. Up until 8 years ago it was thought that estrogen has a very beneficial effect on the heart, and it was routinely prescribed to help post menopausal women with cardiovascular disease a.ii. In the last couple years, we have seen a lot of clinical trials that involved hundreds of thousands of women who were on estrogen therapy post menopausal; there was a significant increase in cardiovascular disease in these women. a.iii. 1 out of every 2 will die of cardiovascular disease in the US a.iv. Way it develops in men and women is very different a.iv.1. Women- 10-15 years later than men a.iv.2. Typically do not see cardiovascular disease in women pre-menopause a.iv.3. Once women undergo menopause, the rate of cardiovascular disease is equivalent to men b. ↓ LDL cholesterol levels b.i. Less than 100mg/dl is ideal LDL level with cardiovascular disease b.ii. Less than 130mg/dl is idea in normal individual c. ↑ in HDL cholesterol levels d. ↓amount of fibrinogen in the body d.i. Fibrinogen - important blood plasma protein involved in blood clotting d.ii. Occurs in most individuals e. ↑ Plasminogen Activator e.i. Dissolved blood clots f. ↓ Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor g. Effect on Blood Vessels g.i. Tunica Intima g.i.1. Innermost layer g.i.2. Endothelial cells g.i.3. Estrogen causes endothelial cells to release Nitric Oxide (neurotransmitter –NO), which travels to tunica media g.ii. Tunica Media g.ii.1. Middle layer g.ii.2. Smooth muscle cells g.ii.3. ↑ permeability to K + g.ii.4. Influx of K + causes smooth muscle cells to relax g.ii.4.a. Open up lumen = vasodilation g.ii.4.b. Decrease peripheral resistance decrease BP g.ii.4.c. About 75% of older individuals have some sort of hypertension g.ii.4.c.i. #1 killer g.iii. Tunica Externa g.iii.1. Outermost layer g.iv. Angiogenesis g.iv.1. Formation of new blood vessels decrease peripheral resistance decrease BP h. Studies h.i. 200,000 post menopausal women give estrogen therapy compared to control group. Women with estrogen therapy has significantly higher increase in prevalence of cardiovascular disease
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II. Heart a. superior vena cava right atrium tricuspid valve right ventricle pulmonary semilunar valve pulmonary artery lungs (O2/CO2 exchange) pulmonary vein left atrium bicuspid valve left ventricle aortic semilunar valve aorta body b. Aging Process b.i. Externally b.i.1. Very hard to tell the difference between young and old heart b.i.2. Slight ↑ Size Left atrium b.i.3. ↓ Overall size of heart b.i.4. Slightly more fat accumulation in vessels that leave heart b.i.4.a. sup vena cava, b.i.4.b. pulmonary artery b.i.4.c. aorta b.i.5. Slightly brownish/red color compared to bright red of younger due to lipofucsin b.ii. Midsagittal Section into Right and Light Ventricles b.ii.1. Valves (bicuspid/ tricuspid) b.ii.1.a. Calcium deposits- cause them to become more rigid
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10 Cardiovascular System - Cardiovascular System I. Effect...

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