introduction to germ cell biology 102909

introduction to germ cell biology 102909 - Introduction to...

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Introduction to Germ Cell Biology 1. Why are germ cells important, and why do we need a model to study them a. Unique a.i. Can generate highly specialized cells that contribute genes to offspring a.ii. Maintain multi-potentiality under some conditions b. Infertility affects 10-15% of couples of reproductive age b.i. There are no current methods for examining the molecular mechanisms of human germ cell formation b.ii. There is no model for examining the effects of environmental agents on germ cell biology c. Analysis of germ cells will be critical to understanding the regulating of cellular activity c.i. Reprogramming c.ii. Imprinting c.iii. Meiosis d. Facilitate the possible cryopreservation of stem cells from boys undergoing cancer therapy to allow them to have children later on 2. Objectives for lecture: a. Become familiar with the stages of human and mouse germ cell differentiation b. Compare and contrast ESC vs. PGC (primordial germ cells) vs. gonocytes vs. SSC b.i. PGCs gonocytes is the pluripotency-losing step 3. Modes of Germ Cell Specification a. Maternally inherited determinants ("preformation") a.i. C. elegans – P granules (germ cell determinants) a.ii. D. melanogaster – pole plasm a.iii. D. rerio – vasa mRNA (most immunofluorescent techniques look at vasa expression in this field) a.iv. X. laevis – vegetal plasm a.v. Chick – vasa protein b. Induction (epigenesis) b.i. Mouse – BMPs 2, 4, 8b, stella and fragilis provide competence b.i.1. Migration aided by the ignorance of some external signals? (prevent contrary differentiation) b.ii. Humans – BMPs 4, 7, 8b 4. First morphological observation of the germ cell lineage a. First specified germ cells are called PGCs b. Formation starts by E6.5 in mice, detectable by E7.25 (week 3 human)
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This note was uploaded on 02/25/2012 for the course BIO 3410 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '10 term at Texas State.

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introduction to germ cell biology 102909 - Introduction to...

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