pharmacology exam ii study guide

pharmacology exam ii study guide - Study Guide for...

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Study Guide for Pharmacology Exam II February 25, 2010 7-7:50am Covers Sections VIII through IX VIII Cardiovascular What do diuretics do; recognize thiazides, loop diuretics, and Potassium sparing agents are examples (don’t need to know specific drug name) o Diuretics Act on the kidneys to increase the execretion of sodium and water. They inhibits sodium reabsorption and decrease the fluid in vascular system. o Indications: hypertension and congestive heart failure. o Examples: Thiazides, loop diureticsm and potassium sparing agents. What are adverse effects of diuretics? o Possible fluid depletion and electrolyte imbalance (Na+, K+ loss), excretes too much fluid! o Evidence of problems (like dehydration symptoms): o Orthostatic hypertension o Weakness, fatigue o Confusion, mood changes Know what Beta blockers do and when indicated. Difference between cardioselective and nonselective…recognize atenolol, propranolol o Beta blockers bind to the heart and block the effects of epinephrine and norepinepherine. o It decreases HR and contraction force to decrease CO. o Indications: hypertension, arrythmias, angina pectoris, heart failure (to not overstress the heart), recovery from MI (to give it a chance to heal and recover. o Cardioselectives bind to beta 1 receptors mostly. Should use if there is a lung problem. o Example: Atenolol o Nonselectives bind equally to beta 1 and beta 2 receptors. (beta 1’s= heart, beta 2’s= lungs) o Example: propranolol What are adverse effects of Beta Blockers o Bronchoconstriction- occurs if patient already has a lung disease and is taking another beta 1 blocker or nonselective blocker o Decreased maximal exercise- decreases HR 20-30 bpm o Orthostatic hypotension o Psychotropic effects (depression,lethargy)- especially in older men, if drug crosses the BBB, psychotropic effects can happen. What do vasodilators do and recognize minoxidil (Loniten) as one. What are some adverse effects o Vasodialators act directly on vascular smooth muscle and inhibit contraction. o Directly inhibits vascular smooth muscles and inhibits contraction. o Indications: hypertension, heart failure (heart doesn’t have to work as hard to get blood through vessels.
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o Example: Minoxidil (Loniten) o Adverse affects: o Reflex tachycardia (barorecptor recognizes a decrease in BP then increases the HR in order to increase BR- results in very high HRs. o Postural hypotension o Dizziness, headaches o Edema, fluid retension- in the ankles How rennin-angiotensin system works o Angiotensinogen is a small peptide that is normal in the body. When the BP starts to fall, Renin binds to it and converts it to Angiotensin I. Angiotensin I then gets broken doen by a converting enzyme and converts it to Angiotensin II. Angiotensin II causes a powerful constriction (an acute affect that stops a person
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This note was uploaded on 02/25/2012 for the course CHEM 1341 taught by Professor Compton during the Fall '08 term at Texas State.

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pharmacology exam ii study guide - Study Guide for...

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