Chemistry Study Guide

Chemistry Study Guide - Introduction to Chemistry chemical...

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Introduction to Chemistry: chemical – substance with a distinct molecular composition that is produced by or used in a chemical process chemistry – study of composition of matter and changes that matter undergoes organic chemistry – study of chemicals containing carbon inorganic chemistry – study of chemicals that do not contain carbon biochemistry – study of processes that take place in organisms (muscle contraction and digestion) analytical chemistry – study of composition of matter (measuring level of lead in drinking water) physical chemistry – deals with mechanism, rate, and energy transfers that occurs when matter undergoes a change pure chemistry – pursuit of chemical knowledge applied chemistry – research directed toward a practical goal of application technology – means by which a society provides its members with needed an desired things (allows humans to do things more quickly or with less effort) science – knowledge covering operation of general laws obtained and tested through the scientific method scientific method – logical, systematic approach to solution of a scientific problem observation – information obtain through senses hypothesis – proposed explanation for an observation, making observations, testing hypotheses, developing theories experiment – procedure used to test hypothesis independent variable – variable that is changed during experiment dependent variable – variable that is observed during experiment theory – well-tested explanation for a broad set of observations scientific law – statement that summarizes results of many observations and experiments Atomic Structure: atom – smallest particle of an element that retains its identity in a chemical reaction electrons, protons, neutrons nucleus – central core of atom composed of protons and electrons atomic number – number of protons, equal to number of electrons mass number – atomic weight rounded to nearest whole-number, total number of protons and neutrons Democritus – believed that atoms were indivisible and indestructible Rutherford – proposed that atom is mostly empty space and all the positive charge and mass are concentrated in nucleus isotope – atoms that have same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons hydrogen-1, hydrogen-2, hydrogen-3 carbon-12 – used as standard from which all other isotopes' atomic weight is measured and measurement of Avogadro's number carbon-14 – used in radioactive dating average atomic mass – multiply mass of each isotope by its natural abundance, expressed as a decimal, add products 1
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stable atom – has equal number of protons and electrons, becomes radioactive when its nucleus contains too many or too few neutrons Nuclear Chemistry: chemical reaction – atoms undergo changes and products are new chemicals, elements do not change, small amount of energy released, no radioactivity given off, can be reversed nuclear reaction – nucleus of an atom undergoes changes and the products are new
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Chemistry Study Guide - Introduction to Chemistry chemical...

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