Final Exam Study Guide

Final Exam Study Guide - Criminology Final Exam Review 1...

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1 ANOMIE/STRAIN THEORY - Durkheim – late 19 th Century and Merton – early 20 th Century - a situation where an individual or group no longer supports or follows the norms of society Durkheim’s Version: - anomie = state of normlessness - society loses ability to regulate behavior/ rules no longer regulate ability - occurs during periods of rapid social change (political turmoil, overthrown government - social change breaks down constraint and unleashes the “human will” o inextinguishable thirst is constantly renewed torture - similar to social control theory (argues bonds to society and its norms are weakened and individual is adrift (micro level) - self-interest motivates individuals, so we need constraints - - humans have innate desires so we need limits and constraints of our self-interests - 4 types of society suicide: 1. egoistic – when society is characterized by a radical separation between individuals and social groups a. low social integration b. “a dangerous individualism” 2. altruistic – little distinction between the individual and group; powerful “collective conscience” a. extremely high social integration b. sacrifice of the individual for group interests c. loss of own identity for the benefit of others d. examples: terrorists; cult activities 3. fatalistic – societies in which regulatory framework is overwhelmingly strong a. extremely high regulation b. lack of freedoms = oppression c. creates hopelessness d. examples: slavery, jail/prison, military 4. anomic – normative structure of society is disrupted a. low regulation b. brought on by rapid social change c. Durkheim’s greatest concern: i. Industrialization was disrupting traditional society ii. Transition from mechanical to organic society unity - Mechanical solidarity – small, isolated homogenous population; shared values and beliefs o Religion is dominant o Little individual freedoms/ No individualism o Division of labor based on cooperation (ex: hunting/gathering society) o Common and shared social experiences o Each individual is equally attached to society o Cohesion = minimization of individual differences - Organic solidarity – larger population spread over a larger area o Complex division of labor – creates a development of social ties o Lots of individual freedoms; what bonds individuals is a system of common beliefs o Status determined by occupation rather than kinship ties o Cohesion = differences from division of labor leads to integrated activities Dependence and a need for others’ work - distinction between them are so clear that one society cannot have both aspects at the same time; only after mechanical solidarity declines, organic solidarity develops as a new system - First, innovations in the economy happen. Second, these innovations affect human population density. Finally, the increased population density leads to the division of labor
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Final Exam Study Guide - Criminology Final Exam Review 1...

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