culture of control

culture of control - The Culture of Control? Late Modernity...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
The Culture of Control? Late Modernity and Custody It is the coming together of the characteristics of late-modernity that has resulted in the increased use of custody and community penalties, along with the decline of the discharge and fine (Carter 2003). In summary, Garland (2001) sees these processes as characterised by the following themes (pp. 8- 23): The decline of the rehabilitative ideal, which has seen the fading of correctionalist and welfarist traditions for the criminal justice systems. Whilst such aims still exist, they no longer define the system and rehabilitation has become subordinated to retribution, incapacitation and risk management The re-emergence of punitive sanctions and expressive justice. Whilst this grew out of criticism of the discriminatory nature of individualised sentencing, it allowed the return of a more punitive discourse which has seen the rhetoric of punishment becoming respectable and pervasive Changes in the emotional tone of crime policy. Prior to the 1970s, penal policy was couched in terms of ‘decency, humanity and progress’ and whilst this has not disappeared completely, for the most part individuals are now demonised as ‘career criminals’ and ‘thugs’ deserving of punishment and revenge. This has grown out of a fear of crime that has itself become a social problem, particularly as, in many cases, the fear outweighs the actuarial risk Politicisation and the new populism. Crime and penal policy has become highly politicised and no longer the province of the expert. Common sense and the ‘voice of the people’ are invoked as a counter to research and the legislature now is more directly involved in the work of criminal justice agencies. One result is the end of oppositional politics, the major parties attempting to out-do each other in their ‘tough’ approaches to crime The Continuing Role of Agency Whilst not disagreeing in the main with the broad sweep of sociological analysis discussed so far, (Tonry 2003) argues that whilst these developments in late-modernity have been common to all western societies, it is not the case that all such countries have pursued punitive policies. He discusses (2003, p. 4) Scotland, Canada, Germany and the whole of Scandinavia as cases in point and also doubts that punitive policies in the 1990’s were pursued because of a correlation between ‘more prison and less crime’, stating that the fall in crime in England and Wales began before the huge increases in the use of custody since 1993 (p.3). He does acknowledge these as general influences but, for Tonry the ‘bottom line’ is that these policies and practices developed because ‘politicians, however motivated, wished it so’. (p. 6) It is also the case that, whilst claiming that these social forces are behind the huge increase in the use of custody, Garland does not see the phenomenon 1
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 2
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Page1 / 4

culture of control - The Culture of Control? Late Modernity...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 2. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online