exam 3 study guide

exam 3 study guide - Exam3StudyGuide

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Exam 3 Study Guide 19:00 Most yeasts are  Deuteromycota,  Some are  Ascomycota Cryptococcus neoformans Has a sexual form with basidiospores ( Basidiomycota ) Filobasidiella Skin, bone, spinal fluid, brain, lung Inhaled from soil, pigeon shit, plants Often opportunistic Capsule on India Ink prep. Inhibited via cyclohexamide Cryptococcus  antigen test in lab available for CSF, serum Latex particles coated with rabbit anti-cryptococcal serum Torulopsis glabrata Opportunist Microabscesses, can form granulomas Via IV/Catheters Can be normal flora In tissue Blastospores, no capsule, no hyphae Yeast of family cyrptococcaceae Vascular surgery can predispose
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Generally thought to be a saprophyte in man, normal flora Most common clinical manifestations are high fever and hypotension. Rx: Amphotericin B Bronchopneumonia Salpingitis UTI’s Septicemia High mortality rate associated with fungemia Antifungal Resistance Alteration of drug target Ex: Decreases in membrane ergosterol content lead to amphotericin B resistance Altered entry of drug into fungus Loss of cytosine permease leads to flucytosine resistance Jock itch Tinea cruris Dermatophyte fungus in groin (inguinal) area Intertrigo Skin on skin moisture irritation Candida Erythrasma Corynebacterium sp.
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Will glow under blacklight (porphyrin) Azols have anti G+ activity Satellite pustules Candidiasis Genus:  Candida Candida albicans Normal flora in GI Originally named  Monilia Yeasts can form pseudohyphae Budding organism Germ tubes Elongating spore with filamentous tube 90% form germ tubes when incubated with human serum (w/o cells)  Chlamydospores on corn-meal agar Round with thick walls Thrush Vaginitis and vulvovaginitis Bronchitis Pulmonary infections Meningitis Systemic infections
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Mycotic endocarditis Skin and nail infections May be cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar Candida dubliniensis Susceptible to amphotericin B and the azoles Resistance in HIV+ to fluconazole Very similar phenotypically to  C. albicans Germ tubes Chlamydospores HIV negative bone-marrow recipients Septicemia/fungemia Grow differently at 42 vs. 45 degrees Chemo-induced neutropenia growth Candida krusei Abdominal wall abscess presenting as ecchymosis Petichia – small vessel bruise Purpure – medium bruise Ecchymosis – large bruise Diagnosis with ultrasound Less common in breast-fed babies Glucans in cell wall
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Stain Gram + Biochemical sugar utilization tests help with speciation. C. albicans Glucose, maltose, sucrose, and lactose Host defenses against  Candida T-lymphocyte immune responses Epidermal proliferations During classic chronic mucocutaneous  Candida  infections, formation of grotesque  cutaneous crusts Fungus remains confined to the corneal layer Suggests that the massive hyperkaratosis occurs at a rate equal to orgreater than the 
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exam 3 study guide - Exam3StudyGuide

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