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Unformatted text preview: Efficacy to Resistance February 16, 2009 Efficacy- how well these things are going to work, various tests o Disk diffusion test (Kirby-Bauer test)- when you make a spread plate you do not want a complete lawn, but have them barely touching each other you have 600 to 800 TNC (too numerous to count) • Spread out in 3 different directions • Everything is totally controlled • Stamp plates and get stamped out plates- Most concentrated under the disks of antibiotic Smaller zones- not as resistant Huge zone- very susceptible No zone = resistant Can see synergies- when the zones are next to each other o MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) • First antibiotic test to be developed • Either in agar plate and suck out wells or use in tubes • Tubes- picture Red has turbidity Clear- nothing grew Start with very concentrated in one tube Then you do two full dilutions Leave last one at 0- no antibiotic (control tube), should always have growth in it Run gradient- each tube gets less and less antibiotic - need to know how to adjust for each bug Some point where the next tube over show growth, you see there is a little bit of turbidity in there • MIC- minimum amount needed to cause inhibition • 2 micrograms per mil on picture Some labs take it one step further they do not know if it is inhibitory or cidal Put last bit of turbidity on plate • Some on 2 and some on 4 but none at 8 • 8 is the minimum that is cidal • E-test (type of MIC) Done with strips rather than in tubes • Empregnate the strips with stuff • Highest concentration at outside lowest is inside • Determine where lawn ends • Just like disk in kerby bauer but more specific Routes of Administration o PO- by mouth o IV- intravnous o IM- intramuscular o IP- o SC- o SE- TB test (subepidermal right out on surface) o IT- intrathecal- in your spinal fluid Safety and Side Effects o Big group of drugs that cause problems o Most common side effects of drug- Rash (allergic affects) • Penecillin and Sulfas- other than by mouth, you risk anaphylactic shock- patient collapse because of hypotension blood pressure drops quickly, bring back with epinephrine, steroids, and oxygen o Nausea and Vomiting- erythromycin- sub for penecilin, really awful • Erythromycin- is sold in time release form called ERYC- makes you less nauseated o Diarhea/ Vaginitis • Where you kill off your normal organisms and replaced by yeast • Candida- very bad, athletes foot, jock itch etc. • Clindamycin- bowel sterulant (kill everything in the bowel)- does not affect Claustridium Deifficile (C.Diff) causes disease called Pseudomembranous colitis- your plasma leaks into your bowel and clots around your bowel- looks like chunks of your bowel comes out- life threatening condition o e- NO to kids- inhibits protein synthesis and calcium absorbtion bad nasty teeth o - gives rise to aplastic anemia- condition where you produce no red blood cells- only in 1 and 40,000 people die from taking this drug, in this...
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This note was uploaded on 02/25/2012 for the course BIO 3410 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '10 term at Texas State.
- Spring '10