This preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.
This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.View Full Document
Unformatted text preview: Efficacy to Resistance February 16, 2009 Efficacy- how well these things are going to work, various tests o Disk diffusion test (Kirby-Bauer test)- when you make a spread plate you do not want a complete lawn, but have them barely touching each other you have 600 to 800 TNC (too numerous to count) Spread out in 3 different directions Everything is totally controlled Stamp plates and get stamped out plates- Most concentrated under the disks of antibiotic Smaller zones- not as resistant Huge zone- very susceptible No zone = resistant Can see synergies- when the zones are next to each other o MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) First antibiotic test to be developed Either in agar plate and suck out wells or use in tubes Tubes- picture Red has turbidity Clear- nothing grew Start with very concentrated in one tube Then you do two full dilutions Leave last one at 0- no antibiotic (control tube), should always have growth in it Run gradient- each tube gets less and less antibiotic - need to know how to adjust for each bug Some point where the next tube over show growth, you see there is a little bit of turbidity in there MIC- minimum amount needed to cause inhibition 2 micrograms per mil on picture Some labs take it one step further they do not know if it is inhibitory or cidal Put last bit of turbidity on plate Some on 2 and some on 4 but none at 8 8 is the minimum that is cidal E-test (type of MIC) Done with strips rather than in tubes Empregnate the strips with stuff Highest concentration at outside lowest is inside Determine where lawn ends Just like disk in kerby bauer but more specific Routes of Administration o PO- by mouth o IV- intravnous o IM- intramuscular o IP- o SC- o SE- TB test (subepidermal right out on surface) o IT- intrathecal- in your spinal fluid Safety and Side Effects o Big group of drugs that cause problems o Most common side effects of drug- Rash (allergic affects) Penecillin and Sulfas- other than by mouth, you risk anaphylactic shock- patient collapse because of hypotension blood pressure drops quickly, bring back with epinephrine, steroids, and oxygen o Nausea and Vomiting- erythromycin- sub for penecilin, really awful Erythromycin- is sold in time release form called ERYC- makes you less nauseated o Diarhea/ Vaginitis Where you kill off your normal organisms and replaced by yeast Candida- very bad, athletes foot, jock itch etc. Clindamycin- bowel sterulant (kill everything in the bowel)- does not affect Claustridium Deifficile (C.Diff) causes disease called Pseudomembranous colitis- your plasma leaks into your bowel and clots around your bowel- looks like chunks of your bowel comes out- life threatening condition o e- NO to kids- inhibits protein synthesis and calcium absorbtion bad nasty teeth o - gives rise to aplastic anemia- condition where you produce no red blood cells- only in 1 and 40,000 people die from taking this drug, in this...
View Full Document
- Spring '10