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us history notes 278pgs - THE SOUTHERN COLONIES IN THE 17TH...

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Unformatted text preview: THE SOUTHERN COLONIES IN THE 17TH AND 18TH CENTURIES I. Southern Plantation Colonies -- general characteristics A. Dominated to a degree by a plantation economy: tobacco & rice B. Slavery in all colonies (even Georgia after 1750); mostly indentured servants for until 1676 in Virginia and Maryland -- increasingly black slavery thereafter. C. Large land holdings in the hands of the favored few = aristocratic atmosphere (except N. Carolina and parts of Georgia) D. Sparsely populated: churches & schools too expensive for very small towns. E. All practiced some form of religious toleration -- Church of England (Anglican Church) most prominent F. Expansionary attitudes stimulated in large part due to degradation of soil from tobacco farming. II. The Chesapeake (Virginia & Maryland) A. Virginia (founded in 1607 by Virginia Company) 1. Jamestown, 1607 -- 1st permanent British colony in New World a. Founded by Virginia Company that received charter in London from King James I. i. Main goals: Promise of gold, conversion of Indians to Christianity (just like Spain), and new passage to the Indies. ii. Consisted largely of well-to-do adventurers b. Virginia Charter i. Overseas settlers given same rights of Englishmen in England ii. Became foundation for American liberties; rights extended to other colonies. 2. Colony wracked by tragedy during early years: famine, disease, war with Indians a. By 1625, only 1200 of the nearly 8000 colonists survived b. Only 60 out of 400 settlers survived "starving time" of 1610-1611 3.Captain John Smith organized the colony beginning in 1608: "He who will not work shall not eat." a. Smith kidnapped in Dec. 1607 by Powhatans led by Chief Powhatan who subjected Smith to a what may have been a mock execution. b. Smith perhaps "saved" by Pocahantas, Powatan's daughter, when she was only 12 years old 4. Pocahantas eventually became a central figure in preserving peace in early Jamestown a. Provided foodstuffs to settlers. b. Became hostage of colonists in 1613 during military conflicts. c. Later married John Rolfe & taught him Indian way of curing tobacco. -- Died of small pox at age 22 5. John Rolfe and tobacco crop economy -- "Colony built on smoke" a. Rolfe introduced new tough strain of tobacco b. Tobacco industry became cornerstone of Virginia's economy. c. Plantation system emerged 6. House of Burgesses (an assembly) authorized by London Company in 1619. a. 1st of miniature parliament in the British American colonies. b. Representative self-government i. Most representatives were substantial property owners ii.Created as an incentive to attract settlers to the Virginia "Death Trap" 7.Virginia Charter revoked by James I in 1624 a. King believed assembly to seditious but also hated tobacco. b. Virginia became a royal colony directly under his control B. Maryland 1. Charles I gave Sir George Calvert, the first Lord Baltimore, a portion of VA for Catholic haven and profit. 2. Eventually , growth of Protestants meant Catholics rapidly becoming a minority; Catholics feared loss of religions freedom. 3. Act of Toleration (1649) a. Guaranteed toleration to all Christians but instituted death penalty for anyone denying the divinity of Jesus (e.g. Jews & atheists) b. Motive: Catholics sought to protect their faith by granting certain degree of religious freedom. c. Maryland became largest haven for Catholics in British American colonies C. Life in the Chesapeake 1. Disease took heavy toll early on (10 yrs off life exp.) -- Malaria, dysentery, typhoid a. Half of all born in early Virginia and Maryland did not live past age 20. b. Less than 25% of men lived to see 50 -- women only 40 2. Most immigrants were single men in late teens, early 20's; most died soon after arriving a. Surviving males competed for extremely scarce women; women thus married early b. Most men could not find mates. 3. Region stabilized eventually due to increased immunities to disease in increased influx of women a. By 1700, Virginia was most populous colony (about 50,000 colonists) b. By 1700, Maryland was third most populous colony (about 30,000 inhabitants) D. The Tobacco Plantation Economy 1. First Africans arrived in 1619, but probably were indentured servants in early 17th c. -- White indentured servants more predominant until late 17th century. 2. "Headright" System a. A person who paid for the passage of a white indentured servant received 50 acres of land. b. Some planters used the system to acquire enormous tracts of land. c. Indentured servants (English yeoman) agreed to specified years of servitude in exchange for transatlantic passage (term of servitude was usually about 5 years) d. After term of contract expired during early-mid 17th c., the servant was often given some money, perhaps some land, and other goods to start their own farms. -- Eventually, former indentured servants were given little and could not succeed. e. By 1700, planters brought in about 100,000 indentured servants, representing about 75% of all European immigrants to Virginia and Maryland. E. Bacon's Rebellion (1676) 1. By late 17th century large numbers of frustrated freedmen (former indentured servants) existed. a. Most lived in western Virginia; resented the planter aristocrats from the east. b. Many were too poor to own land and could not find wives (men still greatly outnumbered women) c. Freedmen did not gain access to large land grants in the east; forced to squat for lands in western part of the colony. d. Indians resisted white expansion in western Virginia but freedmen angry that gov't of Virginia did not do enough to protect white settlers from Indian attacks. i. Governor Berkeley was generally friendly toward Indians who traded with the colony. ii. House of Burgesses did not usually order attacks on Indians that cooperated with gov't. 2. Nathaniel Bacon, a 29-year-old aristocrat in western Virginia and member of House of Burgesses began mobilizing a militia to protect whites from Indians. a. In 1676, Bacon's militia massacred Indians and set fire to Jamestown, chasing Governor Berkeley out of the city. b. Rebels opposed to aristocrats and Indians. c. Bacon subsequently died of disease and Berkeley crushed the rebellion d. Significance of Bacon's Rebellion i. Planters saw white indentured servants as too difficult to control and significantly increased importation of black slaves while reducing number of indentured servants. e. Planter elite increasingly played the "race card" by encouraging poor whites to discriminate against blacks; planters feared blacks and poor whites could ally themselves again in the future. -- Planters effectively able to psychologically control poor whites by reinforcing idea that poor whites, despite their poverty, would always be superior to blacks. III. The Carolinas A. Impact of the British West Indies 1. West Indies, especially Barbados, developed sugar plantation economy. 2. Slaves in British West Indies outnumbered whites 4 to 1. 3. Slave codes adopted in Barbados to control slaves. 4. West Indies increasingly relied on mainland British America for foodstuffs. 5. As sugar plantations began to crowd out small farmers, many came to Carolina with their slaves to farm. 6. Carolina adopted slave code in 1696 B. American colonization interrupted during English Civil War (1640s) and Cromwell's Protectorate (1650s) 1.New colonies not founded until restoration to the throne of Charles II (1660-1685) 2. New restoration colonies included the Carolinas, New York and Pennsylvania C. Carolina created in 1670 after restoration and named after Charles II. 1. Goals: grow foodstuffs for sugar plantations in Barbados and export non-English products like wine, silk, and olive oil. 2. Exported Indians as slaves to West Indies and New England colonies (perhaps as many as 100,000). 3. Rice became main cash crop in Carolina for export; by 1710 blacks outnumbered whites. 4. Charles Town (Charleston) became most active seaport in the South. a. Became a center for aristocratic younger brothers of English aristocrats (who inherited father's fortune due to primogeniture laws) b. Religious toleration existed. 5. Indians and Spanish soldiers attacked southern Carolina settlements; resented British intrusion into the region. D. North Carolinacreated officially in 1712 as a refuge for poor whites and religious dissenters from Carolina and Virginia. 1. Became most democratic, independent and least aristocratic of original 13 colonies (similar toRhode Island). 2. Yet, treated Indians ruthlessly and sold many into slavery. IV. Georgia became last British American colony founded (1733). A. Founded by James Oglethorp B. Founded as a haven for debtors as well as a buffer state against Spanish and Indian incursions from the South. C. Savannah emerged into a diverse community (included German Lutherans and Scottish Highlanders; but no Catholics) V. Colonial Slavery A. Most slaves came from West African coast (Senegal to Angola) 1. Originally captured by African coastal tribes who traded them to European & American buyers. -- Estimated 40% of slaves captured by Africans in interior died en route to coast. 2. Estimated 50 million Africans died or became slaves during 17th & 18th c. B. Of about 10-15 million Africans sent into slavery in the New World, 400,000 ended up in North America. (Majority sent to Spanish and Portuguese South Am. or to W. Indies) 1. Between 20% to 1/3 of slaves died during the “Middle Passage” 2. Horrific conditions: i. Slaves often chained by neck and extremities to deck floor. ii. Packed into spaces about the size of a coffin; lay in own excrement iii. In some cases, next deck only 18” above deck floor; slaves could not turn over; lay on their back the entire voyage. 3. Survivors eventually sold at auction blocks at ports like Newport, RI, or Charleston, SC (giant slave market) 4. Most slaves came after 1700 a. Some came to Jamestown as early as 1619 but only 2,000 in Virginia in 1670 -- Accounted for about 7% of southern plantation population in mid 17th c. b. Rising wages in England in 1680's reduced immigration to America. -- By 1680's, black slaves outnumbered white servants. c. 1698, Royal African Co. lost its monopoly on the slave trade. i. Some Americans, esp. from RI, took advantage of lucrative slave trade ii. Numbers of slaves in America dramatically increased. -- Accounted for more than 1/2 Virginia population by 1750 -- In SC, outnumbered whites 2 to 1. 5. A few slaves gained their freedom & some even became slaveowners. -- However, this fact should not be overexaggerated! Constituted minuscule number relative to entire slave population. C. Slave Codes 1. As Africans grew in numbers, threatened whites passed laws to severely control the slave population. 2. Most common codes stated: a. blacks and their children were property for life of white masters. b. it was a crime to teach literacy to slaves. c. conversion to Christianity was not grounds for freedom. 3. South Carolina’s inherited Barbados slave codes influenced codes in other colonies. D. Slavery became the root of racism in America as a distinct color line was drawn. -- The notion of inferiority based on skin color was imbedded in U.S. law until the 1960s! E. Slave Life 1. Slavery harshest in the deepest South (esp. SC); least harsh in the middle colonies. a. Brutal & isolated conditions in rice and indigo farming led to many deaths b. Fresh import of slavery needed to sustain productivity 2. Tobacco-growing in middle south less deadly a. Plantations larger and closer together -- Afforded slaves more contact with friends and relatives b. Increase of female slave populations made family life more possible by 1720. i. Slave pop. increased through higher birthrate. ii.America became one of few slave societies in history to grow by natural reproduction. F. Slave culture became a mixture of American and African folkways 1. Gullah language evolved on islands off South Carolina coast. -- Blended English with several African languages: Yoruba, Ibo, Hausa 2. Banjo and bongo drum imported to America from Africa 3. Ringshout dance contributed to development of Jazz. 4. Religion a combination of Christianity and African rituals -- The free afterlife became a beacon of hope; story of Exodus particularly appealing G. Slave rebellions -- approx. 250 instances when minimum of ten slaves joined in a revolt or conspiracy. -- Stono Rebellion (1739): largest slave revolt in history of the 13 colonies i. SC slaves tried to march to Spanish Florida after Spanish authorities offered freedom to any slave who reached Florida. ii. Stopped by militia after 25 whites killed; eventually scores of slave rebels killed by militia and setlers. VI. Southern Society -- 18th century A. Southern class structure (from most powerful to least powerful) 1. Plantation owners at top of social ladder --Ruled region's economy and monopolized political power. 2. Small farmers comprised largest social group. a. Considered far below the prestige and power of the planter class. b. Most lived meager existences; some owned 1 or 2 slaves c. Modest sized plots 3. Landless Whites -- most were former indentured servants 4. Indentured Servants (lowest of whites) a. Decreased in numbers as black slavery increased (esp. after Bacon's Rebellion) b. Only black slaves were lower in the class structure 5. Constituted about 20% of colonial population by 1775 B. South remained underdeveloped 1. Few cities emerged 2. Life revolved around southern plantations. 3. Poor transportation -- waterways provided principal means of transportation C. Why did the colonies differ from England? (Edmund S. Morgan) 1. Demand for labor of indentured servants in the South (indentured servants) 2. Women came in much smaller numbers 3. Importation of slaves from Africa NEW ENGLAND AND THE MIDDLE COLONIES IN THE 17TH CENTURY I. Protestant Reformation and the rise of Puritanism A. 1517, Martin Luther breaks away from the Catholic church; birth of Protestantism 1. Luther declared the Bible alone was the source of God's word 2. Faith alone would determine salvation; he denounced authority of priests and popes 3. Protestantism vs. Catholicism came to dominate European politics for well over the next century. B. John Calvin elaborated on Luther's ideas and founded Calvinism in his Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536) 1. God was all powerful and all-good. 2. Humans because of original sin, were weak and wicked. 3. Predestination a. God was all-knowing and knew beforehand who was going to heaven or hell. -- The "elect" were those chosen by God to have eternal salvation b. "Good works" (such as following the sacraments of the Catholic Church) did not determine salvation. c. However, one could not be immoral since no one knew their status before God d. A conversion experience (an intense identifiable personal experience with God) was seen to be a sign from God that one had been chosen. -- "visible saints" --After conversion, people expected to lead "sanctified" lives demonstrating holy behavior as a model for the community. C. Church of England and the Puritans 1. King Henry VIII broke ties with Roman Catholic church in 1530's and became head of the newly formed Church of England or Anglican Church. -- The pope had refused to grant him a divorce; Henry remarried afterwards. 2. Puritans were Protestants who wanted to purify the Anglican Church by removing all its Catholic elements and barring people from the Church who were not committed. 3. Separatists: extreme group of Puritans who wanted to break from the Anglican Church– later called Pilgrims. 4. James I concerned that Separatists challenged his role as leader of the Church and threatened to force them out of England. D. Stuart Line of Monarchs: English History as a backdrop to colonization of North America James I (r. 1603-1625) Charles I (r. 1625-1642) 1642-1648 -- English Civil War Interregnum under Oliver Cromwell (1648-1658) Restoration: Charles II (1660-1685) James I (r. 1685-1688) "Glorious Revolution" (1688) -- William & Mary; Bill of Rights (1689) II. Pilgrims go to America A. First wave of Separatists 1. A group of Separatists left Britain for Holland for freedom to practice Calvinism. a. Led by John Robinson b. Later, became unhappy by the "Dutchification" of their children. c. Eventually longed for opportunity to practice their religion as Englishmen 2. Secured rights with Virginia Company to settle within its jurisdiction in Virginia a. Pilgrims agreed to work for 7 years in return for the support of the joint stock company which was comprised of non-separatist investors. b. Profits would be shared among settlers & investors after 7 years. 3. Mayflower may have strayed off course & landed off New England coast/ 102 persons. a. Fewer than half were Separatists; only one death during voyage; one birth b.Some historians believe Pilgrims "hijacked" the ship and gained consent of non-separatists by issuing the Mayflower Compact. 4. Plymouth Bay chosen as settlement site a. Plymouth had been an Indian community that had been killed off by a great plague just a few years earlier. b. Plymouth was outside jurisdiction of Virginia Company c. Settlers thus became squatters: no legal right to land and no recognized gov’t. 5. Mayflower Compact (not a constitution but an agreement) a. Purpose: To legitimize Pilgrims’ settlement outside Virginia by creating a secular document recognizing James I as their sovereign and creating a body of all the settlers with power to devise laws, and elect leaders. -- Yet Plymouth Colony never possessed a charter; it was denied by the crown. b. Agreement provided for majority rule among settlers (excluding servants and seamen)—became an important seed of democracy. c. Adult male settlers assembled to make laws and conduct open-discussion town meetings. 6. Despite terrible first winter where over ½ the people died, no one left the colony. 7. Thanksgiving -- Autumn, 1621 a. An English-speaking Indian, Squanto, befriended Pilgrims: showed how to plant corn, where to fish, and introduced them to Massasoit, leader of the Wampanoags. b.An alliance formed by Pilgrims & Wampanoags for mutual protection against other Indian tribes. c. By fall of 1921, 20 acres of Indian corn provided food for survival. d. Pilgrims adopted Indians’ traditional custom of giving thanks at the time of harvest, believing their survival as God's will; lasted 3 days and became an annual event. e. Peace lasted 41 years until Massasoit’s death in 1662. B. Success of the Pilgrims 1. Eventually settled in economically with fur, fish, and lumber. 2. Religion remained paramount in the community 3. William Bradford -- prominent leader; elected Governor 30 times -- To Encourage farming, in 1623 Bradford distributed the land among the settlers. 4. Miles Standish -- military leader who was hired to accompany the Pilgrims. a. Led so many expeditions against Indians whom he distrusted that he was scolded by John Robinson b. Despite attacks Massasoit honored treaty until his death in 1661. C. 1691, the small Plymouth colony of 7,000 people merged with MBC. -- The Crown had refused to grant Pilgrims a legal charter for Plymouth Plantation. III. The Massachusetts Bay Colony (founded in 1629) A. Push factors for Puritans 1. Charles I had dismissed Parliament in 1629 and sanctioned anti-Puritan persecution. a. Archbishop Laud strongly opposed to any separation from the Church of England. b. Hitherto, moderate Puritans had gathered support in Parliament for reforms c. King refused to guarantee power of parliament or basic rights for people. B. MBC founded in 1629 by non-Separatist Puritans out of fear for their faith and England's future. 1. Cambridge Agreement: signed in England, turned the corporate charter into a government that served as its constitution for many years. 2. Puritans would now be out of easy reach of royal authority and the archbishop. C. The "Great Migration" (1630’s) 1. By 1631, 2,000 colonists had arrived in Boston and had settled a number of towns around it as well. 2. Turmoil in England resulted in 15,000 more immigrants coming to New England (and 60,000 others scattered throughout North America and West Indies. 3. English Civil War (1642-1649) ended the Great Migration a. Puritans remained in England to fight the Royalist forces. b. Puritans in England led by Oliver Cromwell took control of gov't between 1642 & 1660. c. Charles I beheaded in 1649 D. John Winthrop - Governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony 1. Covenant Theology: Winthrop believed Puritans had a covenant with God to lead new religious experiment in New World -- "We shall build a city upon a hill" 2. Most distinguished of the early Massachusetts Bay leaders. a. Elected governor 12 times and set the tone for much of its sense of religious mission. b. Leadership helped Massachusetts to prosper E. Mass. Bay Colony became biggest and most influential of New England communities. -- Economy: fur trading, fishing, shipbuilding, and some farming (wheat & corn) IV. Religion and politics in the "Massachusetts Bible Commonwealth" A. Governing open to all free adult males (2/5 of population) belonging to Puritan congregations; 1. Percentage of eligible officeholders was more than in England. 2. Eventually, Puritan churches grew collectively into the Congregational Church 3. Non-religious men and all women could not vote 4. Townhall meetings emerged as a staple of democracy -- Town governments allowed all male property holders and at times other residents to vote and publicly discuss issues. Majority-rule show of hands. B. Whole purpose of government was to enforce God's laws (part of covenant theology) 1. Provincial gov't under Governor Winthrop was not a democracy 2. Only Puritans -- the "visible saints" -- could be freemen; only freemen could vote a. Distrusted non-Puritan common people. b. Believed democracy was the "meanest and worst" of all forms of government. 3. Congregational church was "established": Non-church members as well as believers required to pay taxes for the gov't-supported church. 4. Religious dissenters were punished . C. Church leadership 1. Influenced admission to church membership by conducting public interrogations of people claiming to have experienced conversion. 2. John Cotton devoted to defending gov'ts duty to enforce religious rules yet advocated a civil government. 3. Clergymen were not allowed to hold political office a. Congregation had the right to hire and fire ministers and set salaries. b. In effect, a form of separation of church and state. c. Puritans in England had learned their lesson when they suffered at the hands of the"political" Anglican clergy in England. 4. Cambridge Platform (1648): Voluntary synod where the 4 Puritan colonies of Massachusetts Bay -- Mass., Plymouth, Connecticut & New Haven -- met to work out a congregational form of church gov’t in detail. -- Significance: Congregational church became more uniform throughout New England. D. Representative legislative assembly formed in 1634 and after 1642 assembly met separately as a lower house and was most influential part of gov’t. E. Early dissension in the MBC. 1. Quakers, who believed in an inner light and not in theology, flouted the authority of the Puritan clergy and were persecuted. 2. Anne Hutchinson – believed in antinomianism a. Accordingly, the "elect" didn’t need to obey God's or man's law because they were predestined for salvation. b. She held prayer meetings at home to discuss John Cotton’s sermons with other women; this was taboo for a non-clergy member to do. c. Her ideas were viewed by the clergy as heresy and she was brought to trial in 1638. i. She claimed direct revelation from God -- even higher a heresy. ii. She was banished from colony; set out for Rhode Island pregnant d. Eventually settled in N.Y. where she & all but 1 of 14 kids killed by Indians 3. Roger Williams -- minister from Salem a. Extreme Separatist who challenged legality of Plymouth and Bay Colony charters because land belonged to Indians and was not the king’s land to grant. -- Claimed colony took land from Indians w/o fair compensation b. "liberty of conscience" i. Williams denied authority of civil gov't to regulate religious behavior. -- Stated gov’t could only punish civil crimes while the church alone had responsibility for religious discipline. -- Stated that no man should be forced to go to church. -- In effect, challenged the basis of the Massachusetts Bay government. ii. Used "wall of separation" metaphor for church and state separation. -- Jefferson would later use this metaphor to disestablish religion in VA which later influenced "No Establishment" clause of the Constitution. c. General Court banished him from colony in October, 1635 and Williams fled in winter of 1636 to Narragansett Bay; sheltered by Indian friends. d. He purchased lands from Indians and founded the community of Providence, accepting all settlers regardless of their beliefs. E. Later challenges to Puritanism 1. First generation Puritans began losing their religious zeal as time went on. a. Large population influx dispersed Puritan population onto outlying farms away from control of church and neighbors. b. After the wave of dissention in the 1630s and 1640s (e.g. Hutchinson and Williams) conversions decreased dramatically. -- Children of non-converted members could not be baptized. c. The jeremiad, taken from the Old Testament prophet Jeremiah, was used by preachers to scold parishioners into being more committed to their faith. d. Conversions continued to decrease as 2nd generation Puritans had trouble getting their conversions authenticated by the church, thus preventing their children from being baptized. 2. The "Half-Way Covenant" instituted in 1662 to attract more members by giving partial membership to people not converted (but who had been baptized as children). -- The children of these Half-Way members were allowed to be baptized. 3. Eventually, Puritan churches baptized anyone a. Distinction between the "elect" and other members of society subsided. b. Strict religious purity was sacrificed for wider religious participation. -- Women began making up a larger % of congregations. 4. Salem Witch Trials, 1692 a. Massachusetts suffered political, religious, and military upheaval that led to widespread paranoia and unrest. -- Not uncommon for Europeans and colonists in the 16th and 17th centuries to believe that the devil worked through witches in the real world. b. First accusations began when young girls, after listening to voodoo tales from a black servant, began behaving oddly. i. Which hunt resulting in a reign of horror ensued after certain older women were allegedly witches ii. The young female accusers were from the poor western part of the community and accused the more prosperous people in the eastern part. c. After witch trials, 19 people hanged, 1 person pressed to death, and 2 dogs were. hanged d. Cotton Mather, one of most prominent clergymen in Massachusetts, tacitly supported the witch trials and thus weakening the prestige of the clergy. V. Completing the New England Colonies A. Rhode Island (1644) 1. Williams built Baptist church at Providence (probably 1st Baptist church in America) a. Complete freedom of religion, even for Jews and Catholics. Also Quakers. b. No oaths required regarding one's religious beliefs c. No compulsory attendance at worship d. No taxes to support a state church 2. Provided simple manhood suffrage in the colony from the outset -- Opposed to special privilege of any sort 3. RI saw immigration dissenters from Bay Colony which led to most individualistic and independent population (along with North Carolina). 4. Given charter from Parliament in 1644; squatters now had rights to land B. Connecticut (founded in 1636) 1. May 1636, group of Boston Puritans led by Rev. Thomas Hooker moved into the Connecticut River valley area and founded the town of Hartford a. Three valley towns of Hartford, Windsor, and Wethersfield established Connecticut colony. b. Hooker objected to arbitrary strict power of Gov. Winthrop and MBC’s magistrates. c. His congregation also wanted more lands that MBC was unwilling grant. 2. New Haven founded in 1638 a. Founded by Puritans wanting stricter and closer church-gov't alliance than Massachusetts (in contrast to Hooker’s ideas) b. When the colony harbored two judges who condemned Charles I to death, Charles II sought revenge by granting colonial charter to Connecticut which merged New Haven with more democratic settlements in Connecticut Valley 3. Fundamental Orders drafted in 1639 by new Connecticut River colony a. First modern constitution in American history b. Established a democracy controlled by "substantial" citizens i. Gov’t should be based on consent of the people. ii. Patterned Massachusetts’ gov’t. c. Foundation for Connecticut’s colonial charter and later, its state constitution. C. Maine absorbed by MBC in 1677 after purchase from the heirs of its founders -- Remained part of Massachusetts for nearly 150 years until Compromise of 1820. D. New Hampshire (1679) -- absorbed in 1641 by Massachusetts Bay colony 1. Primarily fishing and trading economy 2. 1679, Charles II arbitrarily separated N.H. from MBC after being annoyed with MBC's apparent greed in land acquisition. N.H. became royal colony. VI. New England Confederation (1643) -- MBC, Plymouth, Connecticut & New Haven A. Pequot War (1636-1637) -- Despite Puritan victory over Indians, NE colonies realized collective security was necessary for future defense. 1. Relations between Puritans & Pequots strained in years preceding the war in southern Connecticut and Rhode Island as Puritans wanted Indians to move 2. Connecticut towns sent 90 men who opted to attack a smaller village of non-combatants where 400 Indian men, women and children were slain 3. By summer’s end, most remaining Pequots either captured, sold as slaves to West Indies, or fled for shelter to their former enemies. 4. Puritans used Biblical passages to justify extermination of the Pequots. B. In response to Pequot War, New England Confederation founded in 1643. 1. Purpose: defense against foes (e.g. Indians, French, and Dutch). 2. Significance: First milestone on road to colonial unity. 3. 1st era of "salutary neglect": Eng. Civil War in 1640s left colonies to fend for themselves. 4. Organization a. Exclusively Puritan (Maine & Rhode island not allowed) b. Helped to solve intercolonial problems (e.g. runaway servants and criminals) C. King Philip’s War (1675) 1. New England Confederation put to the test during war with Indian chieftain King Philip (Metacom) -- Wampanoag Chief, son of Massasoit 2. 52 of 90 Puritan towns attacked; burning or other damage ensued; 13 destroyed -- Indians copied the Puritan attacks on noncombatants in the Pequot War. 3. Colonists victorious; many Indians sold into slavery. -- Metacom executed and his head was cut-off and displayed for 20 years. 4. Impact of war: bloodiest ever fought on New England soil. VII. Dominion of New England A. Charles II clamps down on New England Confederation 1. Relative independence among the colonists due to salutary neglect ran contrary to the wishes of the restored English throne, royalists, and Church of England. -- Puritan hopes of purifying the English Church were destroyed 2. MBC charter revoked in 1684 in response to its resisting royal orders B. Dominion of New England (1686) 1. Mercantilism: colonies existed for the benefit of the mother country: wealth, prosperity, and self-sufficiency. 2. 1685, Lords of Trade created Dominion of New England Goal to unite all colonies from Nova Scotia to the Delaware River under 1 gov’t 3. Purpose of DNE: a. Enforce Navigation laws created to protect mercantilist system -- Trade with non-British colonies & allies forbidden b. Bolstered colonial defense against Indians, Dutch, and French. 4. 1686, James II appointed Sir Edmund Andros to lead the DNE to oversee all of New England and later New York and East and West Jersey a. Colonists despised Andros for his autocracy and allegiance to Anglican Church b. Town meetings forbidden; all land titles revoked. c. Heavy restrictions on the courts, press, and schools d. Taxed the people without consent of their representatives e. Enforced unpopular Navigation Laws and suppressed smuggling -- Smuggling became common and even honorable C. England's "Glorious Revolution" triggered "First American revolution" 1. Catholic James II dethroned in England and replaced by his daughter Mary and her Dutch-born Protestant husband William III (William of Orange). -- Parliament passed a "Declaration of Rights" that forbade the king from levying taxes w/o its consent & subordinated the monarch to the common law. 2. News of James II’s removal prompted Boston leaders to arrest Andros and ship him back to England. 3. Unrest spread from New England to the Carolinas 4. The DNE collapsed and enforcement of Navigation Laws disrupted. D. Post-Glorious Revolution New England 1. 1691, Massachusetts made a royal colony with a new charter & royal governor. 2. Tighter administrative control by the crown over British America resulted. VIII. New England Life and Contributions to the American Character A. Impact of Geography 1. Lack of abundant soil forged the Puritan characteristic of frugality and hard work. a. Trade became cornerstone of colony’s economy. b. Less of an ethnic mix; immigrants not eager to settle in soil depraved region. 2. Lumbering, shipbuilding, and fishing became important due to abundant forests and good harbors. B. Puritan contribution to American character 1. Democracy (within the Congregational church) via town meetings and voting rights to church members (starting in 1631) a. Led to democracy in political gov't ("Body of Liberties" in 1641 may have been world’s first bill of rights). b. Townhall meetings where freemen met together and each man voted was democracy in its purest form. c. New England villagers regularly met to elect their officials, appoint schoolmasters and attend to civic issues (e.g. road repair) 2. Perfectibility of humankind and society a. Puritanism provided unity of purpose & concern for moral health of community i. Argued vehemently against slavery on moral grounds ii. Ideas lay the foundation for later reform movements: abolition of slavery, women’s rights, education, prohibition, prison reform, etc. b. Protestant work ethic: those who were faithful and worked hard and succeeded were seen favorably by God. C. Education 1. Harvard College founded in 1636 to train the clergy; first college in the colonies. -- In contrast, Virginians did not found college until 1693 (William & Mary College) 2. Massachusetts School of Law (1642 & 1647) a. Towns with more than 50 families required to provide elementary education to enable children to read the Bible. b. Major reason why New England became most literate section of the country. -- Majority of adults knew how to read and write D. Small villages and farms formed basis for the tightly knit society 1. Necessary to provide security from bordering Indians, French and Dutch. 2. After 1640s, outsiders generally not welcome in villages E. Extremely strict and conservative lifestyle IX. New England Family A. New England’s climate less deadly than in southern Colonies 1. Cooler weather and clean water = less disease 2. Added 10 years to life spans compared to England; life expectancy was 70 yrs B. Puritans tended to migrate as families rather than as individuals C. Families had many children. D. Strong families stability produced healthy adults and strong social structure. THE MIDDLE COLONIES I. Characteristics of the Middle Colonies: NY, PA, NJ, DE A. Excellent land for farming: region became known as the "bread colonies" for exports of grain; also grew fruits and vegetables. B. Three rivers -- Susquehanna, Delaware, and Hudson -- tapped fur trade in the interior and exploration into the backcountry. C. Less aristocratic than New England and the Southern colonies (except N.Y.) -- Land holdings intermediate in size D. Fewer industries than New England; more than in the South 1. Shipbuilding and lumbering also important (but not as large-scale as New England) 2. Shipping and commerce E. Population more ethnically mixed; religiously tolerant; democratically controlled -- Yet, much factional conflict among groups. II. New York A. Rise of the Dutch in North America 1. Henry Hudson, Englishman employed by D.E.I. Co., sailed into Delaware & NY bays in 1609 and traveled up Hudson River in hoping to find short-cut through the continent. 2. New Netherlands founded in 1623-1624 in Hudson River by Peter Minuit a. Est. by Dutch West India Company for quick-profit fur trade b. Manhattan Island -- about 22,000 acres -- bought from Indians for about $30 -- The tribe that sold the land didn’t own it but Dutch lay claim anyway. 3. New Amsterdam -- later NYC -- founded as a company town -- sea port. a. City run by and for the Dutch Co., in the interest of the stock-holders b. Little religious toleration, free speech, or democratic practices. c. Patroonship -- Aristocratic structure i. Vast feudal estates granted to promoters who would settle 50 persons on them. (One in Albany larger than Rhode Island!) ii. After repeated protests, a semirepresentative body was finally granted. d. Cosmopolitan town: 1640's -- 18 different languages existed B. Fall of New Netherlands 1. Indians, in retaliation for Dutch violence, massacred settlers. -- Wall built as a defense; today's Wall Street 2. New England hostile to growth of New Netherlands; saw Dutch as a threat. 3. Swedes trespassed on Dutch lands on the Delaware River a. Est. New Sweden bet. 1638-1655, during golden age of Sweden following the 30 Years’ War when King Gustavus Adolphus fought for Protestantism b. 1655, Dutch force led by Peter Stuyvesant, ended Swedish rule; c. Swedish colonists were absorbed by New Netherlands. 4. 1664, Charles II ordered English troops to remove the Dutch from New Netherlands a. Peter Stuyvesant forced to surrender w/o firing a shot. b. Charles' brother, the Duke of York who was granted the area prior to the battle. c. British gained the important Hudson Harbor and River. d. British controlled one continuous stretch of land from Maine to Carolinas 5. Name of colony changed to New York. 6. Dutch cultural influence a. Easter eggs, Santa Claus, waffles, sauerkraut, bowling, sleighing, skating & golf b. Knickerbocker themes developed by Washington Irving in 19th c. D. New York Chapter of Liberties (1683) 1. Granted freedom of religion to all Christians and gave all freeholders the right to vote. -- Long Islanders had refused to pay their taxes to protest lack of elected assembly. 2. Important as a step leading to eventual democracy in New York. 3. Limitations: a. Much land in the hands of a few landowners or speculators. b. New York retained feudalistic traits more than any other colony in the North. E. New York became a Royal colony in 1685 when its proprietor, James II, became king. F. New York flourished under English rule, profiting from trade with Iroquois, & attracting settlers who expanded agricultural base. G. Autocratic character 1. Discouraged many Europeans from coming to N.Y.; retarded growth 2. Leisler's rebellion in NYC from 1689-1691 (see Zinn, Ch. 3) a. Vestiges of patroonships & aristocratic suppression led to discontent as huge estates were parceled out to upper-class whites, crowding out poor farmers b. Combination of poor whites and farmers led by Jacob Leisler, a disgruntled German merchant. c. Inspired by the "Glorious Revolution" & overthrow of Dominion of New England. d. Revolt failed, Leisler hanged, parceling out of huge estates continued. III. Pennsylvania (founded 1681) A. Quakers in England emerged during mid-1600's (Religious Society of Friends) 1. Non-conformist in nature: more radical rebels against authority than the Puritans. a. Refused to support est. Church of England with taxes b. Built simple meeting houses w/o paid clergy and spoke up when moved during services c. Took no oaths. Jesus: "Swear not at all" d. Made no deference to authority figures e. Pacifists: Refused military service; advocated passive resistance 2. Simple and democratic; sought religious and civic freedom. 3. Believed in an "inner light," not scripture or bishop and they challenged the very social order by insisting that all men were equal in the eyes of God. -- Had no elaborate church, nor a minister, but allowed all who were moved by the spirit to speak. 4. Persecuted because they were seen by authorities as dangerous to society. B. William Penn 1. 1681, secured an immense grant from the king in return for $ owed to his father. 2. Primary motive or founding colony: Haven for Quakers 3. Secondary motives: Experiment with liberal ideas in gov't while making a profit. -- "Holy Experiment" -- Religious toleration among many denominations. 4. Pennsylvania became best advertised of all colonies: "America's 1st advertising man" a. Distributed countless pamphlets in English, Dutch, French, & German. -- Promised land, freedom of belief and practice, and representative gov’t. b. Liberal land policies attracted many immigrants c. Attracted carpenters, masons, shoemakers, and other manual workers C. Quaker Pennsylvania and its Neighbors 1. 4,000 thousand Dutch, Swedish, English, and Welsh squatters were already scattered along the banks of the Delaware River when Penn began the colony. a. Penn quickly called an assembly which passed an act that organized the three lower counties (formerly claimed by Sweden, and later incorporated as Delaware) under the control of Penn’s charter. -- All Swedes, Finns, and Dutch in the area were naturalized b. Philadelphia was carefully planned 2. Penn bought land from Indians and Quakers fostered excellent relations with them. 3. Representative gov't established with landowners having voting rights. a. No tax-supported state church b. Freedom of worship guaranteed to all residents c. No provisions for military defense; against Quaker pacifist doctrine d. Quakers strongly against slavery 4. By 1700, Pennsylvania was the 4th largest colony (behind Virginia, Mass, and MD) a. Quakers were shrewd businessmen; exported grain & other foodstuffs b. Attracted a large German population IV. New Jersey started in 1664 as Quaker settlement; 2 proprietors received area from Duke of York (the future king of England). -- 1702, the two Jerseys were combined as a royal colony. V. Delaware was granted its own assembly in 1703. 1. Harbored many Quakers associated with Penn's colony 2. Remained under the governor of Pennsylvania until the American Revolution VI. Class struggles in the 17th Century A. Most immigrants neither at the top or bottom of society. 1. Few class distinctions existed on the frontier 2. Those with upper-class pretensions were resented; egalitarian society was desired B. Upper--class succeeded somewhat in maintaining lion’s share of power though democratic forces prevented complete domination. 1. Upper-class attempt at reproducing European stratification in America did not succeed. a. Common people too numerous to be subjugated b. Emerging middle class became increasingly influential c. Democratic traditions in many colonies provided a hedge against complete upper class control. 2. Rebellions against upper classes failed to topple them a. Bacon’s Rebellion (1676) b. Leisler’s Rebellion (1691) VII. Colonial lifestyle A. Most colonists were farmers (about 80% by the American Revolution) B. Roles 1. Women wove, cooked, cleaned, and cared for children 2. Men cleared land -- fenced, planted, and cropped it; cut firewood, and butchered livestock 3. Children helped with adult tasks as well as being schooled when possible. C. Compared to most 17th century Europeans, Americans had a higher standard of living. 1. Land was cheap, although less available in southern plantation system 2. Wages were about three times that of Europe MAJOR CONCEPTS FOR 17TH CENTURY COLONIAL AMERICA •Why was the Protestant Reformation ultimately important to the creation of America? -- Calvinism drove the will of the Puritans to est. a religiously pure colony in America -- Most of early America was Protestant (except certain Catholic pockets) -- Protestantism became one of the defining characteristics of American culture: work ethic, democratically structured churches, religious toleration among different religious groups (except some Puritans and some officials affiliated with the Anglican Church) •How were the Puritan immigrants important to the growth of democracy in the New World? -- Congregational church in MBC -- Simple manhood suffrage in Rhode Island -- Fundamental Orders in Connecticut River colony •Significance of New England Confederation? -- First step towards colonial unity •Major effects of Dominion of New England? -- Puritan influence permanently reduced -- Common revolutionary sentiment throughout the colonies •Similarities among all 13 colonies -- mostly English -- possessed Anglo-Saxon freedoms -- self-government (though not all democratic) -- religious toleration (to at least some degree in each colony) -- educational opportunity -- provided unusual advantages for economic and social self-development -- increasingly unique from the British crown in character •Differences among the three colonial regions. -- New England: Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Hampshire Puritan dominated in many areas, less religiously tolerant, more restrictions on civic participation, more industry, less available farm land -- Middle Colonies: New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware Ethnically diverse, religiously tolerant, democratic, Quakers contributed to human freedom, farming, lumbering, ship building, shipping, trade, fur trapping -- Southern Colonies: Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia Plantation economy, aristocratic, slavery, cash crops, scattered population, expansionary, some religious toleration (Church of England dominant) COLONIAL SOCIETY IN THE 18TH CENTURY I. Characteristics of 18th century British Colonial America A. Enormous population growth: common feature. 1. Demographic changes resulted in shift in the balance of power between the colonies and England. 2. 1700 = less than 300K people; 2.5 million by 1775 (20% black) 3. High fertility rate: ratio of English settlers for each American colonist dropped a. 20 to 1 in 1700. b. 3 to 1 in 1775. 4. Largest colonies were Virginia, Mass., Penn., NC, and Maryland 5. Only four major cities: Philadelphia, NY, Boston, Charleston 6. 90% lived in rural areas. B. America as a melting pot 1. Most mixed population in perhaps all the world despite being mainly English a. South held 90% of slaves b. New England the least ethnically mixed; predominantly Puritan c. Middle colonies most ethnically mixed d. Outside of New England, about 1/2 of population non-English in 1775 2. Population breakdown: 1790 a. English & Welsh (66%): English was dominant language; British institutions b. Scots Irish (and Scots Highlanders) (5.6%) i. Comprised mainly of Presbyterian Scots Lowlanders who had been transplanted to Northern Ireland decades earlier for promises of land. -- Hated the British for uprooting them from Scotland. -- Most were frustrated and poor ii. Thousands came to America in early 1700s (mostly in Pennsylvania) iii. Squatted on frontier lands and fought Native Americans. -- Once the Allegheny was reached, they moved south into backcountry of Maryland, western Virginia, & western Carolinas. iv. Led armed marches in 18th century against wealthy easterners: -- Carolina Regulator movement in 1739 -- Paxton Boys in Pennsylvania in 1764 c. Scots Highlanders – smaller in population; loyal to the crown d. German (4.5%) i. Fled from religious persecution, economic oppression, and war in early 1700's ii. Settled mostly in Pennsylvania.; comprised 1/3 of its population iii. Primarily Lutheran iv. No loyalty to British crown. v. Retained German language and customs. e. Dutch (2.0%): concentrated in New York, New Jersey f. Irish (1.6%) g. French (0.4%) h. All other whites (0.3%) (Swedes, Jews, Swiss) i. African: 20% of population by 1775; mostly concentrated in the South C. Structure of Colonial Society 1. Stratification began to emerge by the mid 18th c.; barriers to mobility had not been as pronounced in previous years. a. Small Upper-class: i. Aristocratic plantation owners in South dominated wealth and influence ii. Merchants, lawyers, officials, and clergymen dominated the North b. Yeoman farmers constituted the majority of the population: owned land c. Lesser tradesman, manual workers, and hired hands: many did not own land d. Indentured servants and jailbirds: limited-no influence e. Slaves: 20% of population; had no rights 2. Americans on average had the highest standard of living in the world. D. Reasons for stratification 1. Armed conflicts in 1690's & early 1700's benefited merchants in New England & middle colonies. -- Eventually, merchants held prominent positions in their churches & schools 2. Yet, Americans had highest standard of living in world history up until that time. 3. Later generations of farmers struggled as unclaimed land dwindled and the average size of farms shrank. -- Many sons became wage laborers or sought land beyond the Appalachians. 4. Plantation owners bolstered by substantial ownership of slaves -- "Poor whites" increasingly forced to become tenant farmers 5. Steady influx of indentured servants swelled lower class 6. Paupers and convicts came often involuntarily (about 50,000) 7. Slaves completely denied rights; no chance for upward mobility. -- Some southerners wanted to restrict further importation of slaves; crown refused E. Professionals: Clerics, Physicians, and Jurists 1. Christian ministry most honored although less influential than in earlier times 2. Physicians poorly trained and not highly regarded 3. Trained lawyers by 1750 generally viewed positively (defended colonial rights and important in creating new constitutions in the colonies) F. 90% of population were farmers; most were subsistence farmers, many were tenant farmers. G. Fishing and whaling also important, especially in New England II. Commerce and Trade A. Triangular trade (illegal trade designed to circumvent Navigation Laws) 1. New Englanders exported timber, fish, cotton goods, and light manufacturing to French Caribbean in return for molasses. 2. New England ships brought molasses back home to be distilled for rum production. -- RI in 1763 became the center for rum distillation in the colonies. 3. Rum from New England shipped to West Indies where slave ships that had disposed of their human cargo, took rum to Gold Coast of Africa. 4. Slave traders bartered with chieftains for slaves; rum used to stupefy native blacks and lure them on ships. 5. Slaves transported on the Middle Passage to the colonies (e.g. Newport, RI) B. Land speculation made many investors wealthy C. Manufacturing a. Secondary in importance to farming b. Small industries such as tailoring, shoemaking, baking, ironworking, ropemaking, coppering, and furniture making were part of small industries. c. Lumbering most important: shipbuilding d. Women spinners and weavers at home produced large output of cloth. e. Large variety of other enterprises: naval stores, beaver hats, rum, carpentry D. Increased trade 1. Growth of American population created increased demand for British goods 2. Once British demand for American products peaked Americans sought other markets a. Heavy exports to France and West Indies brought in cash to buy British goods. b. Molasses Act, 1733: British sought to stop colonial trade w/ French West Indies; colonists ignored it E. Transportation 1. Inland transportation poor by road 2. Waterways most important: Population located near rivers 3. Taverns became important places to discuss politics; crystallized public opinion 4. Postal system emerged by mid 1700s III. Religion A. State of Religion 1. Only about 1 in 7 in the North were church members; less in the South 2. Toleration came about in large part due to non-church members. 3. Two major issues: a. Rights of dissenters in established churches b. Religious style and conviction during the Great Awakening 4. Eventually, campaign for full religious rights led to separation of church and state after the Revolution except for New England B. Different religious groups 1. Anglican Church -- Church of England; tax supported a. Official faith in Virginia, Maryland, N & S Carolina, Georgia, & part of NY b. Church was a branch of royal authority c. Faith was less fierce and more worldly in contrast to Puritan faith d. Weakened by lack of a resident bishop in US who could ordain young ministers -- An attempt by the crown to create a bishopric met with intense protest by non-Anglicans who saw it as a conspiracy to impose royal power e. Established College of William and Mary in Virginia to train ministers, 1693 2. Congregational Church (Grew out of the Puritan church) a. Prominent in New England b. Initially, all citizens, regardless of faith, supported the church through taxes -- Eventually, non-members of other well- known denominations protested and became exempted. c. Emphasized Church of Christ's existence in each individual Congregation. 3. Presbyterian Church a. Closely associated with the Congregational Church -- both were Calvinist b. Contrast to Congregationalists: Presbyterians believed all Presbyterian churches constituted a unified body c. Not an official religion in any of the colonies 4. Quakers a. Quakers existed in large numbers in PA, NJ, DE, and Rhode Island. b. Avid protesters of New England slave trade as Newport, RI, was one of its centers. -- Became important in the emerging 18th century abolition movement. 5. Jews a. First Jews arrived in mid-17th century; located in RI, NY, PA, MD, and SC. b. Approximately 1500 in the colonies by mid-18th century. C. The Great Awakening -- 1730s-1740s 1. First mass social movement in American History -- Spread principally throughout the middle and southern colonies. 2. Main issue was religious style: personal faith, church practice, and public decorum. a. Two primary issues: i. Crisis within the ministry (to what degree should organizational purity be maintained) ii. Crisis between the clergy and the laity (e.g. ministers' salaries, degree of political control exercised by the Congregation) b. Great Awakening was a reaction against the elaborate theological doctrines, emotional stagnation, & liberal doctrines (arminianism) of established churches -- Arminianism: Directly challenged Calvinism’s predestination doctrine and was supported increasingly by liberal ministers -- Stated man is not helpless in achieving regeneration; his will can be an effective force in his being saved c. Enthusiasts saw themselves as beneficiaries of a direct inspiration from God: became the driving force behind the Great Awakening 3. Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758) a. Credited with starting the Great Awakening (c. 1734) in Northampton in 1734 -- Most influential theological writer and thinker of the movement. b. Blasted the idea of salvation through good works (arminianism); dependence on God's grace is paramount c. Emphasized eternal damnation d. Style was learned and reasoned; not emotional like other "new lights" 4. George Whitefield (1714-1770) a. Brilliant English orator; made 7 trips to the American colonies and traveled extensively b. His basic appeal was to the Bible c. Most influential figure of the Great Awakening; founded Methodism in GA and SC 5. "Old Light" vs "New Light" a. Old Lights -- orthodox and liberal clergymen deeply skeptical of emotionalism and theatrical antics of the revivalists. -- Believed emotionalism threatened their usefulness and spiritual authority. b. New Lights -- supported the Awakening for revitalizing American religion and used emotionalism to move followers. c. Congregationalists and Presbyterians split over the issue d. Baptists attracted believers in conversion who longed for emotion in religion. 6. Results a. Created schisms in other denominations which increased competitiveness of American churches. b. Brought religion to many who had lost touch with it c. Undermined the older clergy d. Encouraged a new wave of missionary work among the Indians and slaves e. Founding of "new light" colleges: Dartmouth, Brown, Rutgers, & Princeton. f. Laid the foundation for anti-intellectualism as part of the American character. IV. Education A. New England was most fervently in favor of education 1. Stressed Bible reading by the individual worshiper -- Primary goal of clergy was to make good Christians rather than good citizens 2. Primary and secondary schools established early (Massachusetts School of Law) 3. Literacy much higher in New England than the Chesapeake region or deep South where only the privileged enjoyed the benefit of education. B. Middle colonies 1. Also had primary and secondary education a. Some tax-supported, some privately owned b. Diffusion of population made establishment of effective school systems difficult 2. Many well-to-do families sent their sons to colleges in England C. South 1. Educational opportunities limited for most people except the privileged. 2. Wealthy planters hired tutors to teach their children. 3. Population dispersed = longer distances to travel to school = decentralized system D. Higher education 1. Primary focus on the training of new clergy, not academics -- Emphasis placed on religion and on the classical languages, Latin and Greek 2. Improvement in higher education occurred with what became Univ. of Pennsylvania a. Benjamin Franklin helped establish it b. First American college free from denominational control -- More modern curriculum: "live" languages, experimentation, reason 3. Nine important colleges emerged during the colonial period (others existed as well) -- Harvard, William & Mary, Yale, Princeton, Pennsylvania, Columbia, Brown, Rutgers, Dartmouth V. Culture and the Press A. Most Americans too busy working to survive to spend time on art. B. Phillis Wheatley (c.1753-1784) a notable exception 1. Slave (brought from Africa in 1761) taught by her master’s mistress to read & write 2. First important African American writer in America. 3. Abolitionists would point to her as proof that blacks were not intellectually inferior. C. Benjamin Franklin 1. Writings had a profound effect on shaping the American character 2. Poor Richard's Almanack (edited from 1732-1758) a. Compendium of writings of many thinkers of the day b. Emphasized thrift, industry, morality, and common sense c. More widely read than any book except the Bible; also widely read in Europe 3. Franklin's Autobiography now considered a classic 4. Franklin perhaps the only first-rank scientist produced in colonies. a. Experiments with electricity b. Bifocal spectacles c. Franklin stove d. Started first privately supported circulating library in America; by 1776, there were about 50. D. The colonial press 1. Hand-operated printing presses ran off pamphlets, leaflets and journals. -- Effective for airing social grievances and building opposition to the British 2. John Peter Zenger Case (1735) a. Case paved the way towards freedom of expression b. Zenger's newspaper had criticized the corrupt royal governor c. He was charged with seditious libel and brought to trial d. He argued that he had printed the truth; royal chief justice ruled printing was enough to convict, irregardless of truth e. Jury ruled in favor of Zenger f. Newspaper editors thus received some freedom (not as much as post-1776) VI. Colonial Politics A. Structure of Colonies -- 1775 1. Royal Colonies: Eight colonies had royal governors appointed by the crown. 2. Proprietary Colonies: 3 colonies led by proprietors who themselves chose governors -- Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Delaware 3. Charter Colonies: Conn. & Rhode Island elected own governors under self-governing charters. B. Bicameral legislature most common 1. Upper house, or Council -- normally appointed by the crown or proprietor 2. Lower house, or Assembly -- elected by property owners (the people) -- Voted for taxes for necessary expenses in the Colonial government C. Nature of American politics 1. Colonial governments did not enjoy the power that Parliament enjoyed 2. Yet, colonial governments far more reformed than those in England a. Much more direct representation; will of constituencies higher b. Less corruption 3. Administration at the local level a. New England -- townhall meetings b. South -- county government c. Middle colonies -- Combination of the above 4. Voting restrictions a. The privileged upper class wary of excesses of democracy "mob rule" b. Property and/or religious qualifications were imposed c. As much as 50% of white males were disenfranchised D. Governors 1. Legal power a. Authority to exercise veto power over colonial legislation b. Had prerogative power (outlawed in England after 1688) to dissolve lower houses of colonial assemblies. c. Had power over the judiciary in colonies that was explicitly denied in Britain d. Thus: Colonial rule was a throw back to pre-1688 British politics when the King had control over Parliament 2. Weak in many respects a. Assemblies often controlled governors’ salaries -- One governor did not get paid for a dozen years! b. Strict instructions from the crown impeded flexibility; 3,000 miles away c. Lack of money from patronage (support of interest groups) d. Assemblies had powers to fill gov't posts in most colonies e. Those receiving money from the crown forbidden to sit in assemblies f. Towns instructed their rep's how to act in assemblies -- will of constituents E. Seeds of Democracy in Colonial America 1. Democratic ideals of tolerance emerged 2. Educational advantages 3. Equality of opportunity 4. Freedom of speech & the press 5. Freedom of assembly 6. Representative government VII. Age of the Enlightenment -- (1720s to about 1790) A. Classical Liberalism (Late 17th century and during the Enlightenment of the 18th century) 1. Liberty -- Individual human rights a. Freedom of religion b. Freedom of speech & press c. Fair and equal treatment before the law 2. Equality -- All citizens should have identical rights and civil liberties. Above all, nobility had no right to special privileges based on accident of birth. a. Equality of opportunity b. Did not mean everyone should be economically equal. 3. Human dignity and human happiness 4. Science, progress, and rationality: liberal principles would lead to better government and a better society for all. 5. Representative government (but not democracy): Only those who owned property and had a stake in society could become representatives. B. Important Thinkers 1. John Locke: Second Treatise on Civil Government (1690) (late 17th century during England's "Glorious Revolution") a. Men set up governments in order to protect their property b. Natural Rights: Life, liberty, and property c. Natural right to rebellion: A government that oversteps its proper function becomes a tyranny. Rebellion can be avoided if government respects the right of its citizens and if the people defend their liberties. 2. Baron de Montesquieu: The Spirit of Laws (1748) a. Idea of checks and balances; separation of powers among 3 branches of gov’t b. Despotism could be avoided if political power were divided and shared by a diversity of classes and orders holding unequal rights and privileges. 3. Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations (1776) a. Most significant work on capitalism ever written; founded modern economics b. Formulated the idea of a free economy; contrasted sharply with mercantilism -- Free competition, via private enterprise, would result in greater income for everyone, not just the rich. D. Deism – Religious or philosophical branch of the Enlightenment 1. Premise: God created the universe and then stepped back; universe ran like a clock—the "Ghost in the Machine" 2. Deists largely rejected traditional Christianity. 3. Influenced Jefferson, Franklin, Washington & Paine 4. Not a wide-scale movement; only popular among certain groups of intellectuals XIII. Events that fostered the democratic ideal in the English colonies (Barron’s) 1619, Formation of the Virginia House of Burgesses: First representative assembly in America; beginning of representative government in America. o 1620, Signing of Mayflower Compact: First agreement for self-government; bound the freemen to obey "just and equal laws." o After 1629, New England Townhall Meeting: Taught people to express themselves openly and helped further self-government. o 1628 & 1689, Petition of Rights and Bill of Rights: Established certain rights of English subjects vis-à-vis the Royal Power in England. The colonists later claimed these rights also. o Colonial Government: The governor of each colony, whether a royal or charter colony, had to consult advisors before taking action. o Control of Purse: The settlers of most colonies voted for members of a legislature, which in turn determined the Governor’s salary. When this control was threatened, the colonists felt threatened. o o 1639, Fundamental Orders of Connecticut: Was the first written constitution in America. 1643, New England Confederation: Connecticut, New Haven, Plymouth, and Massachusetts formed a league of friendship for defense, offense, and advice. This was a first step toward the later union of states. o 1649, Passing of Maryland Act of Toleration: Guaranteed religious freedom to all Christians (but not Jews and atheists) o 1676, Bacon’s Rebellion: Virginia farmers revolt against corrupt and oppressive government. o 1683, New York chapter of Liberties: Granted freedom of religion to all Christians and gave all freeholders the right to vote. Created to attract more settlers to New York. o 1691, Leisler’s Rebellion: New York poor people and farmers revolted in protest of land grants favoring wealthy landholders and speculators that crowded out small farmers. o o 1734, Zenger Case: Set a precedent that led to the establishment of freedom of the press. 1713-1763, era of "Salutary Neglect": Colonies experienced relatively limited interference from Britain which in turn fostered self-reliance, self-government, and later resentment of British mercantilist policies. o 1720s to 1790s, The Enlightenment: Influenced American political thought vis-à-vis government consent by the governed, natural rights of citizens, right to rebel, and checks and balances in government. o Colonial Wars in 18th Century North America I. France in Canada A. France was late in coming to the New World 1. Much internal strife during 1500s between Catholics and Huguenots (Calvinists) -- St. Bartholemew's Day, 1572 -- 10,000 Huguenots executed, men, women & children 2. Edict of Nantes (1598): Granted limited toleration to French Protestants a. Religious wars ceased b. France blossomed into most feared power in 17th c. Europe led by Louis XIV B. French established Quebec in 1608 (a year after Jamestown) 1. Located at the head of the St. Lawrence River 2. Founded by Samuel de Champlain ("Father of New France") a. Entered friendship with local Huron Indians, the enemies of the Iroquois b. Significance: Iroquois, in retaliation, later kept the French from expanding into the Ohiovalley, ravaged French settlements, and allied with the British against the French. C. Government 1. Eventually, the crown ruled the region autocratically (after commercial ventures failed) -- No popularly elected assemblies or trial by jury. 2. French population in New France grew very slowly -- only 6,000 whites by 1750 D. New France expands in North America 1. Of the European powers, the French were the most successful in creating an effective trading relationship with the Indians. a. British settlers sought to remove or exterminate them. b. Spanish sought to Christianize them and subdued them in missions. c. The French became great gift givers (the key to getting on with Indians who based their inter-tribal relationships on gift giving) during last two decades of the 17th century. i. Trade not seen as a transact ion or contract (like in Europe). ii. Trade seen by Indians as a continuing process. iii. When one group stopped trading w/ another, it was tantamount to declaring war. 2. Beaver trade led to exploration of much of North America: a. Heavy demand for fur in European fashion. b. coureurs de bois (runners of the woods) were rough frontiersmen heavily involved in fur trading. c. French seamen - voyageurs -- recruited Indians into the fur trade 3. Jesuits: Catholic Missionaries who sought to convert Indians and save them from the fur trappers. a. Some were brutally killed by Indians (although in the eyes of Indians, Jesuits held up best to torture and were thus more respected). b. Played a vital role as explorers and geographers 4. Other explorers a. Antoine Cadillac -- founded Detroit in 1701 -- Aimed to keep English settlers out of the Ohio Valley b. Robert de La Salle -- Sailed from Quebec, down through the Great Lakes, and down the Mississippi River in 1682 with the help of Indian guides. i. Sought to prevent Spanish expansion into Gulf of Mexico region ii. Coined the name "Louisiana" in honor of Louis XIV 5. French establish posts in the Mississippi region (New Orleans most important—1718) a. Attempt to block Spanish expansion into the Gulf of Mexico b. Forts and trading posts in Illinois country: Kaskaskia, Cahokia, & Vincennes -- Large amounts of grain sent down the Mississippi River for shipment to the West Indies and Europe II. Clash of Empires: English, French, & Spanish A. Four world wars between 1688 and 1763 1. King William's War (1689-1697) -- and Queen Anne's War (1702-1713) a. British colonials fought French coureurs de bois and Indian allies (except Mohawks of the Iroquois confederacy) b. Treaty of Utrecht (1713) ended colonial wars for nearly three decades. c. In American colonies, a generation of peace ensued; "salutary neglect" i. Whig prime minister, Robert Walpole, believed if the colonies were left alone to run their own affairs with minimal interference, they would produce more wealth and commerce, prosper, and cause less trouble. ii. England would simply provide peace, protection, commerce, ensure law and order and domestic tranquility, and send more British immigrants to America to increase numbers of British customers. 2. King George's War (1744-1748) (War of Austrian Succession; War of Jenkin's Ear) a. Spain again allied with France against Britain. b. New Englanders again invaded New France and took the strategically important city of Louisbourg commanding the approaches of St. Lawrence River. e. Peace Treaty of 1748 i. England gave Louisbourg back to the French in order to help negotiations for a cease-fire in the European war. ii. British colonists were furious; felt vulnerable from the North. 3. French & Indian War (1754-1763 -- Seven Years' War) --most important of the colonial wars. a. Main issue was the Ohio Valley i. British were pushing west into it; wary of French influence in North America ii. French needed to retain it to link Canadian holdings with the lower Mississippi valley & Caribbean. b. Washington’s Ohio Mission -- Battle near Fort Duquesne -- May, 1754 i. Lt. Col. George Washington sent by Virginia gov’t to forks of Ohio River to prevent French from building fort there; hoped instead to build a British fort. ii. Washington defeated and forced to surrender his entire command but allowed to leave with his army intact. iii. In effect, Washington triggered a world war. c. British retaliated by clamping down in Nova Scotia i. Uprooted 4,000 Nova Scotians and scattered them throughout the continent including Louisiana. ii. French-speaking Acadians became the descendants of modern day "Cajuns" d. War widened into hitherto largest world war: 25,000 American colonials fought e. Albany Congress (1754) i. Board of Trade called leaders from all the colonies to meet in Albany to discuss Indian problem and meet with Iroquois. ii. British sought to make Iroquois allies; gave many gifts (including guns) -- Iroquois refused to commit themselves to the British iii. Long-range purpose: greater colonial unity; strong defense against France. f. Albany Plan for Union i. Benjamin Franklin created plan for colonial home rule: dealt with defense and Indian affairs. -- Adopted by delegates -- Individual colonies rejected it: not enough independence -- British rejected it: too much independence ii. Franklin's cartoon: "Join, or Die" g. British General Braddock defeated a few miles from Fort Duquesne by smaller French & Indian forces (1755) h. British launched full-scale invasion of Canada in 1756 but failed. i. William Pitt (The "Great Commoner") – became leader of British gov’t i. Very popular among the British people; his success in the war led to Ft. Duquesne being renamed Pittsburgh. ii. Strategy: focus on France in North America in order to win the war. j. Battle of Quebec (1760) i. Pitt appointed James Wolfe to take Quebec ii.British successful on the Plains of Abraham (near Quebec) but Wolfe & French commander de Montaclm were killed. iii. One of most significant battles in British & American history. k. Peace of Paris (1763) – In effect, France was removed from North America. (Technically, land west of Mississippi River still French but not yet settled.) -- Great Britain emerged as the dominant power in North America and as the leading naval power in the world. III. Friction between the colonies and Britain during and after French and Indian War. A. Colonies emerged from the war with increased confidence in their military strength --Yet, colonial military leaders angry that American promotions limited in British army B. British upset that American shippers traded with enemy ports of Sp. & Fr. W. Indies 1. Enemy Indians were aided by increased foodstuffs 2. British forbade export of all supplies from New England & Middle colonies during last year of the war. 3. Some colonials refused to supply troops: saw economic gain as more important than loyalty to Britain. -- Only later agreed to commit troops when Pitt offered to substantially reimburse colonies. C. American westward colonial expansion increased significantly after the war 1. French barrier west of the Appalachians was removed 2. Spanish and Indian threats removed in many areas 3. Settlers no longer as dependent on British protection in the frontier. D. Pontiac’s Rebellion (1763) 1. Indians in Ohio Valley region angered at British treatment of Indians during the last years of the French and Indian War. 2. Chief Pontiac, the Ottowa chief in northern Michigan, refused to surrender his lands to the British although France (their ally in the war) had lost and were now gone. 3. Chief Pontiac led an Indian alliance against whites in the Ohio Valley & Great Lakes region in 1763 a. 9 of 11 British forts taken; several wiped out. b. Perhaps 2,000 lives lost during first 6 mos. of conflict, many more driven from their homes on the frontier back to more settled areas. c. It took British 18 months to bring the rebellion under control. 4. British retaliated with germ warfare: blankets infected with smallpox distributed among the Native Americans 5. Rebellion subdued in October, 1763 E. Proclamation of 1763 1. In response to Pontiac’s rebellion, George III signed an edict creating royal colonies in all newly acquired lands in the Treaty of Paris. 2. Prohibited colonials to move west of the Appalachians a. Line drawn from Canada to Florida along the crest of the Appalachians intended to be temporary measure.. b. British aim: Settle land disputes with Indians fairly to prevent more bloody episodes like Pontiac's uprising and organize eventual settlement and defense 3. Colonials infuriated: viewed edict as being permanent. a. Many veterans had fought in the war and felt betrayed b. Land speculators argued that the land was a birthright of British citizens. 4. Colonials generally ignored the Proclamation THE ROAD TO THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION: 1763-1775 I. The American colonies prior to the American Revolution. A. In 18th century, large percentage of colonists (British) were proud to belong to British empire. 1. Newer studies suggest that by 1763 the American colonies had achieved tremendous integration within the British empire; did not forget their "Britishness" 2. On average, Americans had the highest standard of living in the world. a. Drop in price of British goods meant American consumers had many choices. b. Possiblility of landownership in many areas was far better than in Europe. B. "Salutary neglect" (beginning about 1713 with the Treaty of Utrecht) 1. Between 1713 and 1763 American colonials saw reduced gov't intervention in colonial affairs. a. Whig prime minister, Sir Robert Walpole, took the enlightened view that that if the colonies were left alone to run their own affairs with minimal interference, they would produce more wealth and commerce, prosper, and cause less trouble. b. Britain would simply provide peace, protection, commerce, ensure law and order, and send more immigrants to America to increase numbers of customers. c. Britain focused on major wars in Europe. d. Colonies left to raise, equip, train, own militia for whatever protection it believed was needed against the Indians. e. In effect, colonies left alone; had to develop self-reliance; effective organization 3. Development of self-government a. 13 separate colonial governments emerged; often undercut authority of Parliament. b. Local gov't much more responsive to local needs c. Americans became used to regulating their own affairs without significant interference. d. American manufacturing increased despite British policies to protect Br. manufacturers. -- Cost of American goods increased making merchants wealthy. 4. Smuggling became rampant as British policy less vigilant than in 17th century. C. Whig ideology 1. Idea that concentrated power leads to corruption and tyranny 2. Emphasis on balanced government where legislatures check the power of the king. 3. The Whigs had championed gov’t reform in England in the late 17th century and prevailed when Parliament emerged as most powerful element in British politics after the Glorious Revolution. D. Violent protests among westerns toward eastern power structure continued. 1. Regulator Movement (1771) a. Eastern farmers in N. Carolina frustrated with British tax policies, inadequate representation of western farmers in the colonial assembly, and legislation favoring wealthy planters in the east. b. Fighting lasted for three years. -- Battle of Alamance (May 16, 1771): colonial militia defeated the Regulators at Alamance Creek where nearly 4,000 men took part in the conflict. 2. Paxton Boys (1764): Philadelphia Scots Irish dissenters revolted against Quaker leniency regarding gov’t Indian policy: -- Scalped 20 neutral Indians, followed by a 200-man march on Philadelphia demanding more representation, protection in the PA backcountry against Indians, and funds for internal improvements. 3. Compare the above two rebellions with Bacon & Leisler rebellions in 17th c. II. The Mercantilist System A. Mercantilism :Colonies existed for the benefit of the mother country 1. Colonies should add to empire's wealth, prosperity, and self-sufficiency. 2. Colonists seen as tenants -- Expected to grow tobacco and other necessary products w/o troubling the colonial administration (e.g. self-gov't, agricultural experimentation) 3. Colonies' benefit to Great Britain a. Ensure British naval supremacy by furnishing ships, ships' stores, sailors and trade. b. Provide a large consumer market for British goods. c. Keep gold & silver in the empire by growing cash crops like sugar that would otherwise have to be purchased from foreigners. B. Navigation Laws (1651 Act was temporary) 1. Purpose: enforce the mercantilist system 2. Motive: First enacted in 1651 aimed at rival Dutch shippers who were becoming active in the American trade. 3. Basic provisions of Nagivation Laws passed in 17th and 18th centuries: a. Restricted commerce to and from the colonies to English or American vessels. -- Kept money in the Empire & bolstered the British and colonial merchant marine b. Certain "enumerated" articles like tobacco couldn’t be shipped to any other foreign market except England despite prices maybe being higher in other markets. c. All European goods going to America had to go through England first. d. Certain restrictions on colonial manufactures for export: British did not want competition with the Colonies. -- Forbade exportation of woolen cloth produced in America. -- Beaver hats prohibited from exportation --Encouraged colonists to produce pig and bar iron, but not build any new steel furnaces, slitting mills, or plating forges. e. Molasses Act (1733) -- Imposed heavy duties(6-pence duty) on all molasses, rum and sugar imported form French Caribbean. i. Colonists traded heavily with the French West Indies ii. Some of the rum consequently produced in America was traded for slaves -- New England merchants heavily involved in the slave trade C. Positive results of British Mercantilism 1. Until 1763, Navigation Laws not an intolerable economic burden on the colonies. 2. Colonials had rights of Englishmen and unusual opportunities or self-government 3. Colonies enjoyed British military protection free of charge 4. Colonies greatly profited from manufacturing and trading. D. Negative impact of mercantilism 1. Colonial economy did not develop as quickly as it wanted to (esp. manufacturing) 2. Southern colonies hit hard as prices for exports dropped by being "enumerated" -- Virginia especially affected; poor economic conditions resulted in unrest (e.g. Bacon’s Rebellion) 3. Southern colonies favored by British in their policy making (tobacco, sugar and rice); New Englanders grew resentful. 4. Writs of Assistance a. Search warrants used by British customs officers to harass colonial shipping. b. Aimed to reduce colonial smuggling e.g. illegal triangular trade. c. 1761, James Otis, a young Boston lawyer, demanded Parliament repeal the acts. i. Parliament refused but Otis’ efforts gained press throughout the colonies. ii. Later, Otis wrote famous words "no taxation without representation." E. End of "salutary neglect" 1. The Year 1763 marked a new era in relations between England and the colonies. a. George Grenville new Prime Minister, sought to enforce Navigation Acts. -- Americans particularly angry about enlarged authority of Admiralty Courts that could now try smugglers, customs evaders, ship owners, and others accused of violating commercial restrictions; no trial by jury; located in Nova Scotia. b. British debt from the Seven Years' War was enormous i. Half the debt due to protection of colonies ii. British fairly believed colonists should pay 1/3 of maintaining a garrison of 10,000 British soldiers to protect against Indian uprisings. 2. King George III a. Extremely stubborn and surrounded himself with successive governments of inexperienced, inward-looking, narrow-minded men. -- Five different prime ministers during the 1st 10 years of his reign. b. Sought to exercise increased control over the colonies. c. 50 years of Whig power was about to give way to a conservative government dominated by the king beginning in 1762. 3. Proclamation of 1763 a. Prohibited colonials to move west of the Appalachians b. British aim: Settle land disputes with Indians fairly to prevent more bloody episodes like Pontiac's Rebellion. c. Colonials infuriated i. Many veterans had fought in the war and felt betrayed ii. Land speculators argued that the land was a birthright of British citizens. d. Colonists generally ignored the Proclamation 4. Currency Act (1764) a. British restricted colonial printing of paper money -- Sought to make colonists pay back their debts and taxes with hard currency. b. Trade deficit between England & America hurt the colonies i. Most gold & silver flowed to England from colonies since colonies bought more than they sold. ii. Lack of gold meant lack of hard cash; bartering increased 5. Sugar Acts passed in 1764 (updated version of Molasses Act of 1733) a. First act ever passed specifically that raised revenue for the crown. b. Aimed to regulate illegal triangular trade to collect duties that the colonists had been averting for decades. c. Reduced taxes on molasses but taxed all molasses, not just molasses from French West Indies. d. Not enforced effectively; duties eventually lowered after Stamp Act uproar. 6. Quartering Act, 1765: Certain colonies required to provide food & quarters for British troops. III. Three great crises in the colonies led to the American Revolution: Stamp Act, Townshend Acts, & Tea Act A. The Stamp Act of 1765 -- Perhaps the single most important event leading to the American Revolution 1. Purpose: Raise revenues to support the new military force in the colonies 2. Provisions: a. Required use of stamped paper or affixed stamps certifying payment of tax. b. Tax applied to published materials and legal documents e.g., pamphlets, newspapers, diplomas, bills of lading, marriage certificates, death certificates, deeds, leases, mortages, insurance policies, bonds, ship charters, liquor licenses, playing cards. c. Both Sugar Act and Stamp Act provided for trying offenders in admiralty courts where juries were not allowed -- Burden of proof on defendants; were assumed guilty unless proved innocent. 3. Grenville’s' view a. Stamp Act was reasonable and just b. Only required colonials to pay their fair share for colonial defense c. Stamp Act in Britain had been much heavier and in effect for 2 generations. 4. Virginia Resolves (led by Patrick Henry) a. Virginia’s leaders saw Stamp Act as an attack on colonial's rights as Englishmen b. 5 of Henry’s 7 resolutions adopted by the House of Burgesses including non-importation. c. Claimed that Virginia could only be taxed by Virginians. -- "No taxation w/o representation" d. Assemblies of 8 other colonies passed resolutions silmilar to Virginias’s. 5. Colonist views distiguished between "legislation" and "taxation" a. Legislation, "external taxes", the right of Parliament regarding the empire; e.g. trade b. Taxation, "internal taxes", exclusive right local popularly elected gov't -- British taxation was robbery; attacking sacred rights of property c. Grenville’s response: colonies had "virtual representation" in Parliament -- All British subjects represented, even those who did not vote for members in Parliament. d. Colonists believed "virtual representation" was neither adequate nor justified i. "No taxation w/o representation" ii. Did not really want "direct representation" (actual representation) -- Would mean increased taxes (as in Britain) -- Increased responsibilities to the crown -- Colonial reps. would be heavily outnumbered in Parliament 6. Stamp Act Congress (1765) -- brought together 27 delegates from 9 colonies a. Massachusetts made initiative for colonies who adopted Virginia Resolves to meet. b. Drew up a statement of their rights and grievances and demanded that the king and Parliament rescind the Stamp Act. c. Largely ignored in England; of little consequence in the colonies d. Significance: Brought together reps from different & rival colonies and set a precedent for future resistance to British rule. -- Helped break down sectional suspicions within the colonies. e. Non-importation agreements against British goods. -- England economy suffered from non-importation but non-importation was not decisive in reversing Parliament’s decision 7. Sons of Liberty led by Samuel Adams enforced nonimportation agreements against violators; tar & feathers a. Houses of unpopular officials ransacked, possessions stolen, while officials were often hanged in effigy; warehouse where stamps stored was destroyed. b. All stamp act agents were forced to resign; no one selling stamps. 8. Stamp Act repealed in 1766 a. Lord Rockingham sees the Stamp Act as a possible cause of civil crisis and encourages British merchants to write Parliament to rescind the tax. b. Parliament passed the Declaratory Act at the same time i. Purpose was partly to save face ii. Claimed that Parliament had the right to tax colonies I the future. c. Sugar Act tax lowered from 3-pence per gallon to 1-pence B. Townshend Acts (1767) 1. Charles Townshend, Chancellor of the Exchequer, took control of the British ministry and sought to punish the colonies for the Stamp Act uproar 2. Provisions: a. Small import duty on glass, white lead, paper, paint, silk and tea. -- Tax was an indirect customs duty payable at American ports ("external tax") b. Revenues from taxes to pay the salaries of royal governors and judges c. Established American Board of customs Commissioners & vice-admiralty courts to enforce trade laws. -- Royal judges would be allowed to grant "writs of assistance" in private homes or shops or warehouses. 3. Colonial reaction a. Colonies interpreted this as a tax to raise revenue; any form inappropriate. b. John Dickinson, Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania i. Challenged distinction between "internal" and "external" taxes. ii. Denied right to levy taxes for purpose of revenue. iii. Prompted the Massachusetts Circular Letter 4. Massachusetts Circular Letter (Feb. 1768) a. Mass. legislature, urged by Sam Adams and James Otis, reiterated Dickinson’s arguments and called for other colonies to pass petitions calling on Parliament to repeal the acts. b. In response, Lord Hillsborough, sent troops to Boston and threatened to dissolve Mass. legislature and hold new elections if the letter not retracted. -- Other colonies that voted for the circular would be dissolved. c. Some colonies reenacted previous nonimportation agreements (MA, NY, PA, SC) -- British exports to America fell 40% over the next few months. d. Several colonial legislatures dissolved as they supported Massacusetts circular: MA, MD, VA, DE, SC (NC governor fearful of dissolving legislature) 5. Boston "Massacre" a. (Peaceful) Arrival of troops in Boston aroused American resistance -- Colonials fearful of standing armies; believed Britain sought to suppress colonial liberties. b. March 5, 1770 British soldiers (having been provoked) fired on a crowd of Bostonians i. Eleven "innocent" civilians killed or wounded ii. Crispus Attucks, a mulatto merchant seaman, the "first to die in the revolution," & alleged leader of the unruly mob. iii. Word of the "massacre" spread throughout the colonies (esp. by Sons of Liberty) iv. Colonial propaganda exaggerated the event and made British appear sinister. 6. Townshend Acts repealed a. Lord North, bowing to pressure, got Parliament to repeal the act in 1770. i. Nonimportation agreements were pinching British manufacturers ii. Three-pence tax on tea remained to demonstrate Parliament's right to tax. -- Taxed tea still cost less than smuggled tea. b. Half the troops in Boston removed. c. General feeling of goodwill after Townshend Acts were repealed until 1773. 7. Gaspee Incident (1771) one of only a few incidents between 1770-1773 to cause conflict a. British warship "Gaspee" ran aground near Providence, RI, pursuing smugglers. -- Ship was notorious for extorting smaller vessels and allowing men to steal cattle and cut fruit trees on local farms for firewood. b. Sons of Liberty members, dressed as Indians, took crew off the ship and set it on fire; commander wounded c. "Gaspee" Commission was created by Lord Hillsborough to seek retribution but could not find the guilty parties; would have sent them to England for trial. 8. Committees of Correspondence a. Some colonial discontent continued as British redoubled efforts to enforce the Navigation Laws. b. Samuel Adams used propaganda to whip up colonial resentment c. Adams organized the local committees of correspondence in Mass., Nov.1772. d. Chief function was to spread propaganda and info. by interchanging letters in order to keep opposition to British policy alive. e. In particular, letters from the British gov't incl. those of Gov. Hutchinson showed that Britain was acting on Hutchinson's advice and wishes. f. Intercolonial committees of correspondence emerged g. Intercolonial groups evolved directly into the first American congresses. C. The Tea Act Crisis and the First Continental Congress 1. Tea Act (1773) a. British gov't granted British East India Company a monopoly of American tea business. i. BEIC on the verge of bankruptcy which would have cost the gov't $ in tax revenue. ii. Price of tea would be even lower than existing prices, even with the 3-pence tax. b. Americans reacted angrily: saw Tea Act as a sneaky attempt to trick colonies to accept the tax through cheaper tea. 2. Boston Tea Party, Dec. 16, 1773 -- Sons of Liberty dressed as Indians boarded three ships, smashed 342 chests open, and dumped the tea into the harbor. 3. "Intolerable Acts" (Coercive Acts) a. 1774, Parliament passed the "Repressive Acts" designed to punish Boston b. Boston Port Act -- harbor remained closed until damages were paid and order restored. c. Massachusetts charter revoked (Massachusetts Government Act) i. King now had the power to appoint the Governor's Council, not the assembly ii. Forbade town meetings except for election of town officials. d. Administration of Justice Act: Enforcing officials who killed colonists could now be tried in England instead of the colonies. e. Quartering Act: Provided for the quartering of troops once again in Boston. 4. Quebec Act -- coincidentally accompanied "Intolerable Acts"; not intended to punish the colonies a. French in Canada guaranteed right to practice Catholicism. b. Quebec territory was extended down to the Ohio river, next to NY & PA c. French allowed to keep old customs and institutions which did not include a representative assembly or trial by jury in civil cases. d. Seen by both British and Canadians as a conciliatory measure. e. Colonial reaction: -- Viewed act as insidious attempt to create a new French Canadian and Indian threat on in the Ohio Vally region. -- Anti-Catholic sentiment arose; seen as an attack on Protestantism 5. The First Continental Congress a. In response to "Intolerable Acts," the committees of correspondence urged the colonies to act quickly. b. Bostonians adopted a solemn league and covenant against all trade with Great Britain and invited the other colonies to join in it. c. First Continental Congress deliberated from Sept. 5 to Oct. 26, 1774 i. 12 of 13 colonies present (except Georgia) ii. Delegates included S.Adams, J. Adams, G. Washington, & Patrick Henry. d. 1st Step: endorse several resolutions known as the Suffolk Resolves. i. Denounced "Intolerable" Acts ii. Urged colonies to organize militia for defensive purposes iii. Called on colonies to suspend all trade with rest of British empire iv. Urged citizens not to pay taxes. e. Rejection of Galloway Plan i. Joseph Galloway called for a colonial union required to approve all parliamentary laws affecting the colonies (like Franklin’s Albany Plan). ii. Most members far too conservative to endorse such a radical view f. Main purpose: Petition for redress of grievances -- Declaration and Resolves i. Gave colonists the legal right to assemble in order to seek redress. ii. "Bill of Rights": established structure for the Declaration of Independence (Preamble, list of grievances and mutual pledge) g. The Association: most significant action of the Congress -- Called for a complete boycott of British goods: nonimportation, nonexportation, and nonconsumption. h. Yet, Congress restated allegiance to the King -- No real desire to independent; merely wanted grievances redressed. i. A convention met in Richmond, VA, in March, 1775 to approve the proceedings of the First Continental Congress -- Patrick Henry: "Give me liberty, or give me death." j. King and Parliament did not respond to Declaration and Resolves. -- Would have recognized Congresses right as a legislative body. 6. The Shot Heard Around the World -- Lexington and Concord a. Parliament ordered General Gage, new Gov. of Massachusetts, to arrest leaders of the rebellion and prepare for military action. -- Gage sought to prevent bloodshed by disarming the local militia. b. April 1775, a detachment of 700 British redcoats sent secretly to nearby Lexington & Concord to seize stores of gunpowder and arrest Sam Adams & John Hancock. -- Paul Revere and William Dawes warned the Minutemen. c. Battle of Lexington and Concord began when Minutemen refused to disperse on the Lexington Green and shots were fired. i. 8 Americans killed, 10 wounded. Who fired the first shot? ii. Redcoats continued on to Concord. 6 miles away. d. Concord -- British forced to retreat by American reinforcements i. Militia picked-off British soldiers as they retreated to Boston ii. By day’s end, 273 British casualties; 95 Americans casualties e. Minutemen encamped outside the city and lay siege to Boston. IV. British Strengths and Weaknesses during the American Revolution A. Strengths 1. Population favored Britain: 7.5 million to 2.5 for the colonies. 2. Superior monetary advantage and best navy in the world 3. About 20,000 slaves in the Carolinas and Georgia joined the British (only 5K for rebels) a. British promised slaves freedom if they fought on their side b. Many fled with the British after the war and left the country 4. Many Indians also sided with the British and wreaked havoc along the frontier -- British represented last hope for keeping land-hungry colonists out. 5. Britain possessed a 50,000 man professional army -- King George hired an additional 30,000 German "Hessians" as mercenaries. 6. British also enlisted about 50,000 loyalists B. Weaknesses 1. Enormous distance from England to the Colonies -- Communication was inefficient to meet the need for immediate action. 2. America too large a region for Britain’s army to effectively occupy; population too dispersed 3. British generals in America were poor leaders a. Many British soldiers did not want to kill their American cousins b. Provisions for the army were poor 4. Americans had only to tie in order to win; British had to win outright. 5. France was waiting for an opportunity to exact revenge 6. London gov't was confused and inept; King George & Lord North inadequate -- Whig factions in Parliament cheered American victories at the outset V. American Strengths and Weaknesses A. Strengths 1. Outstanding leadership e.g., George Washington and Benjamin Franklin (diplomat) 2. Economic aid from France at the outset; later military aid was decisive. 3. Defensive military tactics worked to their advantage 4. Agriculturally self-sustaining 5. Colonials were competent marksmen; better than the redcoats 6. Moral advantage from belief in a just cause B. Weaknesses 1. Badly organized for the war and lacked unity from the beginning. a. Continental Congress was weak and ineffective b. Fought almost the entire war without a constitution 2. Jealousy among colonies a. Regarded themselves as sovereign -- Resisted Congress' to exercise its weak power b. Quarrels over the appointment of military leaders 3. Economic difficulties a. Little metal money i. Paper money printed to the point that it was worthless ii. Individual colonies had to later print paper money b. Soldiers deserted due to economic difficulties of their families c. Debtors paid their debts which were tremendously devalued 4. Military challenges a. Military supplies were inadequate esp. firearms and gunpowder b. Militiamen highly unreliable 5. Morale in the Revolutionary army was undermined by opportunistic American profiteers a. Sold goods to British for payment in gold b. Speculators forced prices sky-high c. Boston merchants made profits of 50-200% while soldiers were dying.. 6. Only a select minority of American colonials truly committed themselves to the cause. THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION: 1775-1783 I. Second Continental Congress -- May 10, 1775 A. All 13 colonies present -- delegates still not interested in independence but rather redressing of grievances (conservative position). B. Most significant act of Congress: Selected George Washington to head of the Continental Army. -- Selection largely political – Northerns wanted to bring Virginia into the war. C. Declaration of the Causes & Necessity of Taking Up Arms (Jefferson & Dickinson) 1. Drafted 2nd set of appeals to the king and British people for redress of American grievances. 2. Seen as intermediate step towards the Declaration of Independence -- (Declaration & Resolves from 1st Continental Congress was earlier step.) 3. Adopted measures to raise money and to create an army and a navy. D. Olive Branch Petition (written largely by John Dickinson) 1. Last ditch effort by moderates in the Continental Congress to prevent an all-out war. 2. Once again, professed loyalty to the crown; sought to restore peace 3. Appealed to the king to intercede with Parliament to reconsider the “Intolerable Acts” 4. King refused to recognize Congress and the war raged on II. Early Battles A. Ticonderoga and Crown Point -- May 1775 1. Tiny forces under Ethan Allen and his Green Mountain Boys of Vermont & Benedict Arnold of Connecticut surprised & captured Br. garrisons. B. Bunker Hill – June 17, 1775 1. Colonials seized Breed's Hill -- commanded a strong position overlooking Boston. 2. Over 1,000 oncoming redcoats in ill-conceived frontal assault were mowed down by 1,500 American sharpshooters. -- Americans had 140 killed and 441 wounded. 3. American supply of gunpowder ran out and were forced to abandon the hill in disorder. 4. Viewed as an American victory for the frightful British casualties inflicted. 5. Bloodiest battle of the War for Independence 6. British Army left Boston to conduct the war from New York. C. Following Bunker Hill, King formally proclaimed the colonies in rebellion (Aug. 23, 1775). 1. This was tantamount to a declaration of war against the colonies.. 2. 18,000 Hessians (German mercenary soldiers) hired by King to support British forces -- Colonials shocked that the king would hire forces known as butchers for the war between Anglo-Saxon cousins. D. Americans failed to successfully invade Canada in Oct. 1775 -- Yet, invasion postponed large British offensive which eventually contributed to American victory at Saratoga. IV. Declaration of Independence A. Most Americans did not desire independence; proud to be British citizens B. Reasons for shift of loyalty 1. Hiring of Hessians 2. Burning of Falmouth & Norfolk 3. Governor of Virginia promised slaves who would fight for the British would be freed. -- Impact: persuaded many southern elite to join New England in the war effort. C. Thomas Paine’s Common Sense (published early 1776) 1. Became an instant best-seller in the colonies; effective propaganda 2. Main ideas: a. Colonial policy was inconsistent; independence was the only course b. Nowhere in the physical universe did a smaller heavenly body control a larger one. Why should tiny England control huge North America? c. King was nothing more than the "Royal Brute of Great Britain." d. America had a sacred mission; moral obligation to the world to set up an independent, democratic republic, untainted by association with corrupt monarchical Britain. 3. Persuaded Congress to go all the way for independence a. Could not hope for aid from France unless they declared independence b. France not interested in colonial reconstruction under Britain D. June 7, 1776, Philadelphia Congress, Richard Henry Lee moved for independence. 1. "These United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states..." 2. Motion was adopted on July 2, 1776 3. Yet, formal explanation was needed to rally resistance at home and invite foreign nations to aid the American cause, especially France. E. Congress appointed Committee on Independence to prepare an appropriate statement shortly after Lee's speech on June 7. 1. Task fell to a committee that chose Thomas Jefferson—33-year old Virginia attorney. --Other members: B. Franklin, J. Adams, Roger Sherman, & Robert Livingston 2. Some debate and amendment had preceded its adoption especially slavery clause which was heavily modified with some portions being excised. a. Jefferson had blamed England for continuing the slave trade despite colonial wishes (despite his owning slaves). b. Yet, southerners in particular still favored slavery and dismissed the clause. 3. Declaration not addressed to England, nor did signers expect any response from the king. 4. Declaration of Independence formally approved on July 4, 1776 F. Declaration of Independence had three major parts: 1. Preamble (heavily influenced by John Locke) a. Stated the rights of colonists to break away if natural rights were not protected: Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness (property) b. All men are created equal 2. List of 27 grievances of the colonies (seen by Congress as most important part) a. Underwent the most changes from the original draft -- 24 changes b. Charged the King with imposing taxes w/o consent, eliminating trial by jury, abolishing valued laws, establishing a military dictatorship, maintaining standing armies in peacetime, cutting off trade, burning towns, hiring mercenaries, inciting Indian violence upon colonies 3. Formal declaration of independence a. Officially broke ties with England b. "United States" officially an independent country G. Result: Foreign aid could now be successfully solicited V. Patriots & Loyalists A. "Tories" (loyalists) = about 20% of the American people 1. Colonists who fought for return to colonial rule; loyal to the king. 2. Usually conservative: educated and wealthy; fearful of “mob rule.” 3. Older generation apt to be loyalists; younger generation more revolutionary 4. King's officers and other beneficiaries of the crown 5. Anglican clergy and a large portion of their followers; most numerous of the loyalists (except in Virginia) 6. Well entrenched in aristocratic NY, Charleston, Quaker PA, and NJ. 7. Least numerous in New England 8. Ineffective at gaining allegiance of neutral colonists B. Patriots 1. Sometimes called "whigs" after British opposition party 2. American rebels who fought both British soldiers and loyalists 3. Most numerous in New England 4. Constituted a minority movement 5. More adept at gaining support from colonials 6. Financing: Robert Morris, “the financier of the Revolution” helped Congress finance the war. C. The Loyalist Exodus 1. Loyalists regarded by Patriots as traitors. 2. About 80,000 loyalists were driven out or fled the colonies -- Estates confiscated and sold; helped finance the war 3. 50,000 fought for the British VIII. The War in 1776-1777: Britain changed its focus to the former Middle Colonies. A. Battle of Long Island (Summer & Fall 1776) 1. Washington’s army allowed to escape from Long Island to Manhattan and then NJ. 2. British lost a great opportunity to crush the Americans early. B. Battle of Trenton (Dec. 1776) 1. Washington crossed the ice-clogged Delaware River on Dec. 26, 1776 2. At Trenton, surprised and captured about 1,000 Hessians who were sleeping off their Christmas partying. C. Battle of Princeton (Jan. 1777) 1. One week after Trenton, Washington defeated a smaller British force at Princeton 2. British forced to pull his outposts back to New York 3. Trenton and Princeton was a gamble by Washington to achieve quick victories to revive the dissintegrating Continental Army. D. Battle of Saratoga (most important battle of the American Revolution. 1. British sought to capture New York and sever New England from rest of the Colonies 2. Benedict Arnold saved New England by slowing down British invasion of New York 3. General Burgoyne surrendered entire command at Saratoga on Oct. 17,1777 to American General Horatio Gates. 4. Saratoga one of history's most decisive battles a. Made possible French aid which ultimately ensured American independence. b. Spanish and Dutch eventually entered and England was faced with world war. c. Revived the faltering colonial cause E. Washington retired to Valley Forge for winter of 1777-78 1. Supplies were scarce: food, clothing 2. Army whipped into shape by the Prussian drillmaster Baron von Steuben. 3. Episode demonstrated American resolve despite horrible conditions. F. Benedict Arnold becomes a traitor in 1780 -- tremdendous blow to American morale 1. Arnold frustrated with his treatment by his superiors despite his heroic service 2. Persuaded Washington to make him head of West Point 3. Plotted with the British to sell out the key stronghold of West Point commanding the Hudson River 4. Plot accidentally discovered by Washington IX. Articles of Confederation adopted in 1777 (Drafted by John Dickinson) A. Set up by 2nd Continental Congress in light of exigencies: need to organize a nation and an army; maintain civil order and establish international recognition and credit; defend its territory from the British; and resolve internal quarrels and competition.) B. Did not go into effect until 1781. C. First constitution in U.S. history; lasted until 1789 when the Constitution was adopted D. Congress had power to: conduct war, handle foreign relations & secure loans, borrow money. E. No power to: regulate trade, conscript troops, levy taxes. X. France Becomes an Ally A. French eager to exact revenge on the British for the Seven Years War. 1. Saw Revolutionary war as an opportunity to stab England in the back. 2. New World colonies were England's most valuable overseas possessions B. Secret supply to the Americans 1. France worried open aid to America might provoke British attacks on French interests. 2. Americans Silas Deane and Benjamin Franklin arranged for significant amounts of munitions and military supplies to be shipped to America. -- Helped forge the Franco-American Alliance. 3. Marquis de Lafayette significant in helping Americans gain financial aid from France. C. Declaration of Independence a turning point for French aid 1. Showed Americans meant business 2. Victory at Saratoga displayed an excellent chance for defeating England D. Franco-American Alliance, 1778: France offers U.S. a treaty of alliance. 1. Promised Americans recognition of independence. 2. Both sides bound themselves to wage war until the US won its freedom or until both agreed to terms with Britain. 3. Many Americans reluctantly accepted the treaty. a. France a strong Roman Catholic country b. Hitherto a traditional enemy of Britain for centuries. E. American Revolution turned into a world war that put severe stress on Britain’s resources. 1. Spain and Holland entered in 1779. 2. Catherine the Great of Russia organized the League of Armed Neutrality -- Lined up almost all remaining European neutrals in an attitude of passive hostility toward England as a result of England disturbing Baltic shipping. 3. War raged in Europe, N.A., South America, the Caribbean, and Asia. XI. Land Frontier & Sea Frontier A. West raged throughout most of the war 1. Indian allies of Britain attacked American frontier positions 2. 1777 known as "the Bloody Year" on the frontier -- Joseph Brant (“Monster Brant”), Mohawk Chief, and leader of the Iroquois Six Nations, led Indian raids in Backcountry PA and NY. -- Forced to sign Treaty of Ft. Stanwyk -- 1st treaty bet. U.S. & Indians. -- Indians lost most of their lands. B. Westward movement continued despite treacherous war conditions (especially Kentucky) C. Illinois country taken from the British 1. George Rogers Clark, a frontiersman, seized several British ports along the Ohio River by surprise: Kaskaskia, Cahokia (St. Louis), and Vincennes, Indiana. 2. Helped quiet Indian involvement 3. His admirers' credit him for forcing the British to cede the whole Ohio region in the peace treaty of Paris after the war. This is still a debate. D. The American Navy 1. John Paul Jones most famous American naval leader (Scottish born) 2. Chief contribution was destroying British merchant shipping and carrying war into the waters around the British Isles. 3. Did not affect Britain's navy E. American Privateers were more effective than the American navy 1. Privately owned ships authorized by Congress to attack enemy ships. 2. 600 British ships captured; British captured as many American merchantmen & privateers. 3. Brought in gold, harassed the British, and increased American morale by providing American victories. F. Major naval battles between British, French, & other European powers 1. Mostly in the West Indies 2. British overcome by French, Spanish and Dutch. -- War continued until 1785 when British won last battle near India. XII. In 1778, Britain again changed its strategy: focused on former Southern Colonies A. Savannah, Georgia taken in late 1778-early 1779 B. Charleston, SC, fell in 1780 (4th largest city in America) 1. Devastating loss to American war-effort 2. Heavier loss to the Americans than Saratoga was to the British C. Nathanael Greene eventually succeeded in clearing Georgia and S.C. of most British troops -- Cornwallis forced to abandon the Southern strategy; fell back to Chesapeake Bay at Yorktown D. Battle of Yorktown: last major battle of the war 1. French Admiral de Grasse, head of powerful fleet in W. Indies, advised Americans that he would join them in an assault on Cornwallis at Yorktown. 2. Washington made 300-mile+ march to Chesapeake from NY. 3. Accompanied by Rochambeau's French army, Washington attacked British by land as de Grasse blockaded them by sea after beating off the British fleet. 4. Oct. 19, 1781, General Cornwallis surrendered entire force of 7,000 men 5. War continued one more year (especially in the South) E. Newburgh “Conspiracy” (1783) 1. Cause: Soldiers in the Continental Army were not paid regularly throughout the war and the money they did receive was often worthless due to inflation. 2. Several officers, Congressional nationalists, sought to impose an impost on the states for back-pay by threatening to take over the American government. -- Horatio Gates was consulted about the possibility of using the army to force the states to surrender more power to the national government. 3. Washington appealed to the officers to end the conspiracy; they acquiesced. XIII. Peace at Paris A. British ready to come to terms afer losses in India, West Indies, and Mediterranean 1. Lord North's ministry collapsed in March 1782, temporarily ending the personal rule of George III. 2. Whig ministry (more sympathetic to Americans) replaced the Tory regime. B. French attempt to create a weak U.S. 1. American diplomats Ben Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay sent by Congress to make no separate peace and to consult with France at all stages of negotiations. a. Disregarded the directive as they were highly suspicious of France & Spain. b. John Jay believed France wanted to keep US east of the Allegheny mountains and give western territories to its ally Spain for its help in the war. 2. U.S.turns to Great Britain a. Britain eager to separate U.S. from anti-British alliance. b. Preliminary Treaty signed in 1782 C. Treaty of Paris of 1783: Britain formally recognized US independence 1. Granted US generous boundaries stretching to the Mississippi on the west, the Great Lakes in the north, and to Spanish Florida in the south (Spain had rewon Florida) a. Americans allowed to retain a share in the valuable Newfoundland fisheries. b. British promised troops would not take slaves from America. 2. American concessions: a. Loyalists could not be further persecuted b. Congress was to recommend to state legislatures that confiscated Loyalist property be restored c. American states were bound to pay British creditors for debts long owed. d. U.S. did not comply with many of these concessions and it became partial cause of another war with Britain in 1812. 3. France formally approved the British-American terms (officially, no separate FrancoAmerican peace) 4. America alone gained from the war a. Britain lost colonies and other territories b. France got revenge but became bankrupt which caused French Revolution. c. Spain gained little XIV. American society during the war A. Over 250,000 American soldiers fought -- 10% who fought died; largest % of any American war in history (Civil War = 2%) B. British captured and occupied most major cities including Boston, NYC, and Philadelphia. C. War Economy: all of society became involved in the war. 1. State and national governments created. 2. Men with military experience volunteered for positions in the army. 3. Some merchants loaned money to the army and to Congress. Others made fortunes from wartime contracts. 4. Most of the fighting was done by the poorest Americans -- Young city laborers, farm boys, indentured servants, and sometimes slaves. 5. African Americans fought on both sides. -- 5,000 in the Continental army and nearly 30,000 in the British army in return for promises of freedom. 6. Native Americas also fought with the British since they hoped to keep land-hungry Americans out of their territories. -- Bitter feelings remained long after the war ended. D. Women in the War 1. Women managed farms and businesses while men served in the army 2. Other women traveled with the Army as cooks and nurses. 3. Women became more politically active and expressed their thoughts more freely. XV. CHANGE IN SOCIETY DUE TO THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION A. Many conservative Loyalists no longer in America; paved way for more democratic reforms in state governments. B. Slavery issue 1. Rise of anti-slavery societies in all the northern states (plus Virginia) -- Quakers the first to found such societies. 2. Slavery eradicated in most northern states by 1800 -- Quok Walker case in Massachusetts (1781) effectively ended slavery there. 3. Slavery not allowed above Ohio River in the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 4. Slave trade to be abolished in 1808 according to Constitution. 5. By 1860, 250,000 free blacks lived in the North, but were disliked and discriminated against -- Several states forbade entrance of blacks, most blacks denied right to vote, and some states barred blacks from public schools. 6. Thousands of slaves in the South were freed after the Revolution and became free blacks 7. Yet, slavery remained strong in the South, especially after 1793 (cotton gin) C. Stronger emphasis on equality: public hatred of Cincinnati Society 1. However, equality did not triumph until much later due to tenant farming, poor rights for women and children, slavery, and land requirements for voting and office holding (although reduced) were not eliminated. 2. Further reduction of land-holding requirements for voting began to occur in 1820s. 3. End of primogeniture and entail before 1800. a. Primogeniture: eldest son inherits father's estate. b. Entail: Estates could not be sold off in pieces; guaranteed large landholdings to a family and meant less land available for purchase to the public. D. Separation of Church & State: Jefferson’s Virginia Statute on Religious Freedom, 1786 1. Anglican Church replaced by a disestablished Episcopal church in much of the South. 2. Congregational churches in New England slower to disestablish (CT in 1818, MA in 1833) E. State governments: 1. Three branches: weak governors, strong legislatures, judicial branch 2. sovereignty of states, republicanism F. Indians no longer enjoyed British protection and became subject to U.S. expansion westward. -- Iroquois suffered significant losses after the war G. Women did not enjoy increased rights; idea of “Republican Motherhood” took hold. XVI. Gordon S. Wood -- The Radicalism of the American Revolution Thesis: Revolution was the most radical and far-reaching event in American history A. Made the interests and prosperity of ordinary people -- the pursuit of happiness -- the goal of government. B. Changed the personal and social relationships of people. 1. Destroyed aristocracy as it had been understood for nearly two millennia 2. Made possible egalitarian thinking: subsequent anti-slavery and women's rights movements C. Brought respectability and even dominance to ordinary people long held in contempt -- Gave dignity to their menial labor in a manner unprecedented in history D. Brought about an entirely new kind of popular politics and a new kind of democratic officeholder. E. Released powerful popular entrepreneurial and commercial energies that few realized existed -- Transformation occurred without the industrial revolution, urbanization, & railroads THE WAR OF 1812 I. President James Madison drifts towards war A. Madison inaugurated in March, 1809 1. "Virginia dynasty": Madison was 3rd in a line of 4 Virginia presidents between 1789 and 1829) (after Washington and Jefferson, before Monroe) 2. Strongly Jeffersonian in his views B. Macon's Bill No. 2 adopted by Congress in 1810 to replace Non-Intercourse Act of 1809. 1. Non-Intercourse Act of 1809 (passed at end of Jefferson’s presidency) would expire within a year. -- Proclaimed U.S. would trade will all other nations except Britain and France. 2. Purpose of Macon’s Bill: entice Britain or France to repeal commercial restrictions -- U.S. would restore nonimportation against the nonrepealing nation 3. Napoleon seized the opportunity with hopes of getting U.S. in a war with Britain -- Announced in August 1810 that French decrees had been repealed. 4. Madison believed he had no other choice but to accept Napoleon's gesture and gave the British 3 months to follow suit or the U.S. would restore non-importation a. Britain angered and demanded U.S. withdraw restrictions on Britain until France had withdrawn all their restrictions on American shipping. b. Napoleon had no real intention of honoring the agreement. B. War Hawks 1. 12th Congress met late in 1811 – deeply divided (although Republicans still in control) a. Differed from past Congresses: new young leaders from South & West i. Strongly nationalistic ii. Wanted war with Britain to achieve the glory their fathers had in Revolutionary War. 2. Henry Clay (from Kentucky) elected Speaker of the House 3. John C. Calhoun elected as a representative of South Carolina. 4. Battle of Tippecanoe: a. Western war hawks eager to wipe out renewed Indian resistance against white settlers in the western wilderness. b. Two Shawnee twins brothers, Tecumseh and the Prophet organized a confederacy of all the tribes east of the Mississippi. i. Tecumseh a noted warrior and perhaps most gifted organizer of Native Americans in U.S. history. Believed in fairness between tribes vis-à-vis land selling/purchasing. Land belonged to all Indians. ii. Americans thought British were aiding them. c. General William H. Harrison advanced with 1,000 men and advanced upon Indian headquarters. i. Repelled a surprise Indian attack at Tippecanoe (in present Indiana) in Nov., 1811. ii. Torched the settlement d. Significance: Essentially ended the Indian threat -- formal agreement signed. -- Further spurred westward expansion; Indians pushed further west. 5. War Hawks desired U.S. to attack Canada to remove further Indian threats. -- Canada seen as vulnerable to attack as Britain preoccupied with Napoleon. 6. Southern expansionists desired Spanish Florida, Britain's ally. 7. War hawks also outraged at British impressment and Orders in Council -- Prevented agricultural products from being delivered to Europe. C. Daniel Webster, Federalist from New Hampshire, spoke against entry into the war. 1. Spoke eloquently on behalf of New England manufacturing interests. 2. Webster had ghost written many of John Marshall’s opinions. D. U.S. declares war on Britain in June, 1812 -- Representatives from pro-British New England as well as the middle Atlantic states opposed war. E. Why did U.S. fight Britain when France had committed nearly as many maritime offenses? 1. Traditional Republican (Jeffersonian) partiality toward France 2. Visibility of British impressments and arming of Indians. 3. Chesapeake-Leopard Affair 4. Lure of British Canada: timber, fishing, pelts. F. Resentful New Englanders hurt U.S. war effort. 1. Believed British actions were old and exaggerated wrongs; still disliked France 2. New England merchants still making handsome profits before the war. 3. Opposed acquisition of Canada which would add more agrarian states (Jeffersonian). 4. New England investors probably lent more money to Britain than to U.S. 5. New England farmers sent huge quantities of supplies and foodstuffs to Canada, helping Britain to invade New York. 6. New England governors refused to permit their militias to serve outside their states. II. War of 1812 A. Overview 1. Small war -- 6,000 Americans killed or wounded -- Mostly Canadians fought Americans, very few British. 2. One of America's most poorly-fought wars on land. a. Nation militarily unprepared for war b. Attack on Canada a complete failure. c. Washington, D.C., burned by British d. British nearly won large territories in the New York and New England. 3. National disunity: Federalists undermined war effort 4. American victories a. U.S. Navy out performed the Royal Navy on the Great Lakes b. Andrew Jackson emerged as a national hero for defending New Orleans. c. William H. Harrison a hero and later and also elected President. 5. War ended in a stalemate 6. America gained respect diplomatically and militarily -- Later dubbed "Second War for Independence" 7. Fall of the Federalists: Reduction of sectionalism 8. Large Native-American losses during war. -- Relinquished vast areas of forested land north of the Ohio River. 9. American industry was stimulated by less dependence on Br. manufacturing. B. Nation unprepared 1. Economy hurt by Embargo Act and non-intercourse 2. Charter for National Bank expired in 1811, at a time when it was needed.. 3. Regular army inadequate; supplemented by even more poorly trained militia. 4. Britain possessed the best navy in the world. a. British maintained a blockade on American Atlantic ports for most of the war which U.S. shipping and caused significant opposition to the war. b. Jefferson’s "mosquito fleet" was inadequate. C. U.S. attack on Canada was a strategic failure 1. Americans falsely believed Canadians would easily crumble. -- 80% of Canadians in Upper Canada (Ontario) were post-Revolution Loyalists. 2. If U.S. had concentrated on Montreal, Canada would have fallen D. Fight for the Great Lakes 1. British unable to sail its fleet past Niagara Falls; naval arms race resulted in Great Lakes. 2. Oliver Hazard Perry built a fleet of ships on the shores of Lake Erie hastily during the winter and summer of 1813 outbuilding Britain. 3. Captured a British fleet in a raging battle on Lake Erie on Sept. 10, 1813. 4. Retreating army defeated by General William Henry Harrison at Battle of Thames in Oct. 1813, near Toronto. -- British Brigadier General Tecumseh killed E. By 1814, Napoleon subdued and British concentrated on North America. 1. British prepared for a large invasion into New York along Hudson River Valley. 2. 34-year-old Thomas Macdonough defeated a stronger British fleet near Plattsburg on Sept. 11, 1814. (similar to Saratoga during Revolutionary War) 3. British forced to withdraw back to Quebec. 4. Upper New York saved from conquest and New England from further engagements. 5. Also profoundly affected the current negotiations in Europe to end the war. F. Washington, D.C. burned 1. 2nd formidable British force landed in the Chesapeake Bay area in Aug. 1814 2. Set fire to most public buildings incl. Capitol and the White House. -- Retaliation for American burning Canadian capital at York. 3. Madison and his aides forced to flee into the surrounding hills. G. British fleet driven off at Fort McHenry near Baltimore 1. Attacking British army also forced to withdraw. 2. Baltimore was a center for U.S. privateers. 3. Francis Scott Key, watching bombardment of Baltimore as a prisoner aboard a British ship, composed the Star Spangled Banner I. Jackson victorious in the Southwest and at New Orleans 1. British strategy in addition to Canada and the Atlantic coast was to take the U.S. Gulf Coast and New Orleans. a. Mississippi Creek Indians (faction known as Red Sticks) launched a preliminary campaign by attacking Fort Mims, near Mobile -- 400 Americans killed b. General Andrew Jackson retaliated by attacking a Creek village and killing 300 of its warriors in the Battle of Horseshoe Bend. -- Largest Indian massacre in U.S. history. 2. A British naval force of 47 ships defeated an American force of five ships in a naval battle preceding the Battle of New Orleans. -- Significance: Bought time for Jackson’s 7,000-man army to fortify New Orleans. 3. Battle of New Orleans: British blundered by launching a frontal assault in Jan. 1815 a. Jackson commanded 7,000-man force of sailors, regulars, pirates, Frenchmen, free blacks & militiamen from LA, KY and TN. b. Over 2,000 killed & wounded in 1/2 hour compared to about 70 Americans. c. Ironically, battle was needless: Treaty of Ghent had been signed two weeks earlier but the two armies didn’t get word until after the battle. -- A British victory in the battle most likely would have resulted in Britain changing the terms of the treaty to the detriment of U.S. 4. Battle of New Orleans resulted in tremendous upsurge of American pride and nationalism. a. Jackson became the hero of the West (elected president 13 years later) b. Most Americans believed New Orleans campaign had won the war. J. Naval Battles 1. Only fleet battles fought on the interior lakes -- Americans didn't have nearly enough large warships to challenge Britain at sea. 2. American ships more skillfully manned. 3. In a few months, British lost more warships against U.S. than against combined French & Spanish forces. 4. American privateers more effective than the U.S. navy (as in Revolutionary War) 5. British manufacturers, merchants, & shippers put strong pressure on Parliament to end the war due to U.S. privateers' damage of Br. shipping. 6. British responded with a crushing blockade along America's coast and by landing raiding parties almost at will. a. U.S. economy was crippled. b. U.S treasury was bankrupt. K. Treaty of Ghent (1814) 1. Agreement essentially an armistice a. Both sides agreed to stop fighting and to restore conquered territory. b. No mention of pre-war U.S. grievances: impressment, Indian menace, Orders in Council, search and seizure, confiscations. c. Americans retained right to fish off Canadian coast. 2. Americans rejoiced -- many expected to lose territory. III. Hartford Convention A. New England Federalists and some Republicans adamantly opposed to the war. 1. Almost succeeded in defeating Madison in 1812 election. 2. As war dragged on, New England extremists became more vocal. B. Hartford Convention (Dec. 15, 1814 -- Jan. 5, 1815) 1. Attended by MA, CT, RI, and partially by NH, & VT. 2. Purpose: Discuss their grievances and seek redress for their wrongs. -- Immediate goal to secure financial assistance from Washington due to British blockading menace on New England shores. 3. A minority of radical delegates urged secession -- Outvoted by moderate Federalists 4. Convention recommended amendments to the Constitution a. Sought to end 3/5 Compromise to reduce Southern influence in House. b. Would require 2/3 vote for an embargo, admission of western states to the union, and declaration of war. c. Sought to limit the term of the President (to avoid Jeffersonian dynasty) d. Sought to deny naturalized citizens (usually Republicans) right to hold office C. Trio of envoys from Massachusetts traveled to Washington with the Hartford demands. -- Battle of New Orleans and Treaty of Ghent made their pleas moot. D. Hartford resolutions were the death knell of the Federalist party. 1. 1816, Virginian James Monroe crushed his Federalist opponent. 2. Exaggerated treasonous accounts hurt the Federalist cause. 3. Until 1815, more talk of nullification and secession in New England than in any other section, including the South. -- Flouting of the Jeffersonian embargo and the later crippling of the war effort were the two most damaging acts of nullification in U.S. prior to the events leading up to the Civil War. IV. International legacies A. Revived intense American hatred of the British and mutual suspicion would last for decades. B. Canadian patriotism and nationalism was boosted: some say birth of the Canadian nation. -- Naval arms race between U.S. and Britain began in the Great Lakes. C. Rush-Bagot Treaty (1817) 1. Severely limited naval armament on the lakes. 2. By 1870, U.S. & Canada shared longest unfortified border in the world (5,500 mi) D. Americans no longer worried of European intervention in North America. 1. New sense of nationality. 2. Turned towards settlement of the West. PRESIDENT MONROE AND THE ERA OF GOOD FEELINGS I. U.S. emerged from the War of 1812 with a heightened sense of nationalism A. Madison more popular when leaving office in 1817 than when he assumed it in 1809 B. Causes 1. Victories in War of 1812, especially Battle of New Orleans 2. Death of the Federalist party; reduced sectionalism; reduced states’ rightsism 3. Lessening of economic and political dependence on Europe 4. Westward expansion and optimism about the future C. Americans coming to regard themselves as Americans first and state citizens second. II. Henry Clay's American System: BUS, tariffs, internal improvements A. Second National Bank voted by Congress in 1816. 1. Lack of national back during the War of 1812 created a banking vacuum a. Local banks sprung up all over the country b. Country flooded by depreciated bank notes that hampered the war effort. 2. Modeled after the first National Bank but with 3 1/2 times more capital: $35 mil. 3. Jeffersonians supported the revived bank. a. Used same arguments that Hamilton had used in 1791. b. Ironically, Federalists denounced it as unconstitutional. B. Tariff of 1816 1. Purpose: protection of American manufacturing from British competition. a. After the war, Brits flooded U.S. with cheap goods, often below cost too strangle infant U.S. industries. -- Americans perceived this as British attempt to crush U.S. factories. b. First protective tariff in U.S. History i. Imposed roughly 20-25% duties on imports ii. Not really high enough to provide completely adequate safeguards c. Started a protective trend in U.S. trade. 2. Sectional battle over the tariff represented by the three great Congressional leaders of the antebellum period: Calhoun, Webster, and Clay (the "Great Triumvirate") a. John C. Calhoun (from South Carolina) represented southern views. i. Recent war hawk and ardent nationalist. ii. After initially supporting 1816 tariff, he opposed it claiming it was enriching Yankee (New England) manufactures b. Daniel Webster (from New Hampshire) represented northern views. i. Opposed the 1816 tariff. ii. Shippers in N.H. feared tariff would affect their carrying trade. iii. New England not completely developed in manufacturing yet. 3. Henry Clay saw tariffs as a way to develop a profitable home market. a. Eastern trade would flourish under protection. b. Tariff revenues would fund roads and canals in the interior esp. Ohio Valley. -- Frontier folks cried for better transportation; poor-no roads existed. c. Foodstuffs & raw materials from the South and West would flow into the North & East C. Internal Improvements (failure) 1. Congress passed Calhoun's Bonus Bill in 1817; would have given $1.5 mil. to states for internal improvements. a. Madison vetoed it claiming it was unconstitutional b. His successor, James Monroe, followed suit. c. Jeffersonians hated idea of direct federal support of intrastate internal improvements; saw it as a states’ rights issue d. New England opposed federally constructed roads & canals; would drain away population and create competing states in the West. 2. Prior to Civil War, most internal improvements (except railroads) were done at the expense of state and local governments. -- For example, Erie Canal in New York was completed in 1825 at state expense. III. Era of Good Feelings (1817-1825) A. James Monroe elected President in 1816 1. Continued the Virginia dynasty (4 of 5 initial presidents Virginian; 32 of first 36 yrs) 2. Death of Federalist party resulted after the election. a. Federalist liabilities i. "Disloyalty" during the Wr of 1812 ii. Became extremely sectional (interests of New England) and unable to accept new nationalistic program iii. Jefferson had adopted many of their most important ideas (e.g. Hamilton’s financial plan, expansion, loose construction in certain cases) b. Ironically, Federalists reversed many of their initial positions i. Originally nationalistic; now opposed to Republican nationalism ii. Many became strict constructionists esp. vis-à-vis internal improve 3. "Era of Good Feelings" ushered in by Monroe's 1817 inspection tour of military bases from New England to Detroit (term coined by a newspaper man covering the tour) B. "Era of Good Feelings" moniker somewhat of a misnomer: Acute issues troubled the country. 1. Crystallizing sectionalism (east, west and south) 2. Tariff issue (east and south opposed; west in favor) 3. Internal improvements (east and south opposed; west in favor) 4. Bank of U.S. (BUS) (west and south opposed; eastern bankers in favor) 5. Sale of public lands (east opposed; west and south in favor) 6. Republican party enjoying 1-party rule began developing factions eventually leading to 2nd Party System in the 1830s. -- Clay, Calhoun, Jackson, John Quincy.Adams C. Monroe's presidency oversaw two major events: 1. Panic of 1819 2. Missouri Compromise of 1820 IV. Panic of 1819 A. Economic panic and depression set in 1819 1. First financial panic since the "Critical Period" of the 1780s under Articles of Confederation. -- Henceforth, panics and depressions would occur approximately every 20 years. 2. Causes of 1819 panic: a. Most immediate cause: Overspeculation on frontier lands by banks (especially BUS) b. Inflation from 1812 war + economic drop-off after war (especially cotton) = vulnerable economy c. Significant deficit in balance of trade with Britain = U.S. drained of vital specie d. BUS forced "wildcat" western banks to foreclose on western farms -- BUS stopped allowing payment in paper; now demanded payment in specie; state banks affected & called in loans in specie; farmers didn’t have specie 3. Resulted in calls for reform and pressure for increased democracy. a. Western farmers viewed the bank as an evil financial monster. b. Hard hit poor classes looking for more responsive gov't (beginnings of Jacksonian democracy) c. New land legislation resulted in smaller parcels being sold for lower prices. -- By the Civil War, western land would be given nearly for free. d. Directed attention to inhumanity of imprisoning debtors. -- Some states passed remedial legislation. B. Monroe reelected in 1820 with all but one electoral vote (nearly unanimous) -- Only president in history to be elected after a major panic. V. The Growing West A. New states' characteristics 1. No long-established history of states' rights 2. More than other regions, depended on federal gov't where it had secured most of its land. 3. Melting pot of a wide diversity of peoples immigrating from the east. B. 9 frontier states joined the union bet. 1791 & 1819 1. Most had been admitted alternately free and slave. 2. Maintaining a sectional balance in Congress was a supreme goal. C. Reasons for explosive westward expansion 1. Westward movement had been significant significant since colonial era. 2. Cheap lands in the Ohio territory attracted large numbers of European immigrants. 3. Land exhaustion in older tobacco states drove people westward. 4. Speculators accepted small down payments & made purchase of land easier. 5. Economic distress of embargo years stimulated migration west. 6. Crushing of Indians during the war cleared much of the frontier. a. Battle of Fallen Timbers (1794) and Jay Treaty b. Battle of Tippecanoe (1811) 7. Transportation Revolution improved land routes to Ohio Valley. a. Cumberland Road built in 1811; ran from MD to Illinois. b. Emergence of the steamboat in 1811 made upstream travel possible. c. Canals beginning in 1826 allowed for increased trade between west and east. D. West still remained weak in population and influence 1. Forced to ally itself with other sections when addressing national political issues. 2. Demanded land reform & cheap transportation (got it slowly), cheap money and issued its own "wildcat" banks, & fought the powerful Bank of he US to get its goals VI. Missouri Compromise of 1820 A. Missouri asked Congress to enter the union in 1819 1. Tallmadge Amendment passed by the House of Representatives in response. a. No more slaves could be brought into Missouri b. Gradual emancipation of children born to slave parents already there. B. Southern states viewed Tallmadge Amendment as ominous threat to sectional balance. 1. Jefferson: The crisis rang as "a firebell in the night." 2. Concerned by fast increase in northern population and economy and political balance in in the House of Representatives. -- Senate still balanced 11 free to 11 slave states; parity had to be maintained 3. Future of the slave system caused southerners profound concern. a. Missouri first state entirely west of the Mississippi made from the Louisiana Territory. b. Tallmadge amendment might set a precedent for the rest of the area to be free. c. If Congress could abolish slavery in Missouri, it might try in southern states. d. Small group of antislavery agitators in the North used the occasion to protest 4. The Senate refused to pass the amendment and as the crisis loomed C. Missouri Compromise of 1820 1. Henry Clay played a key role in mediating a compromise 2. Provisions: a. Congress agreed to admit Missouri as a slave state. b. Maine was admitted as a free-soil state. -- Balance kept at 12 to 12 for the next 15 years. c. Future slavery prohibited north of 36-30' line, the southern border of Missouri. -- Ironically, Missouri was north of the 36-30 line. 3. Compromise was largely accepted by both sides a. South got Missouri b. North won concession that it could forbid slavery in the remaining territories above 36-30 line i. Northern advantage because Spanish territory in southwest prevented significant southern expansion westward. ii. Southerners not overly concerned of lands north of 36-30 as lands not condusive to slave-labor cash crop agriculture. D. Legacy of the Compromise 1. Lasted 34 years and preserved the union (until the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854) 2. Henceforth, slavery became a dominant issue in American politics. -- Serious setback to national unity 3. South began to develop a sectional nationalism of its own. -- Looked to the young West who was seeking allies as well. 4. Clay criticized by subsequent generations as an "appeaser" a. Yet, nation was founded on compromise; no one section could dominate b. End of compromise in the 1850s resulted in civil war. VII. John Marshall and Judicial Nationalism A. Marshall most important chief justice in U.S. history (1801-1835) 1. Significantly strengthened the Supreme Court in Marbury v. Madison (1803) and other cases. 2. His decisions greatly increased power of the federal government over the states. a. Strengthened the union and helped create a stable, nationally uniform environment for business. b. Checked excesses of the popularly elected state legislatures. c. Ironically, his decisions at times hampered democracy at a time when America was become much more democratic during the Jacksonian era. 3. Examined cases from a Federalist philosophy and found legal precedents to support his Hamiltonian views. a. Jeffersonian attempts to balance the Court with Republicans failed. b. Republicans came to accept the Federalist ideal of strong central gov't. B. Fletcher v. Peck (1810) (protection of property rights against popular pressures) 1. Issue: New Georgia legislature canceled a contract which had granted 35 million acres in the Yazoo River country (Miss.) to private speculators as a form of graft. -- Previous legislature had made the grant in what was called "Yazoo Land Controversy" during Jefferson’s presidency. 2. Significance: Court ruled the Constitution forbids state from "impairing contracts". a. One of earliest examples of Court asserting its right to invalidate state laws. b. Court stated the legislative grant was a contract (albeit fraudulently secured) C. Martin v. Hunter’s Lessee (1816) 1. Issue: Did Supreme Court (as provided for in Judiciary Act of 1789) have the right to review decisions of state supreme courts where federal statutes or treaties were involved or when state laws had been upheld under the federal Constitution? -- Virginia sought to disregard Treaty of Paris (1783) and Jay’s Treaty (1794) regarding confiscation of Loyalist lands. 2. Decision: Supreme Court rejected "compact theory" and state claims that they were equally sovereign with the federal gov’t. 3. Significance: Upheld Supremacy Clause of the Constitution and federal judicial supremacy over the states. D. McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) (Blow to states' rights) 1. Issue: Maryland tried to destroy Baltimore branch of the BUS by taxing its notes. 2. Marshall declared US bank constitutional invoking Hamilton's doctrine of implied powers (elastic clause of the constitution -- "necessary & proper"). a. "Loose construction" given major boost. b. Argued the Constitution derived from the consent of the people and thus permitted the gov't to act for their benefit. 3. Denied Maryland the right to tax the bank: "..that the power to tax involves the power to destroy" and "that a power to create implies the power to preserve." E. Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819) (protection of property rights from the states) 1. Issue: New Hampshire had changed a charter granted to the college by King George III in 1769. Republicans sought to remove "private" aspect of school & make a state institution. -- Dartmouth appealed; defended by Daniel Webster, an alumnus. 2. Ruling: Charter was a contract; states could not invalidate it according to Constitution. 3. Significance: a. Positive: safeguarded business from domination by the states. b. Negative: set precedent giving corporations the ability to escape gov’t control. F. Cohens v. Virginia (1821) (Blow to states' rights) 1. Significance: Marshall asserted right of Supreme Court to review decisions of the state supreme courts in all questions involving powers of the federal gov't. a. Significant blow to states' rights. b. Similar to Martin v. Hunter’s Lessee case (above) 2. Issue: Virginia courts convicted Cohens for selling lottery tickets illegally. a. State supreme court upheld the decision b. Marshall overturned it. G. Gibbons v. Ogden -- 1824 ("steamboat case") (Blow to states' rights) 1. Significance: Marshall ruled Constitution conferred on Congress alone the right to control interstate commerce. 2. Issue: NY tried to grant a monopoly of river commerce between NY & NJ to a private company (owned by Ogden). Gibbons had congressional approval to conduct business on the same waters. 3. Court ruled interstate streams were to regulated by Congress, not individual states. H. Daniel Webster became an important influence in Marshall’s decisions. 1. Advocated strongly Federalist and nationalist views before the Supreme Court. -- He actually "ghost wrote" some of the Court’s opinions. 2. Classic speeches in the Senate, challenging states' rights and nullification, were largely repetitions of arguments he earlier presented to the Supreme Court. VIII. Foreign Policy after the War of 1812 A. Rush-Bagot Treaty (1817) – during Madison’s presidency 1. Severely limited naval armament on the lakes. 2. By 1870, U.S. & Canada shared longest unfortified border in the world (5,500 mi) B. Treaty of 1818 (Convention of 1818) with England (during Madison’s presidency) 1. Negotiated by John Quincy Adams, one of the nation's great sec. of states. 2. Provisions: a. Fixed the American-Canadian border at the 49th parallel from Lake of the Woods to the Rocky Mountains. b. 10-year joint occupation of Oregon Territory w/o surrender of claims of by either country. c. Permitted Americans to share Newfoundland fisheries with the Canadians. C. U.S. gains Spanish Florida 1. Americans already claimed West Florida where settlers had torn down the Spanish flag in 1810 and Congress ratified the conquest during War of 1812. 2. Revolutions in South America forced Spain to move its troops out from Florida. a. Floods of Indians, runaway slaves, and white outcasts poured across the border into American territory to pillage and kill and then retreat south of the border. b. Monroe commissioned Andrew Jackson to punish the Indians and if necessary, pursue them back into Florida. -- He was to respect all Spanish posts. 3. Jackson swept through central and eastern Florida during the First Seminole War (1816-1818). a. Exceeded orders by capturing Spanish cities and deposing Spanish Governor. b. Executed 2 Indian chiefs and British aids to the Spanish cause 4. John Quincy Adams convinced Monroe's cabinet to offer an ultimatum to Spain. a. Control the outlaws of Florida (which Spain was not equipped to do) or cede Florida to the U.S. b. Spain infuriated but realized it would lose Florida in any case; decided to negotiate. 5. Adams-Onis Treaty(Florida Purchase Treaty) of 1819 a. Spain Ceded Florida as well as claims to Oregon. b. U.S. abandoned claims to Texas (which was to become part of independent Mexico). D. Monroe Doctrine -- John Quincy Adams: Secretary of State 1. European monarchs, Russia, Austria, Prussia, and France -- "Holy Alliance" -- alarmed at Latin American revolutions and European democratic tendencies. a. Saw democracy as a threat to absolute monarchy. b. Wished to restore newly independent Latin American republics to Spanish rule. 2. Americans alarmed at European hostility to democracy in Western Hemisphere 3. Great Britain sought an alliance with the U.S. to protect its interests in Latin America a. Benefitted, along with the U.S., with trade in Latin America. b. 1823, Br. foreign secretary, George Canning, proposed a joint declaration, warning European despots from to stay away from Latin American Republics. 4. American reaction a. Former presidents Jefferson & Madison urged Monroe for a Anglo-American alliance. b. Secretary of State John Quincy Adams believed Britain wanted alliance to keep U.S. from taking Latin American territory and jeopardizing Britain’s possessions in the Caribbean. i. Believed alliance would hamper U.S. expansion and was unnecessary. ii. Realized Europeans did not really pose an imminent threat to region. 5. Monroe Doctrine (1823) -- written by John Quincy Adams a. J.Q. Adams finally won President Monroe over to his way of thinking b. President's annual message to Congress incorporated stern warning to Europeans i. Colonial powers could keep their existing colonies but gain no new ones. ii. Nonintervention in the Americas; let new republics govern themselves iii. Directed primarily at Russia, whom the U.S. feared would threaten the Pacific coast c. Most famous expression of American nationalism during the era. i. Nationalistic Americans widely supported the proclamation. ii.Maintained Washington's tradition of avoiding an "entangling alliances." d. Foreign reaction i. British reaction mixed. -- Canning concerned Monroe Doctrine aimed at Britain as well. -- British press favored protection of Latin American markets. ii. European monarchs angered and offended at U.S. haughtiness iii. Latin American countries skeptical and saw U.S. merely protecting its own interests. e. Immediate impact of Monroe Doctrine was small i. U.S. army and navy remained small and relatively weak ii. Not until 1845 did Polk revive it and did it become more important f. Long-term impact: Monroe Docrtine became cornerstone of U.S. foreign policy during last half of 19th century and throughout 20th century. 6. John Quincy Adams one of most significant secretaries of state in U.S. history. a. Oversaw Convention of 1818 establishing U.S.-Canadian Border b. Adams-Onis Treaty resulted in acquisition of Florida from Spain c. Monroe Doctrine THE AMERICAN ECONOMY: 1790-1860 I. Demographic changes A. Population 1. By 1860, 13 original states had nearly tripled -- 33 states 2. Population was still doubling every 25 years a. Natural birthrate accounted for most of population increase b. Immigration was adding hundreds of thousands more c. U.S. 4th most populous western country behind Russia, France, and Austria. 3. By 1860, 43 cities above 20,000; In 1790, only 2 -- Overrapid urbanization brought: slums, dim streets, inadequate policing, impure water, raw sewage, rats, improper garbage disposal. B. Irish Immigrants 1. Ravaged potato crop in Ireland claimed 2 million lives in mid-1840s. 2. Became largest group of immigrants to U.S. between 1830 and the Civil War. a. 2 million arrived between 1830 and 1860 b. Came to larger cities as they were too poor to move west & buy land & equipment. i. Boston & particularly NY (became largest Irish city in the world) ii. Within decades, more Irish in America than in Ireland. 3. Irish faced discrimination as they were Catholic and often very poor -- Hated by native Protestants as wage-depressing competitors. 4. Irish, for similar reasons, fiercely resented blacks. a. Race riots between black & Irish dock workers flared up in several port cities. b. Irish did not support the abolitionist cause. 5. Gradually improved their condition by acquiring modest amounts of property. a. Education of children often cut short as families struggled to save for a home. b. Property ownership counted among the Irish as a grand "success" 6. Became politically involved and soon began to gain control of powerful city machines. a. For example, New York's Tammany Hall b. Soon, dominated police departments in many big cities: "Paddy wagons" c. Politicians who wanted to gain the Irish vote often criticized Britain, who the Irish fiercely hated. C. Germans 1. Over 1.5 million came to America between 1830-1860. 2. Became largest group of immigrants by the 20th century. -- Today as many as 25% of all Americans have German ancestry 3. Most were uprooted farmers, displaced by crop failures & by other hardships. 4. A few were liberal political refugees, saddened by the collapse of democratic revolutions in 1848; became known as "Forty-Eighters." -- Carl Schurz most well-known reformer: abolitionism and political reform 5. Most pushed out to the mid-west, notably Wisconsin where they est. model farms. a. Formed an influential body of voters (like the Irish) who politicians wooed. b. Germans less politically potent as their strength was more widely scattered. 6. Strong proponents of isolationism as they had fled from the European militarism and wars. 7. Better educated than frontier Americans and strongly supported public schools incl. Kindergarten (children's garden). 8. Became relentless foes of slavery prior to the Civil War. 9. Perceived with suspicion by old-stock American neighbors as they sought to preserve their language and culture -- Sometimes settled in "compact" colonies to remain separate from other towns. 10. Introduced beer which they drank in huge quantities; often during the Sabbath. -- Old World drinking habits gave a severe setback to the temperance movement. II. Antiforeignism ("nativism") A. Irish and German immigration inflamed the hatred of American "nativists." 1. Feared immigrants would outbreed, outvote, and overwhelm Protestant natives. 2. Irish and large minority of Germans were Catholic; seen as from "foreign" church. 3. Catholics began to construct an entirely separate Catholic educational system. 4. By 1850, Catholics became the largest religious group in America, outnumbering the Baptists, Methodists, Presbyterians, and Congregationalists. B. In 1849, extreme American nativists formed the "Know-Nothing" party 1. Advocated rigid restrictions on immigration and naturalization and for laws authorizing the deportation of alien paupers. 2. Tended to join the Whig party C. Episodes of mass violence occurred in some larger cities. III. Birth of America's Industrial Revolution A. Economic Inventions 1. Samuel Slater "Father of the Factory System" -- 1791, built first efficient cotton-spinning machine in America. 2. Eli Whitney's cotton gin (1793) -- In ten days, constructed a machine 50 times more effective than picking cotton by hand. a. Prior, handpicking one lb. from 3 lbs. of cotton took one slave an entire day. b. Rivals infringed on his patent; he made relatively small profits. 3. Impact of the cotton gin (changed America and the world) a. Overnight, raising cotton became highly profitable b. South became tied to the throne of King Cotton. c. Slavery, which had been dying out, saw a dramatic increase. d. Westward expansion into Alabama & Mississippi due to demand for more land. e. Stimulated American Industrial Revolution by supplying cotton to New England textile mills (prior, most U.S. cotton went to English textile factories). 4. 1798, Eli Whitney mass produced muskets for the U.S. Army. a. Introduced principle of interchangeable parts; widely adopted in 1850's b. Became basis of modern mass-production, assembly line methods. 5. Sewing Machine a. Elias Howe invented one in 1846 b. Isaac Singer more successful in improving and promoting the machine. -- New stitching device adapted before Civil War for mass production of boots & shoes. c. Significance: Manufacturing of clothing went from the home to the factory. 6. Charles Goodyear's process of vulcanizing rubber was put to 500 different uses and became the basis for a new industry. 7. Invention of the telegraph -- Samuel F. B. Morse a. 1844, Morse strung a wire 40 miles from Washington to Baltimore and clicked the historic message: "What hath God wrought?" b. Gov't declined to control the telegraph since it felt it would not pay. c. Yet, invention significant by providing instant communication from great distances. -- Greatly advanced business in following decades 8. Decade ending in 1860 saw 28,000 patents compared to 306 in decade ending in 1800. B. The Textile Industry began the Industrial Revolution in the U.S. 1. 1814, Francis Cabot Lowell built first dual-purpose textile plant at Waltham, Mass. a. Early factories merely spun the fiber into cotton thread; weaving was done by hand at home or by contact weavers. b. Lowell's 3-story brick factory was located on the banks of the Charles River. c. His factory spun the fiber and wove the finished cloth under the same roof. -- Also included, bleaching, dying, and printing cloth. 2. Significance: Change from manufacturing at home to manufacturing in factories. 3. Local farmers' daughters hired to work in the factories a. More independence for young women. b. Lowell promised strict moral supervision and mandatory church attendance. 4. In 1823, Lowell’s partners built a new plant on the Merrimack River—Lowell, Mass. -- Textile factories sprang up all over New Eng. and mid-Atl. states in 1830's and 40's. 5. Water power and steam power gradually replaced female labor. 6. Immigrant labor also supplanted female labor (Germans and poor Irish) C. Why did New England become center of the Industrial Revolution? 1. Stony soil discouraged farming and made manufacturing more attractive. 2. Relatively dense population provided labor 3. Shipping brought in capital while seaports made easy imports and exports. 4. Rapid rivers provided abundant water power. D. Why didn’t the South industrialize? 1. Capital resources tied up in slaves. 2. Local consumers mostly poor, could not afford most finished products E. By 1850, industrial output outdistanced agricultural output 1. Embargo Act of 1807, non-intercourse, and War of 1812 meant Americans had to produce their own goods. 2. European goods again flooded the U.S. market after Treaty of Ghent in 1815. -- U.S. mills devastated by British goods at ruinously low prices. 3. Tariffs of 1816, 1828, 1832 provided some relief to northern manufacturers. IV. The Business World A. Principle of limited liability 1. Permitted individual investors, in cases of legal claims or bankruptcy, to risk no more than their own share of the corporation's stock. 2. Other personal assets protected. 3. Result: More people willing to risk capital = capital accumulated more rapidly B. Boston Associates -- formed one of the earliest and most powerful joint-stock ventures. -- Came to dominate textile, railroad, insurance, and banking businesses in all of Mass. C. Charles River Bridge decision (Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge) 1. Chief Justice Roger B. Taney: The Constitution reserved to the states "power over their own internal police and improvement, which is so necessary to their well-being and prosperity." 2. Significance: Encouraged economic development in transportation and other public facilities by ending monopolies. D. General Incorporation Law: Passed in NY in 1848. 1. Businesspeople no longer needed to apply for charters from the legislature 2. Could simply create a corporation if they complied with the terms of the law. 3. "Free incorporation" statutes widely adopted in other states; (very Jacksonian) V. Northern "Wage Slaves" A. Industrial Revolution transformed manufacturing working conditions. 1. Craftspeople working with apprentices were preempted by factory work. 2. Working conditions bad: long hours, low wages, few breaks, poor ventilation, lighting, and heating. 3. Workers forbidden by law to form unions; only 24 recorded strikes before 1835. B. Women and Children typically toiled 6 days a week while earning a pittance. 1. Prime example were the Lowell farm girls who were supervised on and off the job. 2. 1820, 1/2 the nation's industrial workers were under the age of 10; many suffered devastating affects from abuse. C. Gains for workers 1. During the "Age of Jackson," many states granted the laboring man voting rights. a. Through workingmen's parties, these laborers sought a 10-hour work day, higher wages, tolerable working conditions, public ed. for kids, and end to the practice of imprisonment for debt. b. 1840, President Van Buren est. 10-hr. work day for federal employees on public works. -- Subsequently, a number of states followed suit by reducing work hours. 2. Increased number of strikes in 1830s & 1840s (but most failed due to importation of "scabs", often fresh off the boat from Europe) 3. Commonwealth v. Hunt (1842): Labor unions were not illegal conspiracies, provided that their methods were "honorable and peaceful." -- More symbolic than immediately significant. VII. Western Farmers A. Trans-Allegheny region-- esp. the Ohio-Indiana-Illinois territory -- was becoming the nation's breadbasket and would later become a breakbasket to the world. 1. Most produce floated down the Mississippi to feed booming Cotton Kingdom. 2. Corn also used to make liquor and pig feed: both practical and profitable. B. Inventions 1. John Deere invented steel plow that broke the thickly matted soil of the West. 2. Cyrus McCormick (1830s) introduced the mechanical mower-reaper. a. Could do the work of five men b. Became most significant technology on the frontier. C. Farming changed from subsistence to large-scale, specialized, cash-crop agriculture 1. Debt ensued as farmers bought more land and more machinery to work it. 2. Began producing more than their markets could consume (esp. increasingly self-sufficient South) 3. Began looking for new markets further away but were still largely landlocked. VI. Transportation Revolution A. Prime motive: Desire of East to tap the West B. Significance: 1. Created a national market economy. 2. Created regional specialization: west = breadbasket; east = industry; south = cash crops. C. Prevailing transporation conditions prior to the transportation revolution were very poor 1. Roads not useful for much of the year: dusty in summer; muddy during rainy season -- Cost more to haul ton of goods 9 miles inland from ocean than from Europe. 2. Rivers ran mostly north and south; east-west travel often impossible for freight. -- Dry season reduced navigable rivers to trickling streams. D. Turnpikes 1. First turnpike -- 1790, Lancaster Turnpike in PA built by private co.; highly profitable a. Broad, hard-surfaced highway connected Philadelphia to Lancaster 62 miles west. -- Traversed the Allegheny Mountains leading into W. Pennsylvania b. Tolls were collected; drivers confronted with barrier of sharp pikes until toll paid. c. Significance: Touched off a turnpike building boom. -- By 1832, U.S. had nearly 2,400 miles of road connecting most major cities. 2. Opposition a. States' righters opposed federal aid to local projects. b. Eastern states protested against exodus of their population westward. 3. 1811, beginning of Cumberland Road (National road) -- passed by Congress in 1806 a. From Cumberland in w. Maryland, to Vandalia in Illinois -- 591 mi. by 1852. b. Aided by both state and federal funds. c. Became vital highway to the west. i. Freight carrying became cheaper ii. European immigrants flowed over the mountains. iii. Land values enhanced iv. Swelled population centers in the West 4. Conestogas a major mode of transportation a. 20 ft. long, four ft. deep, uncomfortable but durable. b. Served as a wagon on roads, sled on mud, and a boat on streams & rivers. c. One traveler in NY counted 500 wagons a day rolling west in 1797. E. Canals 1. Erie Canal (completed in 1825) a. NY's dug 363 mi. Erie canal linking Great Lakes with Hudson Riv. (40ft.x4ft) i. States' righters prevented federal aid; NY paid the entire cost ii. Project supported by NY Gov. DeWitt Clinton, b. Cost of shipping ton of grain from Buffalo to NYC fell from $100 to $5 c. Time fell from 20 days to 6 d. Land value skyrocketed and new cities emerged (incl. Rochester, Syracuse) -- New York became the fastest growing and wealthiest city on Atlantic coast. e. Old Northwest now provided profitable farming opportunities and 1000s of European immigrants flowed across the Alleghenies to the West. f. Great Lakes towns exploded incl. Cleveland, Detroit and Chicago. g. New England farmers impacted by ruinous competition from the West h. Other canals soon built connecting the Great Lakes with major rivers & cities F. Rivers 1. Initially, nearly all river travel was done by mostly flatboats down the Ohio & Miss. rivers; exception -- keelboats pushed upstream with poles; less than 1 mi./hr.; costly a. Cheapest mode of travel to transport western crops to export markets in other areas. b. Problem: Rivers dried up in certain areas during hot season. 2. 1807, Robert Fulton installed a powerful steam engine on the Clermont. a. Left NYC and churned 500 miles up the Hudson River to Albany in in 32 hours. b. Significance: i. Changed all of America's navigable streams into 2-way arteries. -- Carrying capacity of rivers doubled. -- 1820 - 60 steamboats on Miss.; 1860 - about 1,000 ii. Population clustered along banks of rivers iii. Profitability of manufactured products soared. G. Railroads 1. Most significant contribution to transportation of distances. a. Fast, reliable, cheaper than canals to construct, and not frozen in winter. b. Able to go almost anywhere: defied terrain and weather. 2. First important line begun by the Baltimore and Ohio Co. (B&O Railroad) in 1828. 3. By 1860, U.S. had 30,000 of railroad track laid; 3/4 in industrialized North. 4. Railroads opposed by canal backers, turnpike investors, tavern keepers, and horse-and-hay-selling farmers. All were adversely affected by railroads. 5. Eventually, gauges became standardized, safety devices adopted, solid iron rails laid 6. Horse-drawn railroads also used for mass-transit in major cities. H. By the Civil War, a national market economy emerged. 1. Revolutionary changes in commerce and communication came 3 decades before the Civil War as tracks and canals sprung out from the East across the Alleghenies. 2. Buffalo came to handle more western produce than New Orleans 3. New York City became the America’s largest port VIII. Regional Specialization A. East 1. Industrial; made machines and textiles for other two regions a. By 1861, owned 81% of U.S. industrial capacity. b. Most populous region; 70% of manufacturing workers B. South: 1. Cotton for export to New England and Britain; slavery 2. Did not want to change economy or its culture: chivalry, genteel landed gentry, etc. 3. Industrial growth surprisingly high for its day although industrial output never exceeded 2% of the value of the cotton crop. -- Tredegar Iron Works in Virgnina used slave labor C. West: 1. Became nation’s breadbasket: Grain and livestock sent to workers in East & Europe 2. Fastest growing population: By 1860, 1/2 of pop. lived in states and territories not in existence during Washington's administration. D. Political implications 1. Two northerly sections (East and West) were closely interconnected economically 2. During Civil War, South would be isolated. VII. Social Results of Industrialization A. Division of labor ensued as work became more specialized and work at home less significant. 1. Women's work no longer seen as valuable. 2. The home was no longer center of economic production; grew into a refuge from the world of work that became the special and separate sphere of women. B. Growth of cities 1. 1790 -- 5% of population lived in cities of 2,500 or more; 1860 -- 25% 2. Rapid urbanization created an array of problems C. Increased social stratification: Rich vs. Poor 1. Cities bred greatest extremes of economic inequality; unskilled workers were worst off. -- Accounted at times for 1/2 of cities' population 2. Yet, America provided more opportunity than Europe did for most its people. a. Wages for unskilled workers rose about 1%/yr from 1820 to 1860. b. General prosperity helped defuse potential class conflict (as in Europe) D. Immigration 1. Accounted for largest % of population increase 2. Germans fared best since they brought more money and skills 3. Catholic southern Irish suffered much discrimination. -- Persistent labor shortage prevented natives from totally excluding foreign elements. VIII. Foreign commerce A. Foreign commerce about 7% of national product. 1. Cotton accounted for over 50% of all U.S. exports 2. After 1846, U.S. agriculture played a larger role in trade with Britain. 3. Americans generally imported more than they exported. -- Imported manufactured goods while exporting agricultural goods. B. 1858, Cyrus Field succeeded in stretching a cable between Newfoundland & Ireland. 1. Cable snapped in 1858 but a new one built successfully in 1866. C. Clipper 1. Huge sails atop sleek new ships created the fastest ships in the world. 2. High-value cargoes were hauled in record time. 3. Soon overshadowed by new British steamers IX. Pony Express est. in 1860 to carry mail speedily the 2,000 miles from St. Joseph, MO, to Sacramento, CA. A. Lightweight riders riding in between stations spaced approx. 10 miles apart could make the trip in 10 days. B. Pony Express missed only one trip although the enterprise lasted only 18 months. C. Morse code in 1861 obviated the need for the Pony Express. ROAD TO CIVIL WAR, 1848-1860 I. Popular Sovereignty and the Mexican Cession A. Intense debate over what to do with the Mexican Cession. 1. Wilmot Proviso: New territory should be free of slavery a. Supported by northern antislaveryites b. Blocked in Congress by infuriated Southern senators 2. Issue threatened to split both Whigs and Democrats along sectional lines -- Immediate strategy: Don’t do anything about the issue B. "Popular Sovereignty" 1. Lewis Cass, 1812 War vet, became Democratic candidate for president in 1848 a. Polk in poor health, decided not to run for reelection b. Cass reputed as the father of popular sovereignty 2. Definition: Sovereign people of a territory, under general principles of the Constitution, should determine themselves the status of slavery. 3. Supported by many because it kept in line with democratic tradition of selfdetermination. -- Politicians supported it as it seemed a viable compromise between extending slavery (Southern view) and banning it (northern Whig view). 4. Fatal flaw: It could spread the "peculiar institution" to new territories. II. Election of 1848 A. Whigs nominated Zachary Taylor, "Hero of Buena Vista" 1. Noncommittal on slavery issue; yet owned slaves on LA sugar plantation. 2. Supporters made sure he didn’t say anything provocative & played on his military record. B. Free-Soil party 1. Coalition of northern antislavery Whig, Democrat, and Liberty Party men in the North distrusting Cass & Taylor 2. Supported Wilmot Proviso; against slavery in the territories -- "Free soil, free speech, free labor, and free men." 3. Advocated federal aid for internal improvements & free gov’t homesteads for settlers. 4. Van Buren nominated as presidential candidate 5. Party foreshadowed emergence of Republican party 6 years later. C. Result: Taylor 163, Cass 127, Van Buren 0 -- Free-Soilers won no states and did not actually affect the outcome of the election. III. California statehood A. Gold discovered in 1848 at Sutter’s Mill; prospectors in 1848 known as "forty-eighters" -- Numbers relatively small compared to following year B. 1849 -- Masses of adventurers flocked to northern California. 1. Most did not make a profit; many returned home 2. Those who provided services made money off the miners; laundry, stores, etc. 3. Large speculators made handsome profits as they used heavy machinery and cheap labor to mine the rivers. 4. Mostly single men looking to strike it rich; many outside the law C. Gold essentially paved the way for rapid economic growth in California 1. San Francisco sprouted up in just months. 2. Northern California became the state’s main population center. -- By 1850, California’s population had grown from 14,000 to over 100,000. D. CA drafted a Constitution in 1849 that excluded slavery and asked Congress for admission 1. CA would bypass territorial phase, blocking southern chances to spread slavery. 2. Southerners violently opposed CA statehood; saw another free state as a threat. IV. Sectional balance in 1850 A. South 1. Had presidency, majority in the cabinet, and a majority in the Supreme Court 2. Equal number of states in Senate thus strong veto power B. Yet, South deeply worried 1. In 1850, 15 free and 15 slave states 2. CA would tip the balance in the Senate and set a free-state precedent in the southwest 3. New Mexico and Utah territories seemed leaning toward free state status. 4. Texas claimed vast area east of Rio Grande (part of NM CO, KA & OK) and threatened to seize Santa Fe. 5. Southerners angered by Northern demands for abolition of slavery in Wash. DC. 6. Extremely angered over loss of runaway slaves, many assisted by North. C. When CA applied, southern "fire-eaters" threatened secession V. Underground Railroad and the Fugitive Slave issue A. Consisted of informal chain of antislavery homes which hundreds of slaves were aided by black & white abolitionists in their escape to free soil Canada. B. Harriet Tubman ("Moses") (ex-slave from Maryland who escaped to Canada) 1. Led 19 expeditions from her farm in Canada & rescued 300 slaves (incl. her parents) 2. Served Union army in South Carolina as a spy during the Civil War. C. Jerry Loguen: Led hundreds of slaves to their freedom D. Prigg v. Pennsylvania, 1842 1. PA tried to prohibit capture and return of runaway slaves within its borders. -- Violated federal government’s fugitive slave law of 1793 2. Supreme Court ruled state law unconstitutional since it was a federal power 3. personal liberty laws passed by many Northern states which prohibited state officials from assisting anyone pursuing runaway slaves. E. Political. significance: by 1850 southerners demanded a new more stringent fugitive-slave law 1. Old law passed by Congress in 1793 now seemed inadequate vis-à-vis runaways -- About 1,000 runaways successfully escaped per year. i. Small in number; more slaves bought their freedom than ran away. ii. Southerners infuriated in principle; Constitution not being obeyed. 2. Unfriendly state authorities (e.g., Pennsylvania) failed to provide needed cooperation. 3. Southerners blamed abolitionists; claimed they operated outside the law. VI. Compromise of 1850 A. Sunset of the "Great Triumvirate" 1. Clay initiated his 3rd great compromise a. North & South should compromise; North should enact more effective fugitive slave legislation. b. Supported by Stephen Douglas, the "Little Giant" 2. Calhoun (dying of TB) rejected Clay’s position as not being adequate safeguards. a. Leave slavery alone, return runaway slaves, give South rights as a minority (Concurrent Majority), and restore political balance. 3. Webster supported Clay’s compromise (famous "7th of March speech" of 1850) a. Urged all reasonable concessions to the South, including tough fugitive law. b. Discouraged legislating on the territories since God had already passed the Wilmot Proviso -- climate prevented cotton in new territories. -- Ironically, CA became a leading cotton producer. c. Significance: Turned the North toward compromise d. Abolitionists assailed Webster as a traitor; had regarded him as one them -- Webster despised them; antislavery but pro-Union; never joined them. 4. Meanwhile, William H. Seward (nicknamed "Higher Law" Seward by his adversaries) a younger northern radical, was against concession. a. Stated Christian legislators must obey God’s moral law as well as man’s law b. Slavery should be excluded from territories due to "higher law" than Constitition B. Threat of war 1. President Taylor, swayed by Seward, seemed against concessions to South. 2. Taylor determined to send troops to Texas if Texans armed against New Mexico. a. Would lead army himself and hang all "damned traitors." (Jacksonian) b. Would have started Civil War in 1850; southern states would have defended TX C. Road to Compromise 1. Taylor died of cholera on July 9, 1850 and thus helped cause of compromise. 2. Vice-president Millard Fillmore assumed the presidency; signed "Compromise of 1850" 3. Stephen Douglas most important in getting the bill passed through Congress. D. "Compromise of 1850" (Omnibus legislation -- passed in separate parts) 1. California admitted as a free state 2. Abolition of the slave trade in District of Columbia 3. Popular sovereignty in remainder of Mexican Cession: New Mexico and Utah territories. 4. More stringent Fugitive Slave Law (than 1793) 5. Texas to receive $10 million from federal gov’t as compensation for its surrendering of disputed territory to New Mexico. E. Result 1. North got better deal. a. CA tipped Senate in favor of the North b. Popular sovereignty in NM & UT territory probably in favor of North (desert) c. $10 million to Texas a modest sum; new area almost certain to be free. d. Halt of slave trade in Washington DC a step toward emancipating it. 2. Fugitive Slave Law became the single most important frictional issue between north and south in the 1850s. a. Fugitive slave law a major blunder by South; seen by North as appalling i. Abolitionist movement given a big boost by the "Bloodhound Bill". -- Spurred northern spirit of antagonism toward the South. -- Southerners infuriated that law not executed in good faith ii. Slaves could not testify in their own behalf and were denied a jury trial. iii. Heavy fines & jail sentences for those who aided and abetted runaways. b. Some states refused to accept the Fugitive Slave Law i. Massachusetts made it illegal to enforce it (move toward nullification) ii. Other states passed "personal liberty laws" denying local jails to feds. c. Ableman v. Booth, 1859 -- Supreme Court upheld the Fugitive Slave Law. 3. Compromise of 1850 won the Civil War for the North a. Bought ten precious years to expand economic growth and sentiment Union cause. b. Many northerners unwilling to go to war in 1850 for the Union cause. c. Inflammatory events in 1850s brought northern willingness to resist secession VII. Election of 1852 A. Democrats nominated Franklin Pierce (from NH) 1. Essentially a pro-Southern northerner; acceptable to the slavery wing of the party. 2. Campaign came out in favor of the Compromise of 1850. B. Whigs nominated General Winfield Scott ("Old Fuss & Feathers") but party fatally split 1. Antislaveryites supported Scott but hated his platform of supporting Fugitive Slave Law 2. S. Whigs supported platform but hated Scott; questioned loyalty on Comp. of 1850 C. Result: Pierce d. Scott 254 - 42 D. Significance: Marked effective end of Whig party; complete death 2 years later E. Significance of Whig party: Webster & Clay had kept idea of Union alive (both died in 1852) VIII. Expansionism under President Pierce A. U.S. and Britain sought Central American isthmus (Nicaragua) as a potential canal waterway. 1. War in Nicaragua seemed inevitable; Britain challenged Monroe Doctrine 2. Clayton-Bulwer Treaty (1850): Neither U.S. or Britain would fortify or secure exclusive control over any future isthmian waterway. B. America looks toward Asia 1. Acquisition of California and Oregon territory gave U.S. access to the Pacific. 2. Pierce sent U.S. warships led by Commodore Matthew Perry (brother of 1812 War hero) to Japan to forcibly open trade with the 200-year isolationist Japan. C. Cuba 1. Polk had offered Spain $100 million for Cuba; Spain categorically refused. a. Southerners hoped to carve several states out of Cuba and restore political. balance. b. Some southerners had invested in sugar plantations in Cuba 2. 1850-51 -- two expeditions by private southern adventurers into Cuba failed. 3. 1854, Spain seized U.S. steamer Black Warrior on a technicality. -- Southerners demanded a war with Spain to seize Cuba 4. Ostend Manifesto a. Secret document whereby U.S. would offer $120 million for Cuba and if Spain U.S. would take it by force. b. News leaked out and angry northern free-soilers forced Pierce to abandon it. IX. Gadsden Purchase (1853) A. U.S. concerned that CA & Oregon inaccessible by land & sea routes too tough 1. Feared region might break away if direct land route not achieved 2. Railroads seemed the key B. Debate: Should transcontinental railroad route run through the North or South? 1. Too costly to have two railroads. 2. Railroad would provide enormous benefits to the regions receiving it. 3. Best route seemed partly below the Mexican border. C. 1853, U.S. purchased Mesilla Valley from Santa Anna for $10 million. D. Result: 1. South boosted its claim to railroad a. Claimed all areas of line were either states or organized territory unlike North. b. Geography favored southern route since Rocky Mountains were lower 2. North now tried to quickly organize Nebraska territory but the South opposed it. X. The Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) A. Stephen Douglas proposed carving Nebraska Territory into 2: Nebraska, Kansas 1. Slavery issue would be based on popular sovereignty 2. His main motive was to give Illinois the eastern terminus for the proposed Pacific railroad. 3. Kansas would presumably become slave; Nebraska free 4. 36-30 line prohibited slavery north of it; Kansas above it. -- Solution: Repeal Compromise of 1820 5. Southerners fully supported it and pushed Pierce to support KS-NB Act B. Douglas successfully rammed the bill through Congress; great orator of his generation 1. Northerners reacted furiously: some saw Compromise of 1820 as a sacred pact. 2. Douglas miscalculated effects of his proposal on the North; more concerned with railroad, his state, and his presidential prospects than slavery issue. C. Kansas-Nebraska Act passed in 1854 1. Northern reaction a. Refused to honor Fugitive Slave Law b. The antislavery movement grew significantly c. North unwilling to compromise on future issues 2. Southern reaction a. Angry that northern free-soilers tried to control Kansas, contrary to the presumed "deal." b. Democratic party was shattered 3. Effectively wrecked the Compromises of 1820 & 1850 D. Birth of the Republican party 1. Republican party formed in response to the Kansas-Nebraska Act. a. Included Whigs, Democrats, Free-Soilers, Know-Nothings, and other opponents of the Kansas Nebraska Act. b. Abraham Lincoln came out of political retirement and ran for the senate. c. Became nation’s 2nd major political party overnight. 2. Republican party not allowed South of Mason-Dixon line. E. Considered by historians to be the main short-term cause of the Civil War. XI. Antislavery literature A. Harriet Beecher Stowe: Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852) 1. Wanted to show the North the evils of slavery by focusing on the splitting of slave families and the torture inflicted on slaves. a. Inspired by the Fugitive Slave Law b. "God wrote it"; Stowe a product of the 2nd Great Awakening 2. Sold 300,000 in first year alone; over 2 million within a decade; best seller of all time in proportion to population; translated into many different languages. -- Immensely popular abroad especially Britain & France 3. Social impact was the most pronounced of any American literary piece. a. Lincoln when introduced to her in 1862: "So you’re the little woman who wrote the book that made this great war." b. Impact on North i. Millions of Union soldiers had read it during their youth in 1850s. ii. Boosted the abolitionist movement 4. South condemned it and shuddered that hundreds of thousands of northerners were reading such a vivid condemnation of slavery. B. Hinton R. Helper: The Impending Crisis of the South (1857) 1. Non-aristocratic white from N.C. who hated both slavery and blacks. 2. Attempted to prove statistically that nonslaveholding whites indirectly suffered the most from slavery. 3. Unable to find a publisher in the South; book published in North by New York Tribune in an eight-column review. 4. Impact a. Negligible among its targeted audience: poor southern whites b. Book banned in the South c. Abridged by Republicans in the North as propaganda in 1859 campaign. d. Southerners infuriated North using this book "of lies" against them. i. Provoked secessionist sentiment in South ii. Within 2 years, 15 novels written in response by proslavery writers XII. "Bleeding Kansas" A. New England Emigrant Aid Company: Sent 2,000 into Kansas to prevent slavery from taking hold and to make a profit. -- Many came armed with breach loading rifles ("Beecher’s Bibles" -- after Henry Ward Beecher who helped raise money for their travel) B. Southerners infuriated by apparent northern betrayal -- attempts to abolitionize Kansas. 1. Douglas’ scheme informally implied that Kansas would become slave & NB free. 2. Armed Southerners sent into region (many from MO) to thwart northerners 3. Ironically, struggle fought over imaginary blacks (only 2 slaves in Kansas in 1860) C. 1855 election in Kansas for first territorial legislature 1. Proslavery "border ruffians" from MO poured into KS to vote repeatedly. -- Proslaveryites triumphed and created puppet government 2. Free-soilers ignored the bogus election and established extralegal gov’t in Topeka. D. 1856, a gang of proslavery raiders shot up and burned part of free-soil Lawrence, Kansas. E. The caning of Charles Sumner 1. Sumner a leading abolitionist Senator from Massachusetts, gave speech "Crime Against Kansas" where he lashed out at southern proslaveryites and insulted a S.C. Senator 2. S.C. Congressman Preston Brooks retaliated by hitting Sumner over the head 30 times or more with an 11-oz gold-headed cane. 3. The House of Reps could not find enough votes (122 to 95-- 2/3 needed) to expel Brooks but he resigned nonetheless, and was unanimously reelected by S.C. 4. Sumner came to symbolize for the North the evils of the slavery system (along with bleeding Kansas issue) 5. Blows to Sumner among the first blows of the Civil War, in a broad sense. F. Pottawatomie Massacre -- John Brown & followers, in May 1856, hacked 5 men to pieces with broadswords in response to attack on Lawrence (and the caning of Sumner) 1. Brown an extreme abolitionist who saw himself as a holy warrior; exerted a messianic influence over his followers including his sons. 2. Attack went unpunished by the legal process G. Civil war in Kansas ensued from 1856 and merged with Civil War of 1861-1865 H. Lecompton Constitution (1857) 1. Kansas had enough people to apply for statehood on popular sovereignty basis. 2. Southerners, still in power since 1855, devised a tricky document a. People were not allowed to vote for or against constitution as a whole but voted for the constitution. with or w/o slavery. b. If people voted no on slavery, rights of slaveholders already in KS protected 3. Infuriated free-soilers boycotted the polls 4. Slaveryites approved constitution with slavery late in 1857. I. Federal debate on Kansas 1. President Buchanan supported the Lecompton Constitution 2. Senator Douglas fought furiously against it and the House defeated it. 3. Compromise: Entire Lecompton Constitution re-submitted to popular vote in Kansas but pro-slavery Kansas rejected the proposal; Kansas statehood remained in limbo. 4. Result: Free-soilers victorious but Kansas denied statehood until 1861 when southern secessionists left Congress. J. Impact on Democratic party 1. Buchanan’s support for Kansas split the Democratic party along sectional lines. 2. Republicans would win in 1860 at the expense of split Democrats 3. Irony: Douglas’ Kansas-Nebraska act created the party that would defeat his party while he supported the North in the Kansas controversy that split his party. 4. Result: One of last strands binding the Union together (Dem. party) was severed. XIII. Election of 1856 A. James Buchanan chosen as Democratic nominee over Pierce (seen as too weak) and Douglas (who alienated the southern wing of the party after denouncing Lecompton constitution.) 1. Pennsylvania lawyer who sympathized with southern views 2. Party platform heavily supported popular sovereignty in the territories. B. Republicans nominated Captain John C. Ferment "Pathfinder of the West" 1. 1st presidential election for the new Republican party 2. Party platform vigorously against the extension of slavery in the territories. C. American Party ("know-nothing") nativist in orientation 1. Composed of primarily old-stock Protestants reacting to recent wave of Irish, German, Mexican & Chinese immigration; anti-Catholic (accused Ferment of being Catholic) 2. Ex-president Millard Fillmore nominated. 3. Supported by remnants of the dying Whig party. D. Buchanan d. Fremont 174 to 114; Fillmore 8. -- Violent threats of southern "fire-eaters",who claimed the election of a "Black Republican" would lead them to secede, forced many northerners to support Buck. XIV. The Dred Scott Decision (March 6, 1857) A. Dred Scott had lived with his master for 5 years in Illinois and Wisconsin Territory. 1. Backed by abolitionists, he sued for freedom on basis of his residence on free-soil. 2. 1854, federal circuit court upheld Missouri court’s denial of his suit for freedom. a. Ironically, courts decision to try case affirmed Scot’s status as a citizen b. Scott’s lawyers appealed case to the Supreme Court B. 80-year-old Marylander Chief Justice Roger B. Taney wrote the 55 page opinion. 1. Taney had been a Jacksonian who helped destroy BUS while sec. of treasury. 2. Main theme of his 22-year tenure on the Court was the defense of slavery. C. Decision: 1. Dred Scott was a black slave and not a citizen and could not sue in federal courts. -- As a result, all blacks, north & south, were no longer citizens. 2. Slaves could not be taken away from owners w/o due process of law. As private property (5th Amendment) slaves could be taken into any territory and held there. 3. The Missouri Compromise was ruled unconstitutional; Congress could not forbid slavery in territories even if states wanted to. (KS-NB Act had already done this) D. Impact 1. Many northern proponents of popular sovereignty horrified, including Douglas -- Further split Democratic party along sectional lines. 2. Republicans infuriated; many claimed decision was merely an opinion not a decision and thus nonbinding. -- Southerners claimed that northern unwillingness to honor the Supreme Court’s decisions was further cause for disunion. XV. Financial Crash of 1857 A. Not as bad as Panic of 1837 but probably the worst psychologically in 19th c. B. Causes 1. Influx of California gold into economy inflated currency. 2. Crimean War overstimulated growing of grain 3. Speculation in land and railroads backfired. C. Results 1. Over 5,000 businesses failed within a year. -- North hardest hit; South’s cotton crop enjoyed high prices & demand 2. Unemployment widespread 3. Renewed demand for free farms of 160 acres from public domain land. a. Gov’t practice of selling land for revenue not effective b. Pioneers risked life to develop western land; deserved free land. c. Opposition i. Some eastern industrialists feared population drain to west. ii. Southerners feared homesteads would fill up territories with free-soilers; 160 acres not enough for gang-labor slavery. d. In 1860, Congress passed a homestead act that made public lands available for 25 cents an acre. -- Vetoed by Buchanan who sympathized with southern leaders. 4. Demand for higher tariff rates a. Tariff of 1857 had reduced rates to 20% as a result of embarrassing federal surpluses. b. Eastern industrialists now clamored for more protection. 5. Republicans had two major issues for 1860: higher tariffs & homestead act. XVI. Lincoln-Douglas Debates (1858) – Senate seat in Illinois A. Lincoln’s nomination speech: "A house divided cannot stand. I believe this government cannot endure, permanently half slave and half free. B. Lincoln challenged Douglas to a series of seven joint debates C. Freeport debate most famous -- Freeport Doctrine 1. Lincoln forced Douglas to answer whether or not a territory could vote down slavery despite the Dred Scott decision. 2. Douglas answered that territories could refuse to pass laws protecting slavery thus effectively ending slavery in that territory. 3. Although Douglas and others had publicly answered this question before in Kansas issue, his position led to a split in his party and an end to his chances to win the presidency. 4. Douglas’ popular sovereignty position prevailed in the election 5. Despite his loss, the debates catapulted Lincoln into the national spotlight and became the political stepping stone to the Republican nomination in 1860. XVII. John Brown attacks Harper’s Ferry A. Brown’s scheme: invade the South secretly with a few followers and lead slaves to rise, give them arms, and establish a kind of black free state. -- Gained financial assistance for weapons from certain northern abolitionists. B. October, 1859 -- Seized the arsenal at Harper’s Ferry 1. 7 innocent people killed including a free black; ten others wounded. 2. Most slaves unaware of Brown’s strike; did not rise up in rebellion 3. Brown trapped in armory and eventually surrendered to Capt. Robert E. Lee C. Brown and his followers were hanged after a brief but legal trial. D. Brown became a martyr in the North 1. Abolitionists and free-soilers were infuriated by Brown’s execution. -- Some attributed Christ-like characteristics to him (Ralph Waldo Emerson) 2. Moderate northerners, including Republican leaders, deplored Brown’s attack. E. Effects of Harper’s Ferry were ominous in southern eyes. 1. Brown seen as an agent of northern abolitionism and anti-slavery conspiracy. 2. Southern states began to organize militias for protection against future threats. -- Essentially, this was the beginning of the Confederate army. 3. Perhaps the most immediate cause of disunion besides Lincoln’s election. XVIII. Nominating conventions of 1860 A. Democratic party split in two 1. Met first in South Carolina with Douglas as leading candidate of northern wing. -- Southern "fire-eaters" regarded him as a traitor for his position on Lecompton and Freeport Doctrine and eight cotton states walked out of the convention. 2. Next convention in Baltimore nominated Douglas while the Democratic party split in two a. Platform: popular sovereignty and against obstruction of Fugitive Slave Law by the states. b Again, many cotton-state delegates walked out and organized a rival convention in Baltimore where many northern states were unrepresented. 3. Southern Democratic party nominated John C. Breckinridge: a. Kentucky moderate (not a disunionist) b. Platform: extension of slavery into territories and annexation of Cuba. B. Constitutional Union Party nominated John Bell of Tennessee 1. Wanted to preserve the Union; saw Bell as a compromise candidate. 2. Consisted of former Whigs from the upper South and Know-Nothings 3. Feared that a Lincoln victory would cause Deep South states to secede. C. Republicans nominate Abraham Lincoln 1. Seward the front-runner but perceived as too radical for victory in general election. 2. Republican platform (broadly based) a. Nonextension of slavery (for free-soilers) b. Protective tariff (for industrialists) c. No abridgment of rights for immigrants (disappointed "Know Nothings") d. Pacific railroad (for the Northwest) e. Internal improvements for the West at federal expense f. Free homesteads from the public domain (for farmers) 3. Southern secessionists warned that the election of Lincoln would split the Union. a. Lincoln not an abolitionist; yet issued no statement to quell southern fears. b. Lincoln chose not to campaign; let his record stand on its own XIX. Presidential election of 1860 A. Lincoln elected president with only 40% of the vote; most sectional election in history. 1. Lincoln won all Northern states except NJ and MO (180 electoral votes to 123) a. Lincoln not allowed on the ballot in 10 southern states b. S.C. rejoiced at the returns; now had their excuse for secession. 2. Breckinridge won all the Deep South states plus AK, MD, and DE 3. Bell won border states of VA KY and mid-slave state of TN 4. Douglas won only MO and NJ but finished 2nd in popular votes B. South still had control of both Houses of Congress and a 5-4 majority on Supreme Court -- Antislavery amendment could be defeated by only 1/4 of states yet South had 15 states (nearly half) that would prevent such an amendment. XX. Southern states secede from the Union A. Four days after the election of Lincoln, the "Black Republican", South Carolina legislature unanimously called for a special convention in Charleston. -- December, 1860, 170 South Carolina unanimously voted to secede from the other states. B. Within six weeks, six other states seceded (MS, FL, AL, GA, LA, TX) all during Buchanan’s "lame-duck" period. -- Four others seceded in April, 1861, after beginning of Civil War (VA, AK, NC,TN) as they refused to fight their fellow southerners and agree to Lincoln’s call for volunteers. C. Confederate States of America formed in Montgomery Alabama meeting. -- Jefferson Davis chosen as president of provisional government to be located at Richmond, VA (after Fort Sumter). D. President Buchanan did little to prevent southern secession. 1. Claimed the Constitution did not give him authority to stop secession with force. 2. More significantly, northern army was small and weak and scattered on the frontier. 3. Many of his advisors prosouthern 4. Northern sentiment predominantly for peaceful reconciliation rather than war. 5. Ironically, Lincoln continued Buchanan’s vacillating policy when he became president. 6. Buchanan’s serendipitous wait-and-see policy probably helped save the Union. -- Use of immediate force would have probably driven border states of MD and KY to the South. This would have sealed the Union’s fate. E. Reasons for southern secession (mostly related in some form to slavery) 1. Alarmed at the political balance tipping in favor of the North. 2. Horrified at victory of the sectional Republican party which appeared to threaten their rights as a slaveholding minority. 3. Angry over free-soil criticism and abolitionism, and northern interference such as the Underground Railroad and John Brown’s raid. 4. Many southerners felt secession would be unopposed a. Northern industrialists dependent on southern repayment of loans and cotton could not afford to cut economic ties. b. Debts could be repudiated in case of war. 5. Opportunity to end generations of dependence to the North. a. Independent South could develop its own banking and shipping while trading directly with Europe. b. No longer at the mercy of northern industrialists crying for higher tariffs. 6. Morally they were in the right a. 13 original states had voluntarily entered the Union; now southern states were voluntarily withdrawing from it. b. Saw self-determination of the Declaration of Independence as applying to them. (Right to replace gov’t with one that meets the needs of the people) XXI. Crittenden amendments -- final attempt at compromise A.. Proposed by Senator John J. Crittenden of Kentucky (heir to political throne of Clay), B. Designed to appease the South C. Provisions 1. Slavery in the territories was to be prohibited north of 36-30 but was to be given full federal protection south of that line existing or "hereafter to be acquired" (as in the case of Cuba) 2. Popular sovereignty for future states. D. Rejected by Lincoln; all hope of compromise was gone. -- Lincoln saw himself elected on the principle of nonextension of slavery. POLITICS AND THE ECONOMY DURING THE CIVIL WAR I. Lincoln’s early presidency A. Inaugural 1. Vowed to preserve the Union; to "hold, occupy, and possess" Federal property in the South; -- "Physically speaking, we cannot separate" -- Ambiguous on how he would do so; careful not to offend border slave states 2. Republicans & Democratic unionists agreed with speech’s firmness & moderation 3. Lower South regarded it tantamount to declaration of war. B. Cabinet 1. William H. Seward, one of America’s best secretaries of state 2. Salmon P. Chase, treasury sec. -- A leading abolitionist; presidential hopes -- Eventually appointed by Lincoln as Chief Justice to the Supreme Court 3. Edwin M. Stanton: "War Democrat" later appointed as secreatry of war. 4. Cabinet frequently feuded and intrigue often plagued it; added pressure to Lincoln C. Lincoln an able leader 1. Developed a genius for interpreting and leading a fickle public opinion. 2. Showed charitableness toward South and patience toward backbiting colleagues 3. Succeeded in placating both Negrophobes and abolitionists in his bid for the presidency. II. Attack on Fort Sumter begins the Civil War A. Located at the mouth of Charleston Harbor, Ft. Sumter was one of two last remaining federal strongholds in the South (the other Ft. Pickering in Florida) 1. The day after inauguration, Lincoln notified by Major Robert Anderson that supplies to the fort would soon run out and he would be forced to surrender. 2. Lincoln faced with choices that were all bad a. No supplies would mean surrender; would ruin his credibility to "hold, possess, and occupy" b. Reinforcements would surely lead to an armed clash which would begin the Civil War with the North seen as the provocateur. -- Also, Union detachments not available on such short notice. c. Solution: Notified South Carolinians of an expedition to provision the garrison, not to reinforce it. -- Lincoln would let the South start the war if it wished 3. April 9, 1861 -- A ship carrying supplies for Fort Sumter sailed from New York. -- Seen by S.C. as an act of aggression; "reinforcement" B. April 12: Fort Sumter bombarded by more than 70 Confederate canon 1. Anderson’s garrison held for 34 hours until 2:30 p.m. on April 13, when he surrendered. 2. Anderson’s men allowed to return North. 3. No loss of life during bombardment; fort heavily damaged C. Lincoln calls for volunteers 1. Before the attack , many northerners felt that if the South wanted to go, they should not be forced to stay. 2. Attack on Sumter provoked the North to fight for their honor & the Union. -- Lincoln’s strategy paid off; South seen as the aggressors -- North as benign 3. April 15, Lincoln issued call to the states for 75,000 militiamen; 90 day service 4. April 19, Lincoln proclaimed a blockade of Southern seaports -- Initially ineffective; eventually strangled the South. 5. May 3, Lincoln issued a call for 3-year volunteers; militia would not meet need 6. Until April 25, Washington D.C. was virtually under siege and a Confederate assault on the capital was expected at any time. D. 4 more states secede from the Union: VA, AK, TN, NC 1. Northern calls for troops aroused South; viewed Lincoln as waging war. 2. Richmond replaced Montgomery as the Confederate capitol. III. The Border Slave States (MO, KY, MD, later WV) A. Remained in the Union since the North did not start the war 1. Crucial to Union cause; sent 300,000 soldiers to the Union Army a. "Mountain white" pop. in South sent 50,000 soldiers to the North. b. Lincoln: Hoped to have God on his side but he had to "have Kentucky." 2. West Virginia left Virginia in mid-1861 to join the Union; "mountain white" pop. 3. War began with slaveholders on both sides; not free-soil vs. slavery -- Brothers and family members often split and fought on opposite sides B. Contained over 50% of the South’s white population; fewest number of slaves C. Lincoln used force at times to keep these states in check. 1. Declared martial law in Maryland in certain areas and sent troops since it threatened to cut off Washington DC from the North. 2. Troops also sent to W. Virginia and Missouri where a mini-Civil War raged. D. Politically, Lincoln had to keep border states in mind when making public statements 1. Declared the primary purpose of the war was to preserve the Union at all costs. 2. Declared the North was not fighting to free the slaves. a. Antislavery declaration would have driven the border states to the South. b. Lincoln heavily criticized by abolitionists who saw him as a sell-out. -- Lincoln in Aug. 22, 1862 to Horace Greeley: "My paramount object is to save the Union, and is not either to save or destroy slavery... If I could save the Union without freeing any slave I would do it, and if I could save it by freeing all the slaves I would do it, and if I could save it by freeing some and leaving others alone, I would also do that." E. Indian Territory: most of the Five Civilized Tribes sided with the Confederacy including Cherokees (who owned slaves), Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, and Seminoles. IV. Confederate Assets A. Only had to fight defensively behind interior lines and tie or stalemate; needed fewer troops -- North had to invade, conquer, occupy, & forcibly return vast Southern territory to Union. B. Until emancipation proclamations of 1862 & 1863, many felt South had superior moral cause, slavery notwithstanding. -- Fighting for self-determination, self-gov’t, its social structure, homes, and fundamental freedoms (for whites) C. Had talented military officers 1. Robert E. Lee -- one of greatest military leaders in American history a. Opposed to slavery and spoke against secession in Jan. 1861 b. Lincoln had offered Lee command of the Union armies but Lee felt compelled to side with his native Virginia after she seceded. 2. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson -- Lee’s chief lieutenant and premier cavalry officer. 3. Top Union generals were inept during first three years of the war until replaced D. Southern men of fighting stock and self-confident 1. Accustomed to hard life and management of horses and bearing arms. 2. Made excellent cavalry and foot soldiers. V. Confederate chances A. Lack of significant industrial capacity a crucial disadvantage; South primarily agrarian B. As the war dragged on, severe shortages of shoes, uniforms, and blankets. C. Breakdown of transportation, esp. when railroads were cut or destroyed by the North. D. A number of scenarios might have given the Confederates victory 1. Border state secession 2. Upper Mississippi Valley states turning against the Union 3. Northern defeatism leading to an armistice ("Copperheads") 4. England & France breaking the blockade. E. South did not get foreign intervention which usually helps revolutions to succeed. VI. Northern Advantages A. Population of 22 million (including border states); 800,000 immigrants between 1861-63 1. South only 9 million including 3.5 million slaves 2. Manpower advantages over Lee were 3 to 2 or even 3 to 1 3. Earlier immigrants also enlisted; 20% of army foreign-born. B. Had 3/4 of the nation’s wealth C. Overwhelming superiority in manufacturing, shipping, and banking. D. 3/4 of nation’s railroads: large capacity for repair and replacement that the South lacked. E. Controlled the sea through its blockade of Southern ports. F. Ideal of Union 1. Devotion to Union aroused North against South; "Union Forever" 2. Significant in keeping border states and upper Mississippi states from seceding. 3. Cry for Union gave North strong moral issue until slavery was added to it later. G. Much better logistical planning in the army and weaponry VII. The Confederacy A. Constitution largely copied from the Union. -- Fatal flaw: Created by secession, it could not deny future secession to the states. B. Jefferson Davis’ idea of a strong central gov’t was bitterly opposed states’ righters -- Some states didn’t want their troops to fight outside their borders. C. Davis often at odds with his Congress: in danger of being impeached at one point. D. Davis lacked Lincoln’s political saavy. VIII. European Diplomacy during the War A. Aristocracies of England, France, Austria-Hungary, etc. (except Russia) supported the Confederate cause. 1. Democracy loathed by the aristocracies; the Union a symbol of democracy a. Seen as a threat to their power; Revolutions of 1848 concerned monarchs. b. Britain especially had long sympathized with semifeudal, aristocratic society of South. 2. Europeans sold weapons, warships and supplies to the Confederates. 3. At times, contemplated direct intervention on behalf of South, esp. Britain. 4. British industrial & commercial centers desired an independent Confederacy a. Independent cotton supply w/o northern blockade or interference b. British shippers & manufacturers could profit from South w/o Union tariffs. B. Why did King Cotton fail the South? 1. In 1861, British had oversupply of cotton. 2. By the time British badly needed cotton again, Lincoln had issued the Emancipation Proclamation giving the North the moral cause 3. Workingpeople in England, and to some degree France, supported the North and hated slavery; influenced their governments. 4. As Union armies captured the South, the North shipped considerable supplies of cotton to England. 5. Booming war industries in England, which supplied N. & S. relieved British unemployment. 6. Huge production of northern grain fed Britain who suffered through bad harvests C. British diplomacy 1. Britain officially neutral and observed its neutrality fairly well with exceptions. 2. Trent Affair (1861) a. Union warship north of Cuba stopped a British mail steamer and forcibly removed 2 Confederate diplomats (James Mason & John Slidell) on route to England. -- U.S. captain erred; should have brought ship to port for proper judgment. b. Northerners rejoiced -- had not yet won any important military victories. i. Feared if two envoys had reached England, the Union blockade may have been broken if Rebs persuaded England & France for aid. ii. Recalled impressment days of 1812; sweet revenge. c. Britain outraged and prepared for war; troops sent to Canada. -- Lack of working trans-Atlantic cable and slow steam ships allowed tempers to cool down on both sides. d. Lincoln decided reluctantly to release Mason & Slidell -- Did not want to fight a second war 3. Britain as an unofficial naval base for the Confederacy until 1863 a. Confederate commerce-raiders were being built in Britain. b. Over 250 Yankee ships captured by Rebs including many whalers. c. C.S.S. Alabama --most famous of Confederate commerce-raiders i. North had to divert naval strength to eventually destroy it & others. ii. Manned by Brits w/ Confederate officers under the Confederate flag -- Never entered a Confederate port. d. Union outraged and threatened Anglo-American relations. e. Charles Francis Adams, the American minister in London, i. Responsible for preventing official British recognition of the Confederacy and fostering favorable Anglo-American relations. ii. Hounded British gov't with lists of sinkings & bills for damages by Alabama f. Union war effort not crippled by Confederate commerce-raiders g. Britain eventually apologized for its role in Alabama. 4. Issue of Laird rams in 1863 a. Two Confederate warships with iron rams and large-caliber guns being built in Britain.; more dangerous than Alabama i. South would be able to sink blockade squadrons and then fire upon northern cities. ii. In retaliation, U.S. would probably have invaded Canada resulting in full-scale war with Britain. b. Minister Adams warned if rams were released it would mean war. c. London relented and purchased both ships for their Royal Navy. 5. Canada a. One Confederate raid into Vermont ended in 3 burned banks & 1 death. b. Irish secret brotherhood, Fenians, invaded Canada from U.S. after the war. c. British Parliament established the Dominion of Canada in 1867. -- Partially created to help Canada politically & psychologically against possible future attack from the U.S. D. French diplomacy 1. French leader, Napoleon III, was openly unfriendly to the Union 2. 1863, Napoleon III sent troops to conquer Mexico a. Enthroned Austrian Archduke Maximilian as Emperor of Mexico. b. Violated Monroe Doctrine 3. During Civil War, U.S. cautious toward France -- did not want to fight a world war. 4. After Civil War secretary of state Seward prepared to march U.S. forces to Mexico -- Napoleon III abandoned Maximilian in 1867 and Mexico once again independent IX. Raising Armies: North and South A. Northern troops 1. Initially northern armies comprised of volunteers with each state given a quota based on population 90% of Union army. 2. 1863, Congress passed federal conscription law for first time in U.S. history. a. Purpose: To make up for fewer numbers of volunteers. b. Policy unfair as wealthier youth could hire substitutes for $300. 3. Draft caused biggest stir in Democratic strongholds of North, inc. NYC. -- New York Draft Riot in 1863 sparked by Irish-Americans cost nearly 500 lives lost and buildings burned. 4. Large bounties for enlistment also offered by federal, state, & local authorities. 5. About 200,000 deserters of all classes in North; South similar B. South initially relied mainly on volunteers 1. Smaller population meant numbers troops smaller 2. Confederacy forced to conscript men between ages of 17 & 50 as early as April, 1862; a year earlier than the Union. 3. Rich men could hire substitutes or purchase exemption. 4. Mountain whites refused to enlist C. African-American soldiers in the North. 1. About 180,000 served in Union armies; about 10% of total Union enlistments; 38,000 died -- Most came from slave states but many came from free-soil North as well. 2. Black volunteers initially rejected. a. Initial war aim not to end slavery. b. Racism and fear of arming blacks led to white sentiment of fighting own war. 3. 1862, need for soldiers and emancipation opened door to black volunteers 4. Lincoln attributed the Union’s victory largely on the impact of the black regiments. D. Confederacy did not enlist slaves until a month before the war ended. 1. 10s of thousands forced into labor battalions, building fortifications, supplying armies, and other war-connected activities. 2. Slaves kept the southern farms going while the southern white men fought. 3. Ironically, slaves didn’t revolt back home (despite learning of emancipation proclamation). 4. Many abandoned plantations when Union armies arrived. X. Financial aspect to the Civil War A. Raising money in the North 1. First income tax in nation’s history levied; relatively small but still raised millions -- Paid for 2/3 of the war’s cost 2. Excise taxes on tobacco and alcohol substantially increased by Congress. 3. Morrill Tariff Act of 1861 -- Raised low Tariff of 1857 about 10% a. About the level of the Walker Tariff of 1846. b. Tariff rates later raised due to demands of revenue and protection during war. c. Protective tariff came to be associated with Republicans for next 70 years. 4. Greenbacks a. About $450 million issued at face value to replace gold. b. Supported by gold; value determined by nation’s credit. c. Though fluctuating during the war, they held value well after Union victory. 5. Sale of bonds through U.S. Treasury: marketed through private banking house of Jay Cooke & Co. which receive commission of 3/8 of 1% on all sales. 6. National Banking System authorized by Congress in 1863 a. Designed to establish standard bank-note currency. -- At the time, North flooded with depreciated "rag money" issued by unreliable bankers. b. Sold gov’t bonds. c. Banks that joined the National Banking System could buy bonds and issue sound paper money backed by the system. d. The first national-type banking institution since Jackson killed the BUS -- Lasted for 50 years until the Federal Reserve System. B. Southern finances 1. Customs duties cut-off to Union blockade 2. Gov’t issued large amounts of bonds sold at home & abroad = $400 million. 3. Significant raise in taxes and 10% tax on farm produce. a. Most states’ rights Southerners against heavy direct taxation by central gov’t b. Direct taxation accounted for only 1% of gov’t revenues. 4. Biggest source of revenue: printed large amounts of paper money a. "Runaway inflation" as treasury cranked out more than $1 billion b. Inflation of currency coupled with tax on farm produce worked until the end of the war for the Confederacy. C. War-time prosperity in the North 1. Civil War produced first millionaire class in U.S. history. a. New factories protected by the new tariff emerged. b. Beginning of the "Gilded Age" dominated by "Robber Barons" c. Much dishonesty in supplying goods for gov’t (e.g. poor quality uniforms) 2. New labor-saving machinery spurred expansion while best laborers fought war. a. Sewing machine b. Mechanical reapers numbered 250,000 by 1865 3. Petroleum industry born in PA in 1859 4. Westward movement a. Homestead Act of 1862 i. Provided free land to pioneers heading to virgin land out west. ii. Many pioneers headed west to escape the draft. iii. By 1865, 20,000 settlers had moved west. b. Gold seekers (NV, CA) -- would later constitute a formidible mining frontier with the completion of the transcontinental railroad. c. Morrill Land Grant Act of 1862 i. Each state received 30,000 acres of public lands for each senator and Congressman in Congress. ii. Profits from sale of lands financed agricultural and mechanical collegse in each state. iii. Southern states who rejoined the Union enjoyed the same terms d. Pacific Railway Act (1863) -- established a transcontinental railroad to be built connecting northern states and territories to California. 6. Only Northern industry to suffer was overseas shipping due to Confederate commerce-raiders. D. Demise of the Cotton Kingdom 1. Blockade and destruction wreaked by Union armies ruined southern economy. a. Transportation collapsed. b. Severe shortage of metals & other materials for military purposes 2. Cotton Kingdom eclipsed by new 2nd Industrial Revolution of the North. XI. War-time President Lincoln bends the Constitution and suspends certain civil liberties A. Motive: Saving the Union required side-stepping some areas of Constitution. 1. Congress generally accepted or approved Lincoln’s acts. 2. Suspension of liberties not sweeping but more than any other period of U.S. history. 3. Lincoln believed thing would be restored once the Union was preserved. B. Blockade proclaimed when Congress not in session shortly after Fort Sumter. -- Action later upheld by Supreme Court. C. Increased size of federal army and navy 1. Constitution states only Congress could do this 2. Later approved by Congress who actually increased appropriations and size of the army. D. Extended volunteer enlistment to three years E. Directed his sec. of treasury to advanced $2 million without appropriation or security to three private citizens for military purposes. F. Suspended writ of habeas corpus so that anti-Unionists could be summarily arrested. 1. Ex Parte Merriman, 1861 -- Chief Justice Rober Taney ruled that safeguards of habeas corpus could only be set aside by Congress a. 864 people held without trial during first nine months of the war alone. b. Lincoln ignored Taney’s report and took no action. c. Significance: During crisis of wartime, the President could bend the law for the welfare of the country, including suspending the Court’s authority. 2. In 1863, Congress approved Lincoln’s action 3. After 1862, arrests increased: spies, smugglers, blockade-runners and foreigners. G. Arranged for "supervised" voting in Border States -- Voters holding colored ballot indicating party preference had to walk between two lines of armed troops. Intimidation? H. Federal officials also suspended certain newspapers and the arrest of their editors for obstructing the Union war cause. I. Signed a bill outlawing slavery in all the national territories even though it conflicted with the Dred Scott decision. J. Generally, civil liberties and constitutional rights were respected during war. -- Few political opponents were arrested. K. Jefferson Davis, unlike Lincoln, unable to exercise arbitrary power 1. States’ righters displayed intense localism. 2. South seemed more willing to lose war than surrendering local rights. THE CIVIL WAR I. Union War Strategy A. Initial attempts to strike decisive blows in Virginia failed miserably (Bull Run, Peninsula Campaign, Vicksburg, Chancellorsville) B. Later, developed into four phases: strategy geared more toward attrition 1. Strangle the South by blockading its coasts – Anaconda Plan 2. Control the Mississippi River to cut the Confederacy in half. 3. Devastate the South by cutting a swath through GA and then sending troops North through the Carolinas. 4. Capture Richmond by annihilating the remaining Confederate armies. II. WAR IN THE EAST: 1861 A. Battle of Bull Run (Manassas) -- July 21, 1861 (30 southwest of Washington) 1. By summer, 1861, public pressure and proddings from the press urged a quick decisive battle to defeat the Confederacy. 2. Battle initially went well for Union forces but reinforcements from the Shenandoah Valley led by "Stonewall" Jackson surprised fatigued Union forces. 3. By mid-afternoon, Union forces in full retreat back towards defended Washington DC. 4. Casualties: Union lost 2,896 men; Confederates lost 1,982 5. Psychological impact: a. North awoke to the reality of a protracted conflict; began making preparations for a long and bloody war. b. Southerners grew complacent; many deserters since they felt war was over. -- Southern enlistments fell off sharply and preparations for a long war relaxed. B. General George B. McClellan and the Army of the Potomac 1. Lincoln gave McClellan command of the Army of the Potomac in late 1861. -- McClellan a brilliant military strategist and leader; 34-year-old from West Point 2. Fatal flaw: Overcautious; frequently believed he was outnumbered when in fact he always possessed numerical advantages; Lincoln accused him of having "the slows" III. The Union blockade -- "Anaconda Plan" A. Initially ineffective; 3,500 miles of coastline too daunting for undeveloped Union navy. and undeveloped Union navy. B. Concentrated on principal ports and inlets where bulk materials were loaded -- Eventually pinched blockade-runners C. Respected by England; Britain did not want a future war with North D. Battle of the Ironclads 1. Merrimack (C.S.S. Virginia) -- former U.S. warship plated on sides with old railroad rails; (not really seaworthy); first of the ironclads a. Destroyed two wooden ships of Union navy in Chesapeake Bay, VA b. Threatened entire Yankee fleet blockading Southern ports. 2. Monitor -- Union counterpart to Merrimack built in 100 days a. Engaged Virginia at Hampton Roads, VA on March 8-9, 1862 b. 4 hour battle with neither side winning; Monitor withdrew after Captain wounded; both sides claimed victory. c. Virginia never again a serious threat and eventually blown up at Norfolk by Confederates when ship in danger of falling into Union hands IV. THE WAR IN THE EASTERN THEATER: 1862 A. The Peninsula Campaign (April 5-June 16, 1862) 1. McClellan persuaded Lincoln to abandon a direct frontal assault by land and to try a flanking approach to Richmond by moving up the peninsula between James & York Riv’s. -- After taking a month to take Yorktown, pushed within a few miles of Richmond. 2. Seven Day’s Battles (June 25-July 1, 1862) a. After Johnstone was injured, Robert E. Lee took command of Confederate army. b. After an unsuccessful battle, McClellan withdrew down the peninsula & later retreated c. Robert E. Lee’s first victory over the Union. 3. Peninsula campaign abandoned by Lincoln -- McClellan removed as commander; replaced by General John Pope. 4. Losses: Confederates 20,141; Union 15,849 B. Second Battle of Bull Run (14 July to 30 August) 1. General Pope put in charge of Union army near Washington. 2. Combined forces of Lee, Jackson, & Longstreet forced Federals to escape once again to Washington. -- Some blamed McClellan for not coming fast enough to support Pope. 3. Casualties: Union 16,054; Confederates 9,197 4. Lincoln once again gave McClellan command of the Army of the Potomac. C. Antietam (September 17, 1862) 1. Lee sought to invade Maryland hoping to wrestle it from the Union and encourage foreign intervention on behalf of the South. 2. Sept. 17 -- Battle of Antietam a. Furious attacks and counterattacks in Sharpsburg, Maryland ended in a stalemate b. McClellan missed opportunity to effectively pursue withdrawing Conf. troops before they crossed the Potomac. -- Removed from command for 2nd time and replaced by Gen. Ambrose Burnside c. Casualties: Feds 12,401 of 80,000 in army; Conf. 10,700 of 40,000 (over 25%) -- Bloodiest day of the war. 3. Considered one of most decisive battles in world history. a. South never again so near victory b. Foreign powers decided not to intervene in support of the South whose military capacity was now questioned in the face of a unexpectedly powerful North.. c. Lincoln received the "victory" he needed to issue the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation on Sept. 22, 1862. -- Felt issuing the proclamation after successive military defeats would render the edict impotent. V. The Emancipation Proclamation A. Became effective Jan. 1, 1863 1. Civil War now became more of a moral crusade: a "higher purpose" -- Moral cause of South weakened 2. Lincoln’s immediate goal not so much to free slaves as to strengthen the moral cause of the Union at home and abroad. 3. Didn’t go as far as Congress’ existing legislation for freeing enemy-owned slaves 4. Constitutionality of proclamation questionable at the time a. Yet, foreshadowed the doom of slavery b. Became "legal" with the 13th Amendment in 1865 B. All slaves in areas in rebellion declared now and forever free. -- Justification lay with removing valuable slave labor from the Southern war cause. C. Slaves in loyal Border States not affected nor those in specific areas of conquered South. -- About 800,000 D. In effect, did little immediately to change the plight of the slaves. E. Reaction to Emancipation Proclamation 1. Many Northerners, esp. from Border States and Old Northwest felt Lincoln went too far; opposition to fighting an "abolition war" a. Desertions increased sharply esp. from Border States b. Republicans fared badly in autumn mid-term 1862 elections. -- Lost in NY, PA, OH & IL ; still maintained control of Congress 2. Many abolitionists complained Lincoln did not go far enough. 3. Most moderates and some abolitionists pleased including Greeley and Douglass. 4. South accused Lincoln of trying to stir up slave insurrection. -- European Aristocrats sympathized with southern aristocrats as proclamation only applied to rebel slaveholders. 5. European working classes sympathized with proclamation. -- As a result, diplomatic condition of Union improved. VI. THE WAR IN THE WEST -- Battle for control of the Mississippi A. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant became Lincoln’s most able general B. Grant captured Fort Henry and Fort Donelson in northern TN in Feb. 1862 1. Significance: KY more secure while gateway opened to rest of TN and GA. -- Boosted northern morale in the face of humiliating losses in Virginia. 2. Confederates out of KY and most of TN. C. Shiloh (April 6 & 7, 1862) 1. Federals moved down through western Tennessee to take the Confederacy’s only east-west railroad linking the lower South to cities on the Confederacy’s east coast 2. Grant victorious but casualties were shocking: 23,746 killed, wounded, or missing 3. Brought shocking realization to both sides that war would not end quickly D. New Orleans taken by Union in spring of 1862; led by David G. Farragut VII. War in the East: Lee’s last victories and the Battle of Gettysburg A. Lee defeated Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside at Fredericksburg, VA, on Dec. 13, 1862 1. Burnside launched ill-conceived frontal assault on Confederates dug in behind stone wall. 2. More than 10,000 Federals killed or wounded in "Burnside’s slaughter pen" 3. Burnside removed from command and replaced by "Fighting Joe" Hooker. B. Chancellorsville (May 2-4, 1863) 1. Lee’s smaller force split Hooker’s army in two. -- "Stonewall" Jackson made daring move around Union’s flank 2. Union defeated again by a smaller force only half its size -- Hooker shortly after removed and replaced by General George Meade 3. Significance: Stonewall Jackson killed accidentally by own man -- Lee: "I have lost my right arm." 4. Casualties: Confederates lost 13,000 men (22% of Lee’s army) C. Battle of Gettysburg (July 1-3, 1863) 1. Lee decided to invade the North again, this time through PA in hopes of strengthening peace movement in North and getting direct foreign support. 2. Bloodiest battle of the Civil War: 53,000 casualties. 3. Day 1 -- July 1 – Confederates took Gettysburg but Union took high ground overlooking the city. 4. Day 2 -- July 2 a. Major engagements occurred on Union right and left; Lee hoped to flank Feds b. Little Round Top held on extreme left; prevented flank from caving in. 5. Day 3 -- July 3 a. Lee ordered Gen. George Pickett’s division to attack the Union center at Cemetery Ridge; Pickett’s division annihilated -- "high tide of the Confederacy" -- Confederates would never again be so close to victory nor on Northern soil. b. Lee retreated while taking full responsibility for the Confederate defeat. 6. Meade neglected to pursue Lee and finish off his army -- Lincoln after Meade’s report that Lee had been repelled: "My God, is that all" 7. Significance: South doomed after Gettysburg and Vicksburg; would never again invade the North and would remain in the defensive till war’s end. 8. Gettysburg Address (November, 1863) a. Established Declaration of Independence as document of founding law b. Equality became supreme commitment of the federal government c. Established idea of nation over union -- The United States is a free country; instead of United States are a free country. d. Most Americans today accept Lincoln’s concept of America e. Attracted relatively little attention at the time but became one of most important speeches in world history. -- Union victory proved men are capable of governing themselves in a free society VIII. THE END OF THE WAR IN THE WEST A. Vicksburg campaign lasted seven months 1. Vicksburg last Confederate stronghold on the Mississippi River. 2. July 4, Confederate army surrendered to Grant; 29,500 men. 3. Significance: Split the Confederacy in two and gave Union total control of Miss. River. -- Boosted Union morale in the face of the Union victory at Gettysburg B. Sherman marches through Georgia 1. William Tecumseh Sherman -- Pushed his way through GA after the battle of Kenesaw Mountain and captured and burned Atlanta in Sept. 1864. 2. "March to the Sea": After taking Atlanta, cut a 60-mile-wide swath through the heart of Georgia before emerging at Savannah on the sea in December, 1864. a. Aimed to destroy supplies destined for the Confederate army and weaken morale of the men at the front by waging war on their homes. b. Pioneer of "total war." -- Despite brutality, war probably shortened thus saving lives. c. Determined to inflict the horrors of war on the South to break its will. -- "War is hell" 3. Turned northward into South Carolina where destruction more severe than in Georgia a. Capital city of Columbia set aflame. b. Sherman’s army reached deep into North Carolina by war’s end. IX. The Copperheads A. Democratic faction that preached either defeatism with disloyal talk or a "peace at any price" philosophy. 1. Many seized without warrant and held for prolonged periods w/o trial. 2. Came to be known as Copperhead Democrats, named after poisonous snake which strikes without a warning rattle. 3. Appealed to midwestern farmers whose trade routes were disrupted. B. Assailed Lincoln for perpetuating an unjust war. C. Clement L. Vallandigham 1. Ex-congressman from Ohio who demanded an end to the "wicked & cruel war," denounced conscription and suspension of habeus corpus. 2. Convicted by military tribunal in 1863 for treason and sentenced to 2 years in prison. 3. Lincoln banished him to the Confederacy for fear that his imprisonment would make him a martyr to antiwar agitators. 4. Before end of war, returned to Ohio where despite his continued defiance, was not arrested again per Lincoln’s orders. -- Demonstrated Lincoln's moderation toward political opponents. X. Politics and Election of 1864 A. Congressional Committee on the conduct of the War 1. Formed by anti-Lincoln Republicans tacitly led by Salmon P. Chase 2. Many distrusted his ability and wanted to keep him check. B. Abolitionists (such as Phillips and Greeley) demanded immediate freedom for all slaves. C. Northern Democrats deeply divided as they lacked a leader. 1. War Democrats supported Lincoln (e.g., Stanton) 2. Peace Democrats numbering 10s of 1000s did not support Lincoln (e.g., McClellan) -- Many favored Union through a negotiated peace, not war. 3. Copperheads most radical. a. Some wished the Confederacy victorious; venomously anti-Lincoln b. Strong in Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois which contained many Southerners. -- Governors struggled to keep states cooperating with federal gov’t. D. Presidential Candidates 1. Union party -- Coalition of the Republican party and War Democrats a. Republican party temporarily out of existence. b. Republicans feared defeat from anti-Lincoln, anti-Republican sentiment c. Lincoln nominated w/o serious dissent despite early push for Chase d. Andrew Johnson v.p. runningmate; loyal War Democrat from TN who had been a small slaveowner when war began. -- Put on ticket to attract War Democrats and Border States e. Slogan: "Don’t swap horses in the middle of the river." 2. Democratic Party nominated George McClellan a. Copperheads managed to force platform denouncing prosecution of the war as a failure. b. McClellan repudiated this portion of the platform E. Course of the war affected the election. 1. During primaries and during much of the fall, the Union forces were mired in the west and the Wilderness. a. Lincoln believed he would not be reelected. b. Some anti-Lincoln Republicans moved to "dump" Lincoln in favor of a more attractive candidate. 2. Northern victories changed Lincoln’s prospects a. Admiral Farragut captured Mobile, Alabama; "Damn the torpedoes! Go ahead! b. General Sherman took Atlanta c. General Phillip Sheridan destroyed the Shenandoah Valley 3. Northern soldiers furloughed home to vote for Lincoln; others voted at the front. F. Result 1. Lincoln d. McClellan 212 to 21; Lincoln only lost KY, DE, and NJ. -- McClellan received a surprising 45% of popular vote; 1,803,787 to 2,206,938 2. One of most crushing defeats for the South. a. Lincoln’s election assured continued policy of "total war" b. Last real hope for a Confederate victory. c. Confederate desertions increased sharply G. Second Inaugural speech -- "With malice toward none, with charity for all" XI. END OF THE WAR IN THE EAST: Grant’s Virginia Campaign A. Grant promoted to head of all Union armies after Lincoln’s dismay with Meade after Gettysburg 1. Meade still remained head of the Army of the Potomac 2. Grant’s strategy to attack the enemy’s armies simultaneously thus not allowing them to assist one another; Confederate army would be destroyed piecemeal. 3. Campaign would result in 50,000 Union casualties B. Wilderness (May & June, 1864) Grant embarked for Richmond with over 100,000 men. C. Spotsylvania Courthouse: 24,000 casualties D. Cold Harbor (June 3, 1864) 1. Grant ordered frontal assault at a frightful cost. 2. 7,000 Yankees killed in a half-hour; Confederate losses less than 1,500. 3. Public opinion in North appalled at the losses; Critics: "Grant the Butcher" 4. Grant determined to continue the grind; Lincoln supported him E. Siege of Petersburg (June-Oct. 1864) 1. Contained all railroads that served Lee’s army & Richmond from the south. 2. Lee rushed in time to defend Petersburg; Grant lay siege to the city for 9 months. 3. Along with Richmond, fell on April 2, 1865 F. Siege of Richmond (July-Oct. 1865) 1. Grant hoped to divert Confederate forces from Petersburg 2. Lee sacrificed several detachments in rear guard to evacuate both Richmond & Petersburg successfully. G. Early 1865, Confederates attempted to negotiate for peace between the "two countries." -- Lincoln not willing to accept anything short of unconditional surrender. H. Lee’s surrender 1. Confederate army surrounded near Appomattox Court House in VA. 2. April 9, 1865 -- Lee surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia. a. War in Virginia officially over. b. Remaining Confederate armies surrendered within the next few weeks. 3. Terms of surrender were generous a. The 30,000 captured Confederates were paroled and allowed to go home so long as they vowed never to take up arms against the Union again. b. Confederates allowed to keep their own horses for spring plowing. -- Officers could keep their sidearms 4. Grant: "The war is over; the rebels are our countrymen again." XII. Lincoln assassinated on night of April 14, 1865 (Good Friday) A. Only five days after Lee’s surrender, Lincoln assassinated at Ford’s theater by John Wilkes Booth B. Lincoln died at the apex of his fame thus becoming a martyr. C. Although initially jubilant over his death, the South came to view it as calamitous. 1. Lincoln’s approach to reconstruction moderate compared to the later actual policy. 2. Assassination increased bitterness in the North against the South especially with rumors that Jefferson Davis had plotted it. XIII. Prisoner of War Camps A. North treated prisoners better than the South; more resources B. Southern prisons could not provide for POWs since Confederate soldiers often lacked basic necessities. -- Andersonville the most notorious of the POW camps; more than 13,000 died there XIV. Results and costs of the Civil War A. 620,000 soldiers dead (2% of population!); over 1 million total casualties; unknown civilian casualties. -- South lost the cream of its youth and potential leadership B. Slavery abolished C. Total cost of war: $15 billion (about $1.5 trillion in today’s dollars) -- Does not include pensions and interest on the national debt. D. States righters were henceforth crushed as the Civil War served as the greatest constitutional decision in U.S. history. -- Nullification and secession died with the Confederacy E. Ideal of Union and nation triumphant -- Dangers of two nations and balance of power politics averted F. Monroe Doctrine now had more teeth in it. -- U.S. would now look to the hemisphere and beyond to expand its influence. INDUSTRIALISM: 1865-1900 I. Major Ideas A. By 1900 the U.S. exceeded the combined output of Germany and Great Britain. 1. U.S. borrowed heavily from Europe; after World War I, U.S. emerged as largest creditor. 2. Technological innovations: a. steel: railroads, skyscrapers, engines b. oil: internal combustible engine, cars (suburbs), subways, street railroads c. Electricity: lights, power, refrigerated railroad cars d. Advances in business: telephone, typewriter, cash register, adding machines. e. Mass popular culture (early 20th century): Cameras, phonographs, bicycles, moving pictures, amusement parks, professional sports. f. Contrasts 1st Industrial Revolution: textiles, coal, iron, early railroads. 3. In 1880, about 50% of Americans worked in agriculture; only 25% by 1920 4. Class divisions became most pronounced in U.S. history during this period. 5. Farmers lost ground a. In 1880, 25% of those who farmed did not own their land. b. 90% of African Americans lived in the South; 75% were tenants or sharecroppers. 6. Depressions and recessions led to unrest a. 1873-1879; 1882-1885; 1893-1897; 1907-1908; 1913-1915 II. Railroad building A. By 1900, 192,556 miles of track; 35,000 in 1865 alone (more than all Europe combined) 1. Gov’t subsidized transcontinental railroad building since unpopulated areas were initially unprofitable a. Railroad companies given 155.5 million acres along RR lines (checkerboard) b. Gov’t received low rates for postal service and military traffic in return. 2. Cities flourished where lines were laid while bypassed cities became "ghost towns" B. The Transcontinental Railroad (completed in 1869) 1. Pacific Railway Act (1862): Passed by Republican Congress during Civil War. -- Connecting the pacific states seen as urgent to the security of the republic 2. Union Pacific Railroad appointed by Congress to build west from Omaha, Nebraska a. Company granted 20 square miles for each mile of track constructed b. Company also granted federal loans for each mile: $16,000 for flat land,. $32,000 for hilly country; $48,000 for mountainous country c. Construction began in 1865 d. Irish "paddies" who fought in the Union armies worked at a frantic pace. e. Workers fended off attacks from hostile Indians; scores lost their lives f. "Hell on wheels": tented towns sprang up at rail’s end; drinking, prostitution g. Insiders of the Credit Mobilier construction company pocketed $73 million for some $50 million worth of work. -- Bribed congressmen looked the other way 3. Central Pacific Railroad pushed east from Sacramento over Sierra Nevada. a. Led by the "Big Four" i. Leland Stanford -- ex-governor of CA and future Senator ii. Collis P. Huntington – v.p.; managed enterprise on day to day basis. b. CP ran a relatively clean operation compared to Union Pacific (Credit Mobilier) c. Gov’t provided same subsidies as to Union Pacific d. 10,000 Chinese laborers, "coolies," worked as cheap, efficient and docile labor -- Hundreds lost their lives in premature explosions and other mishaps e. Sierra Nevada became a major challenge as workers could only chip through a few inches a day through rocky tunnels. 4. Railroad completed at Promontory Point, Utah on May 10, 1869. a. Union Pacific built 1,086 miles of line b. Central Pacific built 689 miles 5. Significance: a. Linked the entire continent via railroad and by telegraph b. Paved the way for incredible growth of the Great West. c. Facilitated a burgeoning trade with the Orient d. Seen by Americans at the time as a monumental achievement along with the Declaration of Independence and the freeing of the slaves. 6. Other Transcontinental lines a. No subsequent RR received gov’t loans but all received generous land grants. b. Northern Pacific Railroad completed in 1883 (Lake Superior to Puget Sound) c. Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe RR completed in 1884 -- Connected those cities through the southwestern deserts to California. d. Southern Pacific: New Orleans to San Francisco via Los Angeles (1884) e. Great Northern Railroad: Duluth, Minn. to Seattle; completed in 1893 i. Created by James G. Hill, probably the greatest of all the railroad builder. -- Believed prosperity of railroad depends on prosperity of area it serves ii. Hill ran agricultural demonstration trains along his lines and imported bulls from England which he distributed to farmers. C. Railroad Consolidation and Mechanization 1. Cornelius Vanderbilt (1794-1877) a. Popularized the steel rail; replaced the old iron tracks of the NY Central RR -- Steel safer and more economical since it could carry a heavier load. b. Amassed a fortune of $100 million dollars 2. Jay Gould and Russell Sage by 1880 controlled much of railroad traffic in West. a. Gutted their railroads by stock watering and pocketing profits rather than reinvest. b. Gould had earlier tried to corner the gold market during Grant's presidency. 3. Significant improvements in railroad building a. Steel, standard gauge of track width, Westinghouse air brake, b. Pullman Palace Cars afforded luxurious travel, introduced in 1860s. D. Significance of America’s railroad network 1. Spurred the industrialization of the post-Civil War years (especially steel) 2. Sprawling nation became united physically. 3. Created enormous domestic market for US raw materials and manufactured goods. -- Probably the largest integrated market in the world. 4. Stimulated creation of 3 Western frontiers: mining, agriculture, and ranching 5. Railroad led to great cityward movement of late 19th c. -- Railways could feed huge numbers of people; supply raw materials and markets 6. Facilitated large influx of immigrants. -- Advertised in Europe free travel to new farms in the American West. 7. Spurred investment from abroad 8. Concept of time altered with creation of distinct "time zones" from coast to coast. 9. Maker of millionaires; a new railroad aristocracy emerged 10. Native Americans displaced and herded into ever-shrinking reservations. E. Railroad corruption by the "Robber Barons" 1. Jay Gould: Forced prices of stocks to boom and bust on some of his lines. 2. stock watering: Railroad stock promoters grossly inflated value of railroad stock. -- Railroad managers forced to charge high rates and wage ruthless competition to pay off the exaggerated financial obligations. 3. Railroad tycoons, for a time, became the most powerful people in America. a. Bribed judges and legislatures, employed effective lobbyists, and elected their own men to office.("Senatorial Roundhouse" cartoon) b. Gave free passes to journalists and politicians. 4. Eventually ruled as an oligarchy instead of cut-throat competition. a. "Pools" i. Formed defensive alliances to protect their profits. ii. Competing firms agreed to divide the market, establish prices, place profits in a common fund, and pro-rate profits. b. Some gave secret rebates or kickbacks to large corporations.. c. Slashed rates on competing lines but made up difference on other lines. d. Hurt farmers with long-haul, short-haul practices 5. Cornelius Vanderbilt: "Law! What do I care about the Law? Hain’t I got the power?" -- Ruined opponents rather than sue them legally. F. Government regulation of the "Robber Baron" railroad tycoons 1. Initially, Americans slow to react to the excesses of the railroad plutocracy. a. Jeffersonian ideals hostile to gov’t interference with business. b. Dedicated to free enterprise and to the principle that competition fuels trade. -- Believed anyone could become a millionaire; the "American dream" c. Adam Smith: The Wealth of Nations (1776) – "bible" of capitalism. 2. Supreme Court decisions a. Depression of 1870s inspired farmers to protest against being forced into bankruptcy by unfair railroad policies. -- Organized agrarian groups such as the Grange (Patrons of Husbandry) pressured many midwestern legislatures to regulate the railroad monopoly. b. Slaughterhouse Cases, 1873 -- molded Court's interpretation of 14th Amendment for decades. i. Court ruled protection of "labor" was not a federal responsibility under the 14th Amendment but a state responsibility. ii. Significance: Protected businesses from federal regulation if they engaged only in intrastate commerce (within a state). c. Munn v. Illinois, (1877) -- (One of so-called farmer "Granger Laws") -- Decision: Public always has the right to regulate business operations in which the public has an interest; ruled against railroads d. Wabash case, 1886 i. Significance: Supreme Court ruled that individual states had no power to regulate interstate commerce; responsibility rested with the federal gov’t. -- In effect, overturned Munn v Illinois. ii. Illinois law had prohibited short haul & long haul practices iii. Stimulated push for Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 e. 1886, Court ruled a corporation was a "person" under the 14th Amendment. i. Thus, extremely difficult for federal gov't to regulate corporations especially since Court justices and many gov't officials often sided with corporations. ii. Railroad companies in particular hid behind the decision. 3. Interstate Commerce Act passed in 1887 (despite Cleveland’s disapproval) a. Set up Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) (most important provision) to enforce and administer the new legislation b. Prohibited rebates and pools and required railroads to publish their rates openly. c. Forbade unfair discrimination against shippers and outlawed charging more for short haul than long haul over the same line. d. Positive result -- provided an orderly forum where competing business interests could resolve their conflicts in peaceful ways. e. Yet, ICC didn’t effectively regulate the railroads; more of a panacea to public. f. 1st large-scale attempt by fed. to regulate business in the interest of society. -- Precedent for future regulatory commissions in 20th century. III. Industrialism and Mechanization A. Civil War profiteering created huge fortunes and a class of millionaires now eager to invest. B. Natural resources fed industrial growth. 1. Mesabi Range deposits in Minnesota-Lake Superior region yielded huge tracts of iron ore for steel industry. 2. Unskilled labor, both domestic and foreign, was now cheap and abundant. C. Whitney’s interchangeable parts concept now perfected by industry. 1. Cash register, stock ticker, and typewriter facilitated business operations. -- Women increasingly entered the workplace to run these machines. 2. Patents increased significantly between 1860-1890 3. Urbanization spurred by the refrigerator car, electric dynamo, and the electric railway. D. Alexander Graham Bell’s telephone (1876) 1. Telephone network created nation-wide within a few years. 2. Young women (usually middle class) worked as operators. -- Office positions still within "Cult of Domesticity" parameters E. Thomas A. Edison 1. Electric light (most famous), phonograph, mimeograph, Dictaphone, moving pictures. -- "Genius is 1% inspiration and 99% perspiration" 2. Electricity became another cornerstone of the industrial revolution -- Cities illuminated, electric railcars, etc. IV. The Trust emerges -- destruction of competition A. "Vertical integration" -- controlling every aspect of the production process 1. Pioneered by Andrew Carnegie: steel co. mined ore in Mesabi Range (leased from Rockefellar), shipped ore to the Great Lakes, railroaded to steel factories in Pittsburgh. 2. Goal is to improve efficiency by making supplies more reliable, controlling the quality of the product at all stages of production, and eliminate middlemen’s fees 3. Not as detrimental as horizontal consolidation. B. "Horizontal integration" -- Consolidating with competitors to monopolize a given market. 1. John D. Rockefellar: Pioneered the "trust" in 1882 as a means of controlling his competition through the Standard Oil Company. 2. Trust: Stockholders in various smaller oil companies sold their stock and authority to the board of directors of Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Company. a. Stockholders receive trust certificates and the board of trustees exercises full control of the business. b. Trust consolidated operations of previously competing enterprises. c. Standard Oil eventually cornered the world petroleum market. d. Was worth about $900 million upon his retirement in 1897. -- Incredible considering auto industry not born yet. C. "Interlocking directorates" mastered by J. P. Morgan 1. Depression of 1890s drove many struggling businessmen into Morgan’s arms. 2. Sought to consolidate rival enterprises and ensure future harmony by placing officers of his own banking syndicate on their various boards of directors. 3. Eventually, holding companies, came to thwart anti-trust legislation a. Bought controlling shares of stock in member companies instead of purchasing companies outright. b. While the "held" companies remained separate businesses on paper, in reality, the holding company controlled them. c. Holding Companies made trusts unnecessary and permitted actual mergers. D. Concentrtion of financial power enhanced economic growth, paved the way for large-scale mass production, and stimulated new markets. V. The Steel Industry emerges A. Cornerstone of the 2nd American Industrial Revolution 1. Held together skyscrapers, coal scuttles, railroad tracks. 2. Typified "heavy industry" which concentrated on making "capital goods" rather than consumer goods. 3. By 1900, U.S. was producing as much steel as Britain and Germany combined. B. Bessemer process -1850s 1. Turned iron into steel. 2. Steel could now be readily produced for locomotives, steel rails, and the heavy girders used in building construction. C. Andrew Carnegie 1. Brought to America from Scotland as a boy by impoverished parents in 1848. 2. Disliked monopolistic trusts a. His organization was a partnership that involved about 40 "Pittsburgh Millionaires" at one point. b. Henry Clay Frick -- his general manager and partner 3. By 1890, Carnegie was producing about 1/4 of the nation’s Bessemer steel 4. Eventually sold his company to J. P. Morgan for over $400 million 5. Spent rest of life giving money away to the public: libraries, pensions for professors, etc. -- in all, about $350 million. D. J. Pierpont Morgan 1. Owned a Wall Street banking house which financed the reorganization of railroads, insurance companies, and banks. -- Reputation for integrity; did not believe "money power" was dangerous unless it was in the wrong hands. 2. In 1901, he launched the enlarged United States Steel Corporation a. Combination of Carnegie’s holdings and others, and stock watering. b. Corporation capitalized at $1.4 billion making it America’s first billion dollar corporation (greater than sum of entire nation in 1800!) -- However, half of stock’s worth was water c. Elbert H. Gary, a co-leader of USX. 3. Charles Schwab also important in shaping steel industry (Bethlehem Steel) VI. The Petroleum industry and other trusts A. First well in PA in 1859 started U.S. petroleum industry overnight. 1. Oil would dwarf the wealth generated by all the gold extracted in West. 2. Kerosene emerged as standard for lamps, crippling the old whale-oil business. B. John D. Rockefellar 1. Came from a modest background and became a successful businessman at 19. 2. In 1870, organized the Standard Oil Co. of Ohio. -- By 1877, Rockefeller controlled 95% of oil refineries in U.S. 3. Pursued a policy of rule or ruin; ruthless in his business tactics -- Believed he was obeying law of nature -- survival of the fittest. 4. Standard Oil produced a quality product at a cheap price which fueled important economies home and abroad a. Large-scale methods of production and distribution b. Consolidation proved more profitable than ruinous price wars. C. Gustavus F. Swift & Philip Armour became kings of the meat industry -- Enormous profits from western herds D. Andrew Mellon 1. Financier who became one of America’s greatest venture capitalists 2. Expert ability to select, back, and acquire shares of promising business ventures such as Aluminum Co. of America, Gulf Oil Corporation, and the Pittsburgh Coal Company. VII. "nouveau riche" – arrogant class of "new rich" after Civil War A. Older American aristocracy of successful merchants and professionals highly resentful and concerned about the change in the order of society 1. Patrician families losing power and prestige in the face of the "new rich" 2. Economic liberty and community involvement being overshadowed by monopoly and political machines. B. Antitrust crusaders generally led by the "best men" -- genteel old-family do-gooders who were conservative defenders of their own vanishing influence. -- Roosevelts, Wilson, Mugwumps C. Despite plutocracy and deep class divisions, the captains of industry provided material progress. D. Social Darwinism 1. Charles Darwin -- Origin of the Species ("survival of the fittest" theory) -- Although Darwin’s work was rooted in biology, others used his theory as the foundation for promoting the virtues of free-market capitalism. 2. Herbert Spencer -- advocated idea of Social Darwinism a. Applied Darwin’s theory of natural selection to human competition b. Established sociology as a respected discipline in the U.S. 3. "Millionaires a product of natural selection": William Graham Sumner --What Social Classes Owe to Each Other E. Some argued that Divine Providence was responsible for winners and losers in society 1. God had granted wealth as He had given grace for material and spiritual salvation of the select few. -- John D. Rockefeller: "The good Lord gave me my money" 2. Resembled "Divine Right of Kings" in justifying power 3. Identify of interest idea held that existing hierarchy was just and decreed by God. 4. Those who stayed poor must be lazy and lacking in enterprise. a. Many of the new rich had succeeded from modest beginnings (Carnegie) b. Rev. Russell Conwell: "Acres of Diamonds" lectures made him rich. -- "There is not a poor person in the U.S. who was not made poor by his own shortcomings." F. The Gospel of Wealth -- justified uneven distribution of wealth by industrialists 1. Andrew Carnegie: The Gospel of Wealth synthesized prevailing attitudes of wealth and survival of the fittest. 2. Wealth was God’s will 3. Stated money should be give away for the public good but not to individuals in want (Rockefeller gave away $550 million by his death at age 97). 4. Believed in the long run extreme disparities of wealth were good for the "race," because the wealthy added to civilization. 5. Believed alternative to inequities of wealth was universal squalor. 6. Identity-of-interest argument G. By 1890, value of all property in U.S. estimated at $65 billion; $25 billion of which was represented in the assets of corporations. VIII. Government regulation of trusts A. Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890 1. Created in response to public demand for curbing excesses of trusts. 2. Provision: Forbade combinations in restraint of trade, without any distinction between "good" trusts and "bad" trusts. 3. Largely ineffective as it had no significant enforcement mechanism. a. First 7 of 8 decisions presented by attorney general were shot down by Court. -- U.S. v. E.C. Knight, Co. 1895 – Court ruled sugar refining was manufacturing and not trade or commerce! b. More trusts formed in 1890s under President McKinley than during any other like period. c. Not until 1914 (Clayton Anti-Trust Act) was the Sherman Act given teeth. 4. Ironically, used by corporations to curb labor unions or labor combinations that were deemed to be restraining trade. B. Public interests now eclipsing private enterprise in political power due to such acts as the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 and the Sherman Anti-Trust Act. -- Revolutionary in the sense that public was shifting toward government protection IX. The "New South" A. The Changing South after the Civil War 1. Politics: for Southern whites, Democratic party only viable political organization. -- To ensure its control, each southern state passed legislation taking voting rights away from blacks (e.g., literacy tests, poll taxes, and "grandfather clauses.") 2. Social: White leadership adopted Jim Crow laws that required racial separation of public facilities. -- Most political/economic power remained in hands of powerful white aristocracy. 3. "Redeemers" and "Bourbons": Powerful conservative oligarchy that controlled every Southern state government after the end of Reconstruction. -- Although at times similar to antebellum planter class, it also included merchants, industrialists, railroad developers, or financiers. B. "New South" --Some gains made in textile industry but by 1900, South still produced a smaller % of nation’s manufactured goods than it had before the Civil War. 1. Henry W. Grady, editor of the Atlanta Constitution, most famous of southerners who urged the South to out-produce the North commercially and industrially. 2. Mill towns: Most visible signs of Southern industrial expansion after Reconstruction. a. Textile factories encouraged by Southern conservative governments, which could offer low taxes, a cheap labor supply, and an abundance of water power. b. Mill towns controlled their workers’ lives. While providing community and solidarity among workers, mill towns prevented union organization. C. The Tobacco Trust 1. Tobacco industry grew dramatically after 1880 when machine-made cigarettes replaced hitherto practice of rolling one’s own 2. James Buchanan Duke & family: mass-produced slim cigarettes: Amer. Tobacco Co D. Industrialism partially impaired by high railroad rates traveling northward. E. Agriculture still dominated; South remained rural, industrialism slow to take hold 1. Plantation system degenerated into a pattern of absentee land ownership among both with and black sharecroppers. 2. Crop-lien system was at the core of Southern agriculture -- Sharecropping a. A farmer mortgaged his ungrown crop in return for use of land and to acquire supplies form the owner of a local store selling tools or seed. b. Since merchants seldom had competitors, farmers paid inflated prices for goods purchased on credit as well as high interest. c. Often, a farmers harvest was given away in its entirety to the merchant but the farmers still remained in debt. d. Indebtedness tended to increase annually resulting in the eventual loss of land for the farmer. e. This system of economic tyranny contributed in increase in cash crop growth as the were seen as a more profitable way of paying off debts. F. The "Lost Cause" and "Redemption" 1. Southerners remained proud of their defiance in defense of states’ rights during the Civil War. 2. After Reconstruction ended, "Redemption" resulted in Confederate memorials and cemeteries commemorating the "Lost Cause." 3. Joel Chandler Harris: Uncle Remus (1880) a. Harris’ tales depicted antebellum slave society as a harmonious world. b. Nostalgic tales popular and showed the role and power of the Southern past. X. Impact of the Second Industrial Revolution on America A. Standard of living rose sharply as well-fed American workers enjoyed more physical comforts than any other nation. B. Urban centers mushroomed as factories increasingly demanded more labor C. American agriculture eclipsed by industrialism: railroads, steel, oil, electricity D. Free-enterprise eclipsed by monopoly E. The work-place became regimented and impersonal F. Women achieved social and economic independence as careers in typing, stenography, and switchboard operators became available. -- Marriages delayed, smaller families resulted G. Social stratification most pronounced in U.S. history 1. By 1900, about 10% controlled 90% of the nation’s wealth. 2. Lower classes envious and resentful of the nouveau riche H. Foreign trade developed as high U.S. productivity threatened to flood American market. XI. Rise of the Labor Movement A. Conditions for workers in the 2nd industrial revolution were precarious 1. Low-skilled jobs make workers expendable as number of workers abundant a. Automation created short-term losses of jobs; better in long-run b. Before mechanization, most manufacturing done by skilled craft workers (such as shoemakers, saddle-makers, etc.); earliest unions were trade unions. c. Working conditions often dismal and impersonal d. Recourse minimal the face of the vast power of industrialists i. Strikes often nullified by the use of "scab" workers ii. Conservative federal courts often ruled in favor of corporations iii. Corporations could also ask states to call in troops. iv. Employers could lock-out rebellious workers & starve them into submission. v. Forced to many to sign "ironclad oaths" or "yellow dog contracts" which were agreements not to join a labor union. vi. Also blacklisted uncompliant workers. e. Corporations sometimes owned a "company town" where high priced grocery stores, easy credit, and sometimes rent deductions created a cycle debt. f. Public grew tired of frequent strikes; often unsympathetic to the workers’ plight. -- Strike seemed to many foreign and socialistic and thus, unpatriotic. 2. Labor’s goals of curency reform, greenback currency, and opposition to national banks alarmed conservatives for the rest of the century. -- Yet, wages were perhaps the highest in the world. B. Civil War boosted labor unions 1. Drain of human resources put more value on labor 2. Mounting cost of living created urgent incentive to unionization. -- By 1872, several hundred thousand organized workers and 32 national unions existed including crafts as bricklayers, typesetters, and shoemakers. 3. Collective bargaining emerged as standard union practice. C. National Labor Union organized in 1866 (led by William Sylvis) 1. Major boost to the union movement. -- Designed to bring together skilled craft unions into one large one 2. Lasted 6 years; attracted about 600,000 workers inc. skilled & unskilled farmers 3. Focused on social reform (such as abolition of the wage system) but also fought for goals such as 8-hr. work-day and arbitration of industrial disputes. -- Succeeded in getting 8-hr day for gov’t workers but laws had no means of enforcement and provisions were not implemented. 4. Blacks formed their own national labor union in 1869 when they were no longer welcome in the NLU. 5. NLU killed by depression of 1870s. D. Molly Maguires (formed in 1875 by Irish anthracite-coal miners in Pennsylvania) 1. Members were part of an Irish American secret fraternal organization (Ancient Order of Hibernians). 2. Mollies used intimidation, arson, and violence to protest owners’ denial of their right to unionize. 3. President of Reading Railroad called in Pinkerton detective agency for help. -- Mollies infiltrated and incriminting evidence was gathered. 4. Mollies destroyed and twenty of its members hanged in 1877. 5. The Mollies became martyrs for labor and a symbol for violence among conservatives. E. Great Railroad Strike (1877) 1. Several railroads informed workers wages to be cut by 10% for 2nd time since 1873. 2. First nationwide strike; paralyzed railroads throughout the East and Midwest and idled some 100,000 workers. a. Later, farmers, coal miners, craft workers, and the unemployed joined in. b. Involved 14 states and ten railroads. 3. President Hayes sanctioned use of federal troops in PA; set precedent for future federal intervention. -- Led to over 100 deaths and terrified propertied classes. 4. The strike inspired support for the Greenback-Labor party in 1878 and Workingmen’s parties in the 1880s. F. Knights of Labor seized the torch of the defunct NLU. 1. Background a. Led by Terence Powderly – a moderate; not a radical b. Founded in 1869 as a secret society (like the Masons and others) -- Officially known as The Noble and Holy Order of the Knights of Labor c. Secrecy continued through to 1881 to forestall possible reprisals by employers. d. Used republican imagry associated with Lincoln that each man should have a say in the political and economic issues that affected him. e. Much of leadership and membership was Irish. 2. Sought to include all workers in "one big union" including blacks & women. a. Excluded only liquor dealers, gamblers, lawyers, bankers, and stockbrokers. b. Industrial unionism idea was ahead of its time (not seen until 1930s). -- Most 19th c. unions were trade unions with skilled workers. 3. Campaigned for economic and social reform a. Producers’ cooperatives and codes for safety and health; end to child labor. i. Cooperative idea paralleled the Grange in the west. ii. Sought to replace wage system with all workers owning factories. b. Fought for an 8-hr workday through winning a number of strikes; higher pay and equal pay for women. c. Government regulation of railroads; postal savings banks, gov’t paper currency d. Sought arbitration rather than industrial warfare. i. Discouraged strikes and violence as a means for change ii. Powderly’s ban on strikes would be ignored and lead to the Knight’s demise. e. Won major strike in 1885 against Gould’s struggling railroads. -- Victory increased Knight’s membership to more than 700,000 in 1886. 4. Demise due to the Great Upheaval (1886) – 1,400 strikes involving 500k workers. a. To many, Knights a huge organization that could throw economy into chaos. b. Involvement in a number of May Day strikes in 1886 resulted in 50% failure. c. Haymarket Square Bombing in Chicago i. May 4, 1886, Chicago police advanced on a meeting called to protest alleged brutalities by the authorities in May Day strikes. ii. Alleged German anarchists present who advocated a violent overthrow of gov't iii. A dynamite bomb was thrown in the crowd that killed 8 police; 60 officers injured by police fire; 7 or 8 civilians killed; 30-40 wounded iv.Resulted in the first full-blown red scare in Chicago for 2 months. v. Five anarchists sentenced to death and three others given stiff prison sentences although nobody could prove they had anything to do with the bombing. vi. In 1892, Gov. John P. Altgeld, a German-born Democrat pardoned the 3 survivors after exhaustive study of the Haymarket case. -- Defeated for reelection probably due to a conservative backlash. d. The rise of Workingmen’s parties in various cities scared conservatives who blacklisted members through employers’ associations. -- Employees had to sign "yellow dog" contracts or take "iron clad" oaths. e. Knights of Labor became mistakenly associated with anarchists. -- 8-hr movement suffered and subsequent strikes met with many failures. f. Inclusion of both skilled and unskilled workers proved a fatal handicap. i. Unskilled labor could easily be replaced with "scabs." ii. High-class craft unionists enjoyed a superior bargaining position. -- Became frustrated with giving up their bargaining advantage due to the failure of unskilled labor strikes. iii. Powerly’s cautious leadership squandered rank-and-file mobilization by opposing strikes and forbidding political action. iv. Skilled craftsmen sought a union of exclusively skilled craft unions. g. By 1890s, Knights of Labor had only 100,000 members left who ultimately left to join other protest groups. F. American Federation of Labor (AFL) 1. Formed in 1886 under the leadership of Samuel Gompers 2. Consisted of an association of self-governing national unions with the AFL unifying overall strategy. 3. Gompers’ path fairly conservative; bitter foe of socialism; non-political a. Accepted existence of two conflicting classes: workers and employers. b. Only wanted labor to win its fair share; better wages and hours, and improved working conditions ("bread and butter" issues) c. Did, however, attempt to persuade members to vote for favorable candidates 4. Closed shop -- all workers in a unionized industry had to belong to the union. -- Provided necessary funds to ride out prolonged strikes. 5. Chief strategies of AFL: walk-out and boycott a. By 1900, about 500,000 members (critics called it the "labor trust") b. Shortcomings: did not represent unskilled labor esp. women and blacks. G. Major strikes in the 1890s 1. Homestead Strike (1892) in Carnegie’s steel plant near Pittsburgh a. Demonstrated a strong employer could break a union if it hired a mercenary police force and gained gov’t and court protection. b. Frick & Carnegie announced 20% pay slash for steelworkers c. Amalgamated Association of Iron, Steel, and Tin Workers went on strike and Frick then locked them out. d. Led to worker uprising – factory surrounded; scabs not allowed through lines e. Frick called in 300 Pinkerton detectives. i. Armed strikers forced their assailants to surrender after 9 Pinkertons and 7 workers were killed and about 150 wounded. ii. PA governor brought in 8,000 state militia and scabs replaced workers. iii. In Sept. scores of workers indicted on 167 counts of murder, rioting, and conspiracy; jury eventually found the leaders innocent f. Union was effectively broken. 2. Pullman Strike, 1894 a. Pullman Co. responded to the Great Railroad Strike of 1877 by building a model company town for his workers near the factory in Chicago. b. Pullman Palace Car Company hit hard by the depression & cut wages by 1/3 but maintained rent prices in the company town. c. Eugene V. Debs helped to organize the American Railway Union of about 150K i. Workers went on strike and even overturned some Pullman cars ii. Railway traffic from Chicago to Pacific Coast paralyzed. d. Attorney General Richard Olney sent federal troops stating strikers interfering with transit of U.S. mail. i. President Cleveland: "If it takes the entire army and navy to deliver a postal card in Chicago, that card will be delivered" ii. Troops sent in over Governor Altgeld’s objections and violence spread to several states costing 34 lives. iii. Strike crushed and 150,000 ARU destroyed. e. Debs and his lieutenants sentenced to 6 mos. jail time for contempt of court. -- Debs used his time to read radical literature which laid a philosophical foundation for his later leadership of the Socialist movement in U.S. f. First time gov’t used an injunction to break a strike i. The gov’t made striking, an activity not previously defined as illegal, a crime -- Labor cried "gov’t by injunction" ii. Laborites held in contempt of court could be imprisoned w/o jury trial. iii. Populists & other debtors concerned as Pullman episode proof of an alliance between big business and the courts. 3. Between 1881-1900, 23,000 strikes occurred involving 6.6 million workers. a. Biggest weakness: only represented abut 3% of all working people. b. Public finally began to accept workers’ right to organize, bargain collectively, and strike. -- Labor Day made a legal holiday by Congress in 1894. H. Labor movement by the early 20th century 1. Lochner v. New York (1905) – Supreme Court overturned a New York law limiting New York bakers to 60/hr weeks. 2. Danbury Hatters case, 1908 in CT had assessed more than $250K on striking hatmakers who were striking; workers were to lose savings and homes. a. Supreme Court had ruled trade union had violated Sherman Act by interfering with interstate commerce. 3. Supreme Court in 1908 upheld use of broadest injunctions and did much to destroy organized labor. -- In 1910 membership had been reduced to 1.5 million, down from 2 million in 1904 250k in 1897; 870k in 1900 4. AFL vigorously entered national politics in 1908 and endorsed Democratic party 5. Clayton Anti-Trust Act, 1913—exempted unions from Sherman Antitrust provisions. a. Hailed by Gompers as "the magna carta of labor." b. By 1917 AFL membership reached 3 million 6. "Red Scare" after World War I led to crackdowns on labor and the movement declined significantly until Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal in the 1930s. URBANIZATION: 1865-1900 I. The Rise of Urban America A. Population in 1900 doubled to about 80 million since the census of 1870 (105 million by 1920) 1. Population in cities tripled; by 1900 40% of Americans lived in cities. 2. By 1900, New York had 3.5 million people; 2nd largest in world (London 1st) a. Chicago and Philadelphia had over 1 million people. b. No American city had 1 million people in 1860. B. Skyscrapers emerged as steel allowed for taller buildings and elevators were perfected. 1. Louis Sullivan (1856-1924) -- "form follows function" when making buildings. 2. Brooklyn Bridge (John A. Roebling) linked 1st & 3rd largest cities in U.S. C. Commuting increased due to mass-transit e.g. electric trolleys -- streetcar suburbs emerged D. Megalopolis emerged divided into distinctly different districts for business, industry, and residences; segregated by race, ethnicity, and social class. E. Economic and social opportunities lured people to the city; rural America could not compete 1. Commercial districts mushroomed, with department stores emerging 2. Also lure of entertainment, immenities such as electricity, indoor plumbing, and telephones 3. City a new frontier of opportunity for women (over 1 million new workers in 1890s) a. Social workers, secretaries, store clerks, seamstresses, telephone operators, bookkeepers. b. Many worked in deplorable conditions (such as sweat shops) c. Middle and upper-class women usually did not work – not acceptable. -- Teaching and nursing were among few acceptable vocations. d. By 1900, over 5 million women worked for wages i. 18% worked in clothing and garment trades or textile mills. ii. Nearly 40% were domestic servants. ii. Others were farm laborers, teachers, and salesclerks. e. Most workingwomen were young, poor, and unmarrried. f. Castes emerged among women workers i. Clerking open to mainly "American" girls – WASP; respectable work ii. Factory work did not gain instant respectability. -- Usually farm girls or working-class girls -- These workers could be accepted by those higher on social ladder. -- Women’s Trade Union League & other female unions active in this class. iii. Domestic servants considered on the bottom class -- Usually foreign-born (usually Irish) or black -- Often worked 12/hrs per day, 6 days a week. -- Had no organizations to improve their situations. F. Class distinctions became most pronounced in America history by 1900 1. New class of super-wealthy : the nouveau riche a.1890: Wealthiest 1% of families owned 51% of real and personal property b.Meanwhile, 44% of familes at the bottom owned 1.2% of all property. 2. Wealthy (incl. nouveau riche) and well-to-do = 12% of families; 86% of wealth. a. Poorer & middle classes = 88% of families but owned only 14% of wealth. b. Traveled to Europe as children, attended colleges or academies, owned more than one house, boats, carriages, and automobiles. c. Employed several servants. d. Believed in identify-of-interest idea of social order. 3. Middle class a. Lower end: salesmen, clerks and government workers; teachers b. Upper end: lawyers and doctors c. Mostly WASP (but poorer in South, West, and Midwest) d. Usually lived in relatively large homes; employed at least one domestic servant. e. "Respectable" women didn't debate public issues; didn't attract attention to themselves. -- No middle ground existed between purity and immorality. 4. Workingclass a. Usually Catholic (esp. Irish), foreign (esp. E & S Europe), or black b. Between 23% and 30% of work force out of work for some period every year. c. In 1900, nearly 20% of children under 15 worked in non-agricultural work. d. About 20% of women worked, most were young—between school & marriage. G. Cities had deplorable conditions. 1. Rampant crime: prostitution, cocaine, gambling, violent crime. 2. Unsanitary conditions persisted as cities could not keep up with growth 3. Perfection of "dumbell" tenement in 1879; 7 or 8 stories high with little ventilation while families were crammed into each floor (50% of New York City housing) II. "New Immigration" occurred after 1880 A. Between 1850 & 1880, over 6 million immigrants came to U.S. (part of "Old Immigration") 1. Most Anglo-Saxon who came from Britain & Western Europe (Germany, Scandinavia) -- Most were literate and easily adapted to American society 2. Before 1880 the stereotype of immigration was German and Irish a. Germans seen as sturdy, hardworking, serious people. i. Constituted largest number of immigrants in 19th century. ii. After upheavals of late 19th c., seen as socialists, anarchists, and communists. iii. Germans could be Protestant, Catholic or Jewish. iv. Some joined Republican party and gained respectablility among WASPs b. Irish seen as dirty, drunk, immoral, Catholic, and violent i. 2nd in numbers to German immigrants by end of century (though largest in number between 1840-1860) ii. Became America’s first proletariat; could not afford land. iii. Climbed to middle-class through politics. iv. Most were Democrats and gained political stereotypes: bossism, herd voting, corruption (although it was widespread in both parties). -- Civil service reform largely a nativist, class reaction against Irish. B. "New Immigtaion": Between 1880 amd 1920 about 27 million immigrants came to the U.S.; about 11 million went back. 1. Most came from Eastern and Southern Europe (Italians, Jews, Poles, Greeks, Hungarians, Croat/Slovenian, Slovaks, and Bulgarian/Serbian/Montenegrin, Czech) 2. By 1910 1/3 of Americans either foreign born or had one parent foreign born. (only 19% in 1890). a. Most came through Ellis Island in New York harbor from 1882-1954 -- Others came through Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Charleston, Galveston, Mobile, New Orleans, and West Coast ports. b. Came to live in enclaves in NY & Chicago where their numbers were larger than their Old World cities. 3. Many were Orthodox Christians or Jewish (from Eastern Europe) 4. Came from countries with little democracy. 5. Heavily illiterate C. Struggled to maintain their cultures in America 1. Many Catholic parochial schools & Jewish Hebrew schools established 2. Foreign-language newspapers, theaters, food stores, restaurants, parishes, social clubs. 3. 1st generation Americans often rejected culture of parents and became mainstreamed D. Why immigration from Eastern & Southern Europe? 1. Overpopulation in Europe and rapid industrialization left many with either no where to go or forced many to change their customary occupations. 2. America seen as a land of opportunity (conditions in Europe dismal) -- Statue of Liberty erected in NY harbor, a gift from the French. -- "Give us your tired, your poor/ Your huddled masses yearning to breath free/ The wretched refuse of your teeming shore." -- Emma Lazarus 3. Industrialists sought low-wage labor, railroads sought buyers for their land grants, states wanted more population, and steamship lines wanted more business. 4. Persecution of minorities in Europe a. Jews savagely persecuted in Russia in 1880s esp. in Polish areas i. Most fled to NY. ii. Resented by German Jews who had arrived decades earlier as well as WASPs iii. Most had lived in cities in Europe as tailors or shopkeepers iv. Difficult to assimilate since they lived together in slum enclaves. b. Ethnic & religious minorities in Europe faced conscription, economic hardship and persecution. 5. About 25% of 20 million who came between 1820 & 1900 went back to Europe. a. Earned enough money to improve their lives in the Old World b. Had no intentions of Americanizing. E. Chinese immigration (not considered part of "New Immigration") 1. Burlingame Treaty in 1868 between U.S. and China allowed unrestricted immigration to work on the transcontinental railroad a. Sec. of State Seward hoped to open Chinese markets to U.S. goods. b. By 1870, accounted for 9% of California population; 75,000 2. Chinese in America a. Came to work gold fields and build the transcontinental railroad. b. Highest percentage of immigrants in America who returned home. c. Chinatowns developed with mostly all single men -- The few Chinese women who came were turned into prostitutes d. Most worked as cooks, laundrymen, or domestic servants. 3. After railroad completed, Chinese immigration continued causing intense friction with white workers in California, esp. Irish led by Denis Kearney in San Francisco. a. Bad economic times stemming from 1873 Panic a major cause. b. Employers used Chinese workers as a hedge against unionization. c. "Coolies" terrorized in streets: many killed, others had pigtails sheared off. -- Also persecuted in mining towns in Colorado 4. Workingmen’s Party of California -- led by Kearney a. Formed in 1877 called for exclusion of Chinese from California and the U.S. i. Emerged into large party; earlier helped draft California constitution in late-1840s ii. Claimed Chinese were taking jobs from American workers. b. California Constitution denied Chinese jobs on public works projects and stated they could not work for companies in the state. c. Influenced national policy. 5. Chinese Exclusion Act (1882): Ended Chinese immigration (lasted until 1943) III. Reaction to New Immigration A. Political machines catered to new immigrants 1. Bosses often traded jobs and services for votes creating powerful immigrant voting blocks for their own purposes. -- Provided employment on city’s payroll, found housing for new arrivals, gave gifts of food and clothing to the needy, helped with legal counseling, and helped get schools, parks, and hospitals built in immigrant neighborhoods. 2. Tammany Hall in NYC most infamous political machine a. George Washington Plunkett a minor boss in the Tammany machine gained notoriety for his pandering to immigrants and corruption. i. Plunkett would get word from civil boards about imminent projects and he would secretly buy land and resale it to the city at a higher price. ii. He called it "honest graft" 3. Reformers infuriated by these practices; wanted to curb power of political machines B. Social Crusaders attempted to improve the "shame of the cities" 1. Motivation: fear of violent revolution among the working class. 2. Social Gospel advocates emerged a. Christianity should improve life on earth rather than waiting for the afterlife. i. Sought to improve problems of alcoholism & unemployment ii. Tried to mediate between managers and unions iii. Did much to spark the Progressive reform at the turn of the century. b. Walter Raushenbusch c. Washington Gladden -- Sought to open branches in working class districts. d. Salvation Army: arrived from England in 1879 -- Appealed to the poverty stricken; free soup most obvious contribution 3. Settlement House Movement a. Primarily a women’s movement of white, northeastern and midwestern stock, college educated and prosperous. i. Teaching or volunteerism were almost the only permissible occupations for a young woman of her social class. ii. Women prohibited from involvement in politics (Victorian ideal & cult of domesticity) b. Jane Addams (1860-1935) ("St. Jane") i. One of first generation of college-educated women -- She believed living among the poor would give meaning to lives of young educated women who needed firsthand experience with realities poverty in the city. ii. Est. Hull House in Chicago (along with Ellen Gates Starr) -- American settlement house where immigrants were taught English, offered classes in nutrition, health, and child care, discussed the day’s events, and could hold celebrations. -- Helped immigrants cope with American big-city life; provided child-care -- Became a model for other settlement houses in other cities. iii. Condemned war as well as poverty and won Nobel Peace Prize in 1931. c. Lillian Wald -- Henry Street Settlement in NY. d. Settlement houses became centers of women’s activism and social reform. i. Florence Kelley most important figure -- Won legislation regulating hours and working conditions for women and children (also sought to help African Americans) -- Served 3 decades as general secretary of Nat’l Consumers League. -- Pioneer of occupational safety legislation. -- Socialist views. 4. American Red Cross launched in 1881 under leadership of Clara Barton who had been an "angel" of the Civil War battlefields. 5. Municipal Housekeeping: concentrated on the quality of life in poor neighborhoods. -- Street cleaning, slaughterhouses and butchering, sanitation in public schools, pure milk and water, and suppression of vice. 6. American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to animals founded in 1866. 7. YWCA founded in 1858 -- eventually became a boon to young women in urban areas. C. Antiforeignism or "nativism" 1. Nativists viewed Eastern and Southern Europeans as culturally and religiously exotic and often treated them badly. a. Alarmed at high birthrates common among people of low standard of living b. More alarmed at prospect of mongrelized America with a mixture of "inferior" South European blood. c. Angry at immigrant willingness to work for "starvation" wages. d. Concerned at foreign doctrines e.g. socialism, communism & anarchism. 2. Antiforeign organizations a. American Protective Association (APA) formed in 1887 i. Urged voting against Roman Catholic candidates for office ii. Soon, claimed a million members. b. Labor leaders infuriated at use of immigrants as strike breakers. 3. Rev. Josiah Strong:Our Country, 1885 a. Congregational minister who condemned cities as wicked places b. Disliked immigrants and their impact on cities c. Also condemned real city problems such as low worker wages leading to gambling, robbery, and extortion for survival. IV. The New Morality A. Many WASPs concerned moral principles (middle-class Victorian ideals) now under attack 1. Victoria Woodhull’s periodical Woodhull and Clafin’s Weekly included much feminist propaganda including appeals for women’s suffrage, equal rights, and "free love." B. "Comstock Law" of 1873 passed by Congress forbade publishing of material provocative sexual material. V. Prohibition of Alcohol A. Liquor consumption increased in years following Civil War. 1. Immigrant groups resisted temperance or prohibition laws. 2. Saloons in late-19th century were exclusively male. B. Woman’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) organized in 1874 1. Led by Francis Willard a. Increasingly saw drunkeness as a result of poverty, not cause of it. b. Put enormous pressure on states to abolish alcohol; somewhat successful. 2. Most important female organization in the 19th c. and most powerful lobbying group. 3. Championed planned parenthood. 4. Most important women's suffrage group in late 19th c. (incl. blacks and Indians) 5. Supported 8-hr work day and supported Knights of Labor C. Carrie A. Nation used her hatchet to smash saloon bottles and bars -- Her actions hurt the prohibition movement (she was arrested over 30 times) D. Anti-Saloon League formed in 1893 1. Picked up WCTUs fight but had more political connections to get legislation passed. 2. By 1900, 25% of Americans living in communities with restrictions on alcohol. E. Statewide prohibition laws was now sweeping new states during the Progressive Era. -- In 1919, 18th Amendment made alcohol illegal (lasted only 14 years). VI. Women’s fight for liberation and suffrage A. Woman growing more independent in the urban environment 1. Less children born as couples used birth control increasingly; marriages delayed. 2. Extra children not economically feasible B. National American Women’s Suffrage Association (formed in 1890) 1. Women’s rights movement had split after Civil War. a. National Women’s Suffrage Association founded in 1869 i. Included Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Susan B. Anthony. ii. Exluded men; opposed black suffrage until women could vote. b. American Women Suffrage Association led by Lucy Stone. i. Included men ii. Supported black suffrage as stepping-stone to female suffrage. iii. Worked for suffrage at state level rather than national level. -- Successful in gaining suffrage in Wyoming (1869) and Utah (1870) 2. The rival NWSA and the AWSA merged in 1890 to form the WAWSA 3. Women’s rights movement unable to make headway between 1896 and 1908. C. WCTU—most important suffrage organization for women prior to 1910s 1. In 1876 focused energies toward achieving of female suffrage. 2. Claimed drunkeness ruined homes and could be abolished only through temperance legislation, which men alone would not enact. 3. Narrowed focus to prohibition after Willard’s death in 1898. D. Gains for women 1. Women increasingly permitted to vote in local elections esp. issues related to schools. 2. Wyoming, Colorado, Utah and Idaho granted full suffrage -- In California, liquor lobby defeated suffrage; believed (correctly) women would seek to outlaw liquor. 3. Most states by 1890 passed laws to permit wives to own or control their property after marriage. VII. Churches confront urban challenge A. Protestant churches suffered heavily from population shift to the city. B. Dwight Lyman Moody: Urban revivalist (sometimes considered part of Social Gospel) -- Urban circuit rider adapted old-time religion to the facts of city life. C. Catholic Church: kept the common touch better than many of leading Protestant churches. D. Church of Christ, Scientist (Christian Science) est. by Mary Baker Eddy in 1879 -- Preached that the true practice of Christianity heals sickness VIII. Charles Darwin disrupts the Churches A. Origin of the Species (1859) brought forth theory that humans had slowly evolved from lower life forms -- soon summarized to mean "survival of the fittest." 1. Cast serious doubt on the literal interpretation of the Bible, esp. creationism 2. Conservatives or "Fundamentalists" stood firmly on the Scripture as the inspired and infallible Word of God; condemned the "bestial hypothesis" of Darwinians. 3. "Modernists" refused to accept the Bible in its entirety as either history or science. -- Henry Ward Beecher C. Rifts occurred as a result in post-Civil War churches and colleges. IX. Education A. Public education continued to gain strength 1. Tax-supported elementary schools adopted on a nationwide basis before Civil War. -- Ideal that free gov’t cannot function successfully if people were ignorant. 2. By 1870, more and more states making at least a grade-school education compulsory. -- Helped check abuses of child labor. 3. Public high schools spread significantly by 1880s and 1890s. B. "Normal schools" (teachers-training schools) expanded after Civil War C. Kindergarten also saw wide support (earlier borrowed from Germany) 1. Private Catholic parochial schools spawned from New Immigration, fast became a pillar of U.S. education system. D. Chautauqua movement launched in 1874 in NY to educate adults through nationwide lectures that often featured well-known speakers inc. Mark Twain; often held in tents -- Chautauqua courses of home study made available; 100,000 enrolled in 1892 alone. E. Illiteracy rate dropped from 20% in 1870 to 10.7% in 1900. -- Education in cities generally more effective than in rural America. X. Higher education A. By 1900, 25% of college graduates were women. B. Morrill Act of 1862 granted public lands to states for support of education. 1. "Land-grant colleges" mostly became state universities; also supplied military training. C. Hatch Act of 1887 supplemented Morrill Act 1. Provided federal funds for est. of agricultural experiment stations in connection with land grant colleges. 2. Sought research for breeding disease-resistant strains of plants and animals, increased productivity, development of new crops, and new uses for overabundant crops. D. Philanthropy supplemented federal funds for higher education: Cornell, Stanford, Univ. Chicago E. William James: served 35 years on faculty at Harvard. 1. Principles of Psychology(1890) helped est. modern discipline of behavioral psychology. 2. Pragmatism (1907) most famous work a. Described America’s greatest contribution to the history of philosophy. b. Truth was to be tested, above all, by the practical consequences of an idea, by action rather than theories. XI. The Press A. Newspapers 1. Editorials akin to Greeley were diminishing. 2. Sensationalism was climbing as public thirsted for sex, scandal, and other human interest stories. 3. Joseph Pulitzer: Yellow Journalism attributed to his newspapers 4. William Randolph Hearst also built up a powerful chain of newspapers -- Like Pulitzer extremely sensationalistic in his editing for increased circulation. 5. Syndicated news such as the emerging Associated Press helped check sensationalism. C. Reform Press (some sought panaceas, others focused on specific reform) 1. The Nation, founded by Edwin L. Godkin in 1865, became era's most influential journal. a. Liberal and highly intellectual, read largely by professors, preachers, and publicists. b. Advocated civil service reform, honesty in gov’t, and a moderate tariff. 2. Henry George: Progress and Poverty (1879) a. Though available land still plentiful, increased demand increased property values, making land speculators rich. b. A single tax of 100% on those with land appreciation would eliminate speculation i. Everyone would be able to buy land. ii. Workers would become farmers; resulting labor shortage would increase wages and end unemployment. iii. Poverty and crime would end iv. His ideas horrified the wealthy 3. Edward Bellamy: Looking Backward (1888) a. Socialistic novel: hero, falling into a hypnotic sleep, awakens in 2000. b. "Looks backward" and finds social and economic injustices of 1887 have been erased under an idyllic gov’t, which has nationalized big business to serve the public interest. i. Money abolished; no more unemployement, strikes, violence, etc. ii. Not unlike Star Trek’s futuristic utopian setting (on earth) c. Bellamy clubs (Nationalist clubs) emerged to discuss his mild utopian socialism -- Heavily influenced Populist movement. 4. Henry Demarest Lloyd -- Wealth against Commonwealth (1894) a. One of first anti-big business tracts to come from a member of the elite. b. Influential model of investigative journalism: grew into muckraking in 20th century c.Criticized Standard Oil for corrupting the political system. d. His remedy was socialism gained through peaceful means. 5. Thorstein Veblen -- The Theory of the Leisure Class (1899) -- Assailed the nouveau riche 6. Jacob A. Riis -- How the Other Half Lives (1890) a. Exposed the dirt, disease, vice, and misery of the rat-infested New York slums b. Heavily influenced Theodore Roosevelt 7. Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Woman and Economics (1898) a. Considered a classic masterwork of feminist literature. b. Called on women to abandon their dependent status and contribute to the larger life of the community through productive involvement in the economy. c. Advocated centralized nurseries and cooperative kitchens to facilitate women’s participation in the work force. -- Anticipated day-care centers & convenience-food services of a half-century later. 8. Coin Harvey’s Financial School advocated silver standard/soft money 9. By century's end, sweeping panaceas had lost appeal; reformers worked to solve specific problems thus leading to Progressive Movement XII. Post-Civil War literature A. Horatio Alger: Juvenile fiction designed to instill idea of America as "land of opportunity" 1. Stressed virtue, honesty, and industry were rewarded by success, wealth, & honor. 2. Main characters in his books depicted rags to riches stories. B. Walt Whitman 1. Revisions of Leaves of Grass 2. "O Captain! My Captain!" inspired by the assassination of Lincoln. C. Emily Dickinson: One of America’s most gifted lyric poets D. Realist school 1. Romantic sentimentality of pre-Civil War era giving way to a rugged realism that reflected the materialism of an industrialized society. 2. Mark Twain (1835-1910) a. Masterpieces: The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876) and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1884) b. Captured frontier realism and humor in the authentic American dialect which changed American literature. 3. Bret Harte (1836-1902): Gold rush stories made him famous 4. William Dean Howells: editor in chief of Atlantic Monthly -- Wrote about ordinary people and about contemporary and sometimes controversial social themes (such as divorce) 5. Stephen Crane (1871-1900) a. Wrote about the rough life in urban and industrial America b. Red Badge of Courage (1895): story of a bloodied young Civil War recruit under fire; written entirely from the printed Civil War records. 6. Henry James (1843-1916) -- brother of William James -- Frequently made women his central characters and explored their inner reactions to complex situations that marked him as a master of "psychological realism." XIII. Art in the late 18th century and early 20th century A. Realist school 1 Winslow Homer (1836-1910): Preeminent marine painter; The Gulf Stream 2. James McNeill Whistler (1834-1903): portrait painter 3. Thomas Eakins -- realism B. Ashcan School ("Ash Can School") -- progressive era realism formed in 20th century 1. Painting should reflect life as it happened, and should celebrate the vitality of urban experience for ordinary people. 2. Later organized 1913 Armory Show which presented European abstract art to Americans for the first time. SETTLING THE WEST: 1865-1890 Intro: Frederick Jackson Turner: Significance of the Frontier in American History (1893) "Up to our own day American history has been in a large degree the history of the colonization of the Great West. The existence of an area of free land, its continuous recession, and the advance of American settlement westward, explain American development." A. Argued closing of the frontier had ended an era in American history. B. Used census reoport of 1890 to explain that settlement of the frontier had provided an explanatory framework for American development. C. His work also illustrates the psychological power of the frontier in that, with its passing, Americans began to realize that revitalizing opportunities wer also vanishing. I. "Great West" or the "Great American Desert" A. From the Great Plains in the east to the California desert in the west. B. Flood of whites to area after Civil War -- 1865, no white people in area (except Mormons in Utah & scattered Spanish-Mexican settlements in Southwest). C. Area inhabited by Plains Indians inc. Sioux & Comanche, southwestern Indians inc. Apache & Navajo, and NW Indians including Nez Perce and Shoshoni. D. By 1890, entire area carved into states except for four territories. 1. Pioneers poured into the vast area in one of the most rapid settlements of such a vast area in all history. 2. Expansion spurred by the Homestead Act of 1862 (see later pages) E. Native Americans stood in the way of expansion on two fronts: westward from the trans-Mississippi East and eastward from the Pacific Coast; epic clash inevitable. F. African-Americans 1. 18% of California population by 1890 2. Many involved in fur trade in 1820s and 1840s. 3. Over 500,000 lived west of Mississippi; many came west as slaves 4. After 1877, about 200,000 blacks moved West, many homesteading in Kansas or Oklahoma. 5. As many as 1 in 4 cowboys were black II. Subduing of Native Americans A. Plains Indians 1. Spanish-introduced horse in 16th, 17th and 18th centuries made Indians more nomadic and war-like as they had more range and competed for resources. 2. By 1860, tens of thousands of buffalo-hunting Indians roamed the western plains. a. Their society was organized into tribes, which were usually subdivided into "bands" of about 500 men and women, each with a governing council. b. Women assumed domestic and artistic roles, while men hunted, traded, and supervised religious and military life. c. Each tribe’s warrior class competed with others to established reputation for bravery. d. Western tribes never successfully united politically or militarily against white power, thus contributing to their defeat by the white society. 3. Government policy toward native Americans: Federal gov’t traditionally regarded Indian tribes both as independent nations and as wards of the state and therefore negotiated treaties with them that required ratification by the Senate. a.Tribes often victimized by incompetent white officials charged with protecting them. b. As white settlers moved west, exerted more pressure for access to Indian lands. c. Gov’t frequently responded by violating treaties they made with Native Americans. d. Concentration policy: 1851, U.S. gov’t began policy of inducing tribes to "concentrate" in certain "inviolable" areas to the north and south of intended white settlement. e. Policy intensified during 1860s; Indians herded into still smaller areas – "relocation" i. Sioux "guaranteed" sanctuary of Black Hills in Dakota Territory. ii. Other tribes relocated to "Indian Territory" (present-day Oklahoma) iii. Bureau of Indian Affairs in the Department of the Interior in charge of the reservations. 4. Indians surrendered ancestral lands provided that they would be left alone and provided with food, clothing and other supplies. a. Federal Indian agents often corrupt giving poor or damaged provisions. -- Some profited handsomely from "savings" of expenditures b. Treaties often disregarded flagrantly while lands seized and game killed. c. Poor administration by BIA resulted in constant conflicts between tribes and nearby white settlers. B. Warfare 1. 1868-1890, constant warfare raged in Western area between Indians & whites. a. U.S. troops largely made of Civil War veterans i. 1/5 of all soldiers assigned to frontier were black (Buffalo Regiment) ii. Led by Sherman, Sheridan ("the only good Indian is a dead Indian") and Custer. b. Plains Indians expert fighters who often had state-of-the-art weapons supplied from fur traders. (repeating rifles) 2. Sand Creek Massacre, Colorado, 1864 a. 1861, Cheyenne & Arapaho forced into desolate Sand Creek reservation due to gold mining. b. Colonel J. M. Chivington’s militia massacred in cold blood about 400 Indians who thought they had been promised immunity and protective custody by the gov’t. 3. Sioux War of 1876-1877 a. Began when gold miners rushed to Black Hills of S.D. in 1875 stampede. b. Warriors led by Sitting Bull took the warpath after treaties violated. c. Led by George A. Custer, federal forces pursued Sioux d. Battle of Little Big Horn i. Custer’s forces clashed with 2,500 well armed warriors in eastern Montana led by Crazy Horse ii. Custer and his 264 men completely wiped out; about 150 Indians dead e. U.S. reinforcements eventually drove Sitting Bull to Canada where he received political asylum; hunger forced them to return and surrender by 1876. 5. Nez Perce led by Chief Joseph (located in Idaho 250 miles west of Portland, Oregon) a. Chief Joseph noble & humane leader, earlier helped white settlers & explorers. b. Nez Perce had ceded much land to U.S. in 1855 in return for large reservation in Oregon and Idaho; later ceded more lands when gold discovered c. 1877, U.S. gov’t ordered removal of Nez Perce from Wallowa Valley in Oregon by agreement or by force. d. War ensued and Nez Perce won several battles before fleeing. e. Nez Perce 75-day, 1,500 mile retreat to Canada; sought out Sitting Bull’s camp in Canada but subdued only 30 miles from border -- 1 day) f. Nez Perce shipped south to malaria infested camp in Kansas before final relocation in Oklahoma; had been promised a reservation in the Dakotas. -- Over a third died of disease g. Nez Perce eventually allowed to return to northwest but not Wallowa Valley. 6. Apache a. Cochise led successful 9-year guerrilla war from base in Rocky Mountains -- Americans offered deal but later reneged b. Apache then led by Geronimo (Arizona, New Mexico) c. Pursued by Federals into Mexico and finally induced to surrender d. Many Apache became successful farmers in OK, where they raised cattle. 7. Battle of Wounded Knee (1890) -- last major clash between U.S. troops and Indians. a. Issue: Army sent end sacred "Ghost Dance" that had spread to the Dakota Sioux. i. Believers of cult expected buffalo to return and God’s wrath to wipe the white man from the face of the earth. ii. Fearful whites (many were Christian reformers on reservations) successfully urged U.S. gov’t to make it illegal. b. 300 Sioux men, women, & children massacred in S.D.; 60 U.S. soldiers killed C. Result of Indian Wars 1. By 1890, effectively all North American tribes in reservations a. U.S. gov’t felt is was cheaper to feed Indians than to fight them. b. Many reservations grossly ignored by gov’t. 2. Killing of buffalo resulted in Indians being subdued a. Extermination of buffalo eliminated food supply, skins, etc. (most sig.) b. Originally 50 million alive; 15 million in 1868; less than 1,000 by 1885 c. Much food supply during railroad construction came from bison while U.S. Armhy and agents of BIA also encouraged bison slaughter. 3. Railroads: transported troops, farmers, cattlemen, sheepherders, & settlers 4. White diseases ravaged Native Americans as well as alcohol. D. National sentiment began to urge reform toward Native Americans 1. Helen Hunt Jackson: A Century of Dishonor (1881) a. Chronicled record of gov’t ruthlessness and deceit toward Indians. b. Had similar emotional impact of Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin c. Inspired movement to assimilate Indians "for their own good." 2. Dawes Severalty Act of 1887 (Allotment Act) -- during Cleveland’s first term a. Reflected forced-civilization views of reformers (and western land speculators) b. Provisions i. Dissolved many tribes as legal entities ii. Wiped out tribal ownership of land. iii. Set up individual Indian family heads with allotment of 160 free acres. iv. Designed to eradicate Indian culture ("for their own good") -- If Indians "behaved" like "good white settlers," they would get full title to their holdings and citizenship in 25 years. -- Probationary period later extended. c. Results: i. Accelerated already advanced decay of traditional Indian culture. -- Army-style boarding schools set up where Indians prohibited to exercise any portion of their culture. ii. 2/3 of Indians’ remaining land was lost -- 1889 land rushes took what was once Cherokee, Creek, & other lands iii. Remained govt’s official Indian policy until 1934 when Indian Reorganization Act ("the Indian New Deal") tried to restore tribal basis of Indian life. iv. Helped Indian population to grow from about 243,000 in 1887 to 1.5 million in 1990. d. Indians finally received full citizenship in 1924. e. Today, 2 million Native Americans live in U.S. III. Impact of the Transcontinental Railroad on the Frontier A. Established three western frontiers 1. Mining 2. Cattle 3. Farming (largely made possible by homesteading or land purchases from railroads) B. Towns sprang up along railroad routes 1. Railroads given alternating square miles of territory 3 miles wide on each side of the track. 2. Railroads sold much land to settlers IV. Mining in the West (first of three frontiers) A. Mineral-rich areas of the West were the first to extensively settled. 1. Following prospectors and commercial miners, ranchers and farmers followed. 2. Copper, lead, tin, quartz, & zinc more profitable than gold or silver in the long term. B. Pike’s Peak, Colorado 1. Gold discovered in 1858 and thousands of "Pike’s Peakers" rushed West. 2. Though only a few of the 100,000 "59-ers" profited, thousands stayed in region to mine silver, or farm grain. C. Comstock Lode discovered in Nevada in 1859 (gold and silver) -- Big population influx resulted in statehood in in 1864 (gave Lincoln 3 electoral votes) D. Copper mining -- Colorado, Montana, Wyoming -- Increased demand for copper due to increased use of telegraph wires, electric wires, and telephone wires. E. Boom towns to ghost towns occurred when mines petered out and towns abandoned. F. Corporations gradually came to dominate mining (need large capitalization) G. Significance of mining 1. Attracted population and wealth to the Wild West 2. Helped finance the Civil War 3. Facilitated building of the railroads. 4. Intensified conflict between whites and Indians. 5. Enabled gov’t to resume specie payments in 1879 6. Introduced the silver issue into American politics. 7. Added to American folklore and literature e.g. Bret Harte & Mark Twain. V. Cattle raising (second of three frontiers) A. Transcontinental railroad facilitated transportation. of meat from long-horned cattle to cities. 1. Cattle now driven to stockyards (e.g. Kansas City & Chicago) 2. Beef tycoons like the Swifts and Armours emerged 3. Refrigerator cars allowed transportation of fresh meat from stockyards to East. B. "Long Drive" 1. Mexican rachers had developed ranching techniques later used by Texans, then by Great Plains cattlemen and cowboys. -- Spanish words: rodeo, bronco, lasso, 2. Texas cowboys included former Confederate soldiers, northern whites, blacks, and Mexicans. 3. Cowboys drove herds through the plains until they reached a railroad terminal -- e.g. Abiline (KA), Dodge City, Ogallala (NB), and Cheyenne (WY). C. Challenges to the "long drive" 1. Homesteaders brought out by trans-continental railroad built barbed-wire (invented by Joseph Glidden) fences that were too numerous to be cut down by the Cowboys. 2. Terrible winter of 1885-86 & 1886-1887 followed by scorching summer killed thousands of steer. 3. Overgrazing and overexpansion also took their toll. 4. Ranchers built heartier stock and fenced them into controlled lands where they could feed and water them to keep them healthy. VI. Farming (the third western frontier) A. Homestead Act of 1862 1. Settler could acquire as much as 160 acres of land by living on it 5 yrs, improving it, and paying a nominal fee averaging about $30 (as low as $10) -- Residency on land required for ownership 2. As an alternative, land might be acquired after only 6 months’ residence at $1.25/acre. B. Departure from previous federal land policy (selling land for revenue) -- Now, given away to encourage settlement of the West and stimulus to the family farm C. Results 1. About 500,000 families migrated to the West. (20,000 by 1865) -- Yet, about 5X as many purchased lands from railroads, land companies, or states. 2. Thousands of homesteaders, maybe 2 of 3, forced to give up in the face of inadequate 160 acre plots and drought, hail, and ravage from insects. 3. Perhaps 10X more of public domain ended up belonging to promoters, not farmers. -- Corporations used "dummy" homesteaders to grab the best properties containing lumber, minerals, and oil. 4. Federal trend of "free land" lasted until 1934 D. Development of the Great American Desert 1. Black sod of the prairies (e.g. Kansas) could now be developed with special plows. -- Land became extremely fruitful and shattered the myth of the Great American Desert 2. Railroads played a role in taming the West. a. Profitable marketing of crops. b. Inducing Americans & European immigrants to buy cheap lands earlier granted by gov’t. 3. Improved irrigation techniques helped deserts to bloom (e.g. Mormons in Utah) 4. Tough strains of wheat resistant to cold imported from Russia. 5. Flour-milling process by John S. Pillsbury of Minneapolis, increased demand for grain. 6. Barbed-wire invented by Joseph F. Glidden in 1874 a. By 1883, his company using his patent was making 600 miles of wire each day. b. Gave farmer greater protection against trespassing cattle VII. End of the Frontier A. Incredible growth from 1870s to 1890s 1. New states: Colorado (1876) 2. 1888-1889: Republican Congress admitted six new States as they sought more Republican electoral votes: ND, SD, MT, WA, ID, WY 3. Utah admitted in 1896 after it banned polygamy in 1890. B. Oklahoma Land Rush, April 22, 1889 1. U.S. made available to settlers vast stretches of land formerly occupied by the Creeks and Seminoles in the district of Oklahoma. 2. Nearly 100, 000 "boomers" or "eighty-niners" poured in from the OK border. a. By day’s end, nearly 2 million acres had been settled. b. "Sooners" -- landgrabers who claimed land illegally before land rush began. 3. By years end, OK had 60,000 inhabitants and Congress made it a territory. 4. In 1907, it became "the Sooner State." C. In 1890, the superintendent of the census announced that for the first time in U.S. History, a frontier line was no longer discernible. 1. All unsettled areas now broken into by isolated bodies of settlement. 2. Yet, more millions of acres taken up after 1890 than between 1862 & 1890. 3. Once frontier was gone, farmers could not move west in significant numbers. -- Had to stay and fight to improve their lot by organizing for political purposes. D. "Safety valve" theory 1. Supposedly, when hard times came, city unemployed moved west to farm and prospered. 2. In reality, few city folk in populous eastern centers migrated to frontier during depressions. a. Did not know how to farm or could not raise necessary $ for transportation, livestock, and machinery. b. Most settlers who moved west came from farms on older frontier. c. In fact, near century’s end, many farmers moved to the city. 3. Free acreage did lure immigrant farmers who would otherwise have stayed in eastern cities further increasing the perils of the slums. 4. Frontier did lure restless and adventurous spirits, mostly young, who wanted to achieve the "American Dream" 5. Frontier did have a psychological impact on easterners who could, if they desired, flee to the frontier. -- May have had an impact in wage increases for eastern workers. VIII. The Farm Becomes a Factory A. Mississippi region experienced somewhat of an agricultural revolution after the Civil War. 1. Farmers concentrated on a single cash-crop such as wheat or corn. a. America became the world’s breadbasket and meat producer. b. Farm attained status of a factory. 2. Massive migration of white and black Americans out of Southern Cotton Belt. -- Largest population shift in American history (most of whom were white). 3. Large-scale commercial agriculture under auspices of entrepeneurial capitalists of the New South, spread beyond plantations into predominantly white small farming regions. B. For farmers, represented one of most wrentching changes in American history. 1. "Crop lien" system was the basis of the commercialization of southern agriculture. a. A planter or merchant extended a line of credit (at exhorbitant interest rates) to a moneyless farmer. i. Impossible for farmer to get out of debt. ii. Resulted in many poor white and black farmers becoming landless tenant farmers or sharecroppers. b. Credit merchants who came to power in post-Reconstruction South acquired much land at the expense of small farmers. i. 1870s: 20% of Southern farmers were tenants, mostly freed slaves. ii. 1910s: 50% of farmers were tenants, many were newly landless whites. 2. Some small-scale farmers, unskilled in business, often blamed banks and railroads rather than their own shortcomings for their losses. 3. Gave rise to Populist movement of victimized farmers. C. Economic problems plaguing farmers 1. Deflated currency and low food prices were the chief worries among farmers. 2. Natural disasters: freezing temperatures, insects, diseases 3. Government-added woes a. Farmers’ land often overassessed making property taxes higher. b. Protective tariffs hurt the South as manufactured product prices increased -- Farmers products unprotected in competitive world market. 4. Agricultural-related trusts soaked farmers: barbed-wire trust, fertilizer trust, harvester trust, and railroad trust (freight rates) 5. Farmers underreprested politically and poorly organized POLITICS IN THE 1890s I. Benjamin Harrison’s presidency A. Thomas B. Reed, Republican Speaker of the House; "Czar Reed" 1. Perhaps most powerful Speaker in history of Congress -- Manipulated House rules to prevent Democrats from blocking legislation. 2. Presided over the "Billion Dollar" Congress that created expensive legislation -- Republicans eager to spend money to offset the surplus created by high tariffs. B. Sherman Anti-Trust Act passed in 1890 C. Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890 (system of bimetallism) 1. Treasury would approximately double minimum amount of silver purchased under the Bland-Allison Act. 2. Western pro-silver advocates agreed to support a protective tariff in return for eastern protectionist support for a silver bill. a. Silverites detested limited silver purchasing under Bland-Allison Act. b. Easterners saw potential profits from a boost in tariffs -- Still, hated the thought of inflated currency c. Result: Did not significantly inflate currency D. McKinley Tariff Bill (1890) 1. Republicans’ reward for supporting Sherman Silver Purchase Act. 2. Raised tariffs to highest peacetime level: 48% on dutiable goods. 3. Disposed of surplus by giving a 2 cent subsidy to American sugar producers. -- Also increased pensions to GAR and lowered internal taxes on tobacco. 4. Raised tariffs on agricultural products. a. Seen by farmers as a hollow gesture as Europeans could not compete with American farmers anyway. b. Some eastern manufacturers raised their prices before the law went into effect. c. Democratic party helped foster anti-Republican sentiment 5. McKinley and 77 other Republican congressmen lost their seats in the 1890 mid-term elections. a. New Congress included 9 members of the Farmers’ Alliances b. Tariff faded as main issue replaced by silver issue. E. Harrison’s Sec. of Treasury permanently reduced gov’t surplus by increasing GAR pensions. 1. Helped save the protective tariff and reduce the gov’t surplus 2. GAR continued vigorous support of the Republican GOP (Grand Old Party) II. Farmers rise politically A. National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry (The Grange) organized in 1867 1. Led by Oliver H. Kelley 2. Primary objective was to stimulate minds of farmers by social, educational, and fraternal activities such as picnics, music, and lectures. -- By 1775, movement claimed 800,000, mostly in Midwest & South 3. Eventually, established cooperatives for both consumers and producers. a. Grain elevators, dairies to store & process products, cooperative stores to purchase supplies. b. Demanded end to railroad monopoly practices c. Attempt to manufacture harvesting machinery ended in financial disaster. 4. Grangers went into politics with success in IL, WI, IO, and MN. a. Strove to regulate railroad rates and storage fees charged by railroads and by the operators of warehouses and grain elevators. b. Granger Laws created to apply principle of public control over private business for the general welfare. c. Munn vs. Illinois (1877): Supreme Court ruled that private property becomes subject to regulation by gov’t through its "police powers" when the property is devoted to the public interest. d. Many Granger Laws written badly and overturned by higher courts who were persuaded by high-priced lawyers of wealthy interests. -- Wabash case (1886): Individual states don’t have right to regulate interstate commerce (effectively overturned Munn decision) e. Due to Supreme Court reverses, esp. Wabash case, Grangers faded rapidly in influence. B. Greenback Labor Party 1. Combined inflationary appeal of the earlier Greenbackers with a program for improving conditions for laborers. 2. Election of 1878, Greenback-Laborites polled over a million votes and elected 14 members to Congress. 3. Election of 1880, Greenback Party ran General James B. Weaver, an old Granger and Civil War veteran. -- Polled only 3% of total popular vote. C. Populism -- Rise of Populist Party 1. Farmers’ Alliances in the South (formed in 1877) and Midwest (formed in 1880) increasingly voicing discontent (Colored Alliance formed in 1889) a. Like Grangers, sponsored social events, active politically, organized cooperatives, sought heavy regulation of railroads and manufacturers. b. 3 Alliances met in 1889 and boasted over 3 million members -- Demanded free siliver and subtreasury plan. c. Many supported or joined Knights of Labor; saw similar goals. d. Major demand of Southern Alliance in 1880s: subtreasury plan i. Called for est. of fed. subtreasury offices alongside warehouses or elevators. ii. Farmers could store nonperishables and subtreasury would loan them up to 80% of value of crop at modest interest and fees. iii. Reason: farmers had poor cash flow during much of the year but large harvests drove prices down. e. Defeat of the Subtreasury scheme in Congress in 1890 led to Alliances taking political matters into their own hands and forming a third party. -- Since Civil War, Greenbackers, Workingmen’s and Knights of Labor parties, and Farmers’ Alliances saw national banks as monopolistic culprits who kept the "producing classes" poor.—the "Eastern Establishment" 2. The People’s Party (Populist Party) emerged in early 1890s as the culmination of the Farmer’s Alliances (started in Topeka, Kansas) a. Attracted recruits from Farmer’s Alliances & disenfranchised southern whites. b. Ignatius Donnelly, elected 3X to Congress, a major figure. -- Formerly known as utopian author (like George & Bellamy) c. Mary E. Lease -- Made about 160 speeches in 1890 denouncing the moneyed aristocracy in Wall Street -- Kansas should raise "less corn & more hell." d. "Sockless" Jerry Simpson, along with Lease, traveled to the South to rouse up Southern Alliance support for Populist unity. e. Tom Watson: elected to Congress in 1890, fought for subtreasury plan, and fought for Populist unity in 1892; became VP runningmate of Bryan in 1896. D. Disenfranchisement and anti-black violence 1. "Pitchfork" Ben Tillman and the beginning of disenfranchisement of blacks a. Tillman, a Democrat, used his Southern Alliance influence to win the governorship of South Carolina and dominate the democratic party there. b. Succeeded in disenfranchising blacks in the state constitution. c. Widespread southern fears of African-Americans in Farmers’ Alliances led to major push for disenfranchisement in the 1890s & Jim Crow. -- Following South Carolina’s lead, southern states made black voting limited in their state constitutions. d. Suffrage restriction essentially a ruling-class campaign against lower-class voters in general, not just blacks. i. Deliberate attempt by New South’s political and economic elite, threatened by the Populists, to destroy party opposition and widespread political participation. ii. Disenfranchised whites from the South also sought reforms despite their race-supremacy ideas since they saw themselves as secondary victims. iii. For 200 years the South had been racially divided but in 1890s white hatred toward blacks became almost genocidal; huge increase in number of lynchings. III. Election of 1892 A. Democrats nominated Grover Cleveland (had been president four years earlier) -- Now more conservative: his law practice in NYC represented wealthy businessmen. B. Republicans renominated President Harrison who championed protective tariff. C. People’s party (Populists) nominated General James B. Weaver 1. Delegates from Alliances, Knights of Labor, Nationalists (Bellamy Clubs) and Land and Labor parties met in Omaha, Nebraska 2. Omaha Platform (written by Ignatius Donnelly a. Free and unlimited coinage of silver at ratio of 16 to 1 (flexible currency) b. A graduated income-tax (redistribute wealth) c. Gov’t ownership of the telephone and telegraph, and railroads. d. initiative & referendum e. postal savings banks (safe repository run by gov’t) f. limiting gov’t land grants to settlers rather than to railroads (a la Henry George) g. direct election of senators h. 8-hour work day i. (subtreasury plan not included because it had been defeated and was a Southern idea—many southerns didn’t support Populists due to racial reasons) 3. Weaver: former abolitionist and general in Union Army; Greenback-Labor Party presidential nominee in 1880. D. Campaign centered on the tariff 1. Epidemic of strikes damaging to Harrison’s cause as workers refuted Harrison’s claim that higher tariffs meant higher wages. 2. Homestead Strike led to loss of thousands of Republican votes. E. Result: Cleveland d. Harrison 277-145; 5,557,000 to 5,176,000 1. Populists won over 1 million votes and 22 electoral votes for Weaver. a. One of few 3rd parties in U.S. history to win electoral votes. b. Support came predominantly from KA, CO, ID, and NV c. 3 governors; 5 U.S. Senators & 10 representatives; 1,500 candidates overall won office 2. Indebted white farmers of the "Solid South" refused to desert Democratic party for fear of losing political power to blacks who claimed more than a million members in a segregated Colored Farmers’ Alliance. IV. Cleveland’s 2nd term in office (1893-1897) A. Panic of 1893 (depression lasted until 1897) 1. Worst depression of the century a. 1st large-scale depression in the new urban and industrial age. -- 20% unemployed in winter of 1893-94 (rivaled Great Depression) b. Brought hardship to masses living in cities. c. 8,000 business collapsed in 6 mos. (including dozens of railroads.) 2. Causes a. Immediate cause: collapse of the stock market. b. Long-term causes: i. Overbuilding of railroads, heavy loans to farmers, overspeculating. ii. Reduced money supply from gradual withdrawal of European capital from U.S. -- Free-silver agitation damaged American credit abroad and European bankers called in their loans iii. Labor disorders iv. Existing agricultural depression. 3. Deficit resulted a. Gold reserves dwindled to below $100 million (regarded as safe minimum to support about $350 million in outstanding paper money) -- Reason: gov’t paid out more for silver purchases than it received for gold with legal tender notes – "endless chain" activities b. Cleveland saw no alternative but to repeal Sherman Silver Purchase Act. i. William Jennings Bryan argued against repeal ii. Cleveland alienated Democratic silverites and disrupted the party. B. Morgan bond transaction 1. By Feb. 1894, gold reserve sank to $41 million a. U.S. in danger of going off the gold standard b. Money would be volatile and unreliable and int’l trade would be crippled 2. Cleveland opted to sell gov’t bonds for gold and deposit proceeds in the Treasury but scheme failed as "endless-chain" operations continued nevertheless. 3. Early 1895, Cleveland persuaded J.P. Morgan and other bankers to lend the gov’t $65 million in gold @ commission of $7 million. -- Bankers made a concession to obtain one-half of the gold abroad and send it to the Treasury. 4. Confidence in the nation’s finances restored for the short-term. C. Coxey’s Army (1894) – "Commonweal of Christ" 1. Led most famous of the "industrial armies" of the unemployed on Washington, D.C.-gained national attention. 2. Coxey was a wealthy businessman who curiously was a currency reformer. -- Had left Democratic pasrty for Greenback-Labor party and later People’s Party. 3. Coxey’s platform included a demand for gov’t to relieve unemployment by an inflationary public works program + increase money supply by $500 million 4. Coxey and his 500 followers arrested in Washington, DC for walking on the grass of the nation’s capital. D. Pullman Strike, 1894 (see Industrialism chapter) 1. Eugene V. Debs helped to organize the American Railway Union of about 150K 2. Attorney General Richard Olney sent federal troops stating strikers interfering with transit of U.S. mail. 3. First time gov’t used an injunction to break a strike 4. Increased worker disenchantment with government. E. Wilson Gorman Bill, 1894 1. McKinley tariff of 1890 had resulted in deficit of $61 million -- Democrats sought to reduce high tariff of 48.4% 2. Wilson-Gorman Bill passed the Senate after significant revision by 634 amendments driving tariffs upwards. a. 2% income tax on incomes over $4,000 put in to please populists. -- Wealthy lawyer Joseph H. Choate: "Communistic, socialistic" b. Bill fell short of establishing a low tariff; 41.3% instead of 48.4% c. Cleveland allowed the bill to pass despite being outraged with its high tariff. 3. Income tax shot down a year later in the Supreme Court (5-4) as it violated the "direct tax" clause – Pollock v. Farmers’ Loan and Trust Co. (1895) a. Thus, only popular feature of the tariff law was axed. b. Populists further incensed by alliance of business and courts. 4. Republicans benefited from ill-fated Democrat sponsored bill; won Congress in 1894 F. William Hope Harvey: Coin’s Financial School (1894) – best seller 1. "Coin" Harvey a fictional character parading as fact -- "Little professor" overwhelmed bankers and professors of economics with brilliant arguments in favor of free silver as cure-all for economy & debtor woes. 2. Fed public feelings of a nat’l & int’l conspiracy to elevate gold above silver esp. the "crime of 1873." V. Election of 1896 A. William McKinley, ex-Congressman fro Ohio, Republican nominee for President. 1. The creation of Marcus Hanna, an iron tycoon, who had bailed McKinley out of a $100,000 obligation a. Hanna believed function of gov’t was to aid business. i. Became symbol of big industry in politics. ii. Believed that prosperity "trickled down" to the laborer. iii. Critics lambasted Hanna for this idea. b. Hanna raised a huge war chest of $3.5 million compared to only $300k for Democrats. 2. Republican platform supported the gold standard but advocated bimetallism (world wide gold-silver standard) a. Really a sham as all other leading nations would have to agree; they wouldn’t b. Platform also praised protective tariff. B. William Jennings Bryan, Democratic nominee; Tom Watson, v.p. nominee from GA 1. Democrats refused to endorse Cleveland for his silver-purchase repeal, Pullman strike, and Morgan bond deal; move suicidal to the party’s hopes in 96’ -- Cleveland left office an extremely unpopular man. 2. Bryan a 36-yr-old from NB. who was the premier orator of his day a. More heart and passion than brains and intellect. b. First politician of his generation to lead a major party as a champion of the poor 3. Cross of Gold speech given at Democratic convention in Chicago "You come to us and tell us that the great cities are in favor of the gold standard. We reply that the great cities rest upon our broad and fertile prairies. Burn down your cities and leave our farms, and your cities will spring up again as if by magic. But destroy our farms, and the grass will grow in the streets of every city in the country... Having behind us the producing masses of the nation … we will answer their demands for a gold standard by saying to them: ‘You shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns, you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold." 4. Democratic platform: unlimited coinage of sliver at ration of 16 to 1 (16 oz of silver to 1 oz of gold); silver in a dollar would be worth about 50 cents 5. Bryan also nominated by People’s party but Bryan did not acknowledge the Populist nomination early enough and the campaign began with uncertainty a. Populists frozen out as Democratic party absorbed their 16 to 1 platform. b. Endorsed Bryan rather than submit to hard-money McKinley. 6. Cleveland and other conservative Democrats: futile attempt to form their own ticket. C. Campaign 1. Bryan forced silver issue to the forefront despite Hanna wanting to focus on tariff. 2. Hanna waged high pressure campaign against silver. 3. McKinley remained at his Ohio home waging his "front-porch" campaign. -- United middle-class voters by characterizing Bryan as threat to their way of life. D. McKinley d. Bryan 271-176 in Electoral Col. ; 7,102,246 to 6,492,559 in popular votes 1. McKinley won in Northeast and North; Bryan in South and West (except CA & OR) 2. Most significant election since Lincoln’s victories. a. Last serious effort by to win White House with agrarian votes. -- Not enough farmers to constitute a majority; even with a personality as compelling as Bryan. b. Republicans remained White House for 16 consecutive years (28 of next 36 yrs) c. Diminished voter participation as Republican party seen as party of the rich. d. Beginning of the "4th party system" -- large population centers determined elections; farmers discouraged and less politically active subsequently. e. African Americans rights abandoned by Republicans since African American vote in the South not important in 1896 election E. 1896 election and the Wizard of Oz (L. Frank Baum) 1. Dorothy – represents everyman of the west; seen as pure and likeable 2. Yellow Brick Road = Gold standard 3. Dorothy’s silver slippers = Soft Money (but no one knows how to use their power) 4. Scarecrow = Midwestern farmers (who are seen as stupid but actually have wisdom) 5. Tin Man = Eastern Labor victimized by Wicked Witch of the East 6. Wizard and city of OZ = Eastern Establishment 7. Cowardly Lion with Big Roar and no bite = William Jennings Bryan 8. Wicked Witch of the East = Corporations of Eastern Finance 9. OZ = An ounce of gold or silver 10.The Wizard of Oz = McKinley (or any other president during Gilded Age) 11. Flying monkeys = plains Indians who were once free but now subdued by witch. 12. Wicked Witch of the West = Forbidding frontier environment (drought, tornados, etc.) 13. water = boon that will thwart drought (Wicked Witch of the West) F. Legacy of Populism 1. Populism fails as a 3rd Party cause but has a political influence for 25 years after its failure in the 1896 elections. 2. Ideas that carry forward during the Progressive Era (1900-1920): a. railroad legislation b. income tax c. expanded currency and credit structure d. direct election of Senators e. initiative and referendum f. postal savings banks 3. Populist ideas are geared to rural life. Many of its ideas will appeal to the urban progressives. VI. McKinley’s Presidency: Domestic matters A. Dingley Tariff Bill (1897) 1. Sought to recover lost revenues as Wilson-Gorman not raising enough. 2. Tariff rate raised to 46.5% up from 41.3% B. Gold Standard Act of 1900 1. Republicans could not pass it until 1900 when silverites had left Congress. 2. Paper money was to be redeemed freely in gold. -- Inflationists dealt one last mortal blow as they faded into the past. C. Moderate and necessary inflation from rapidly expanding economy finally occurred 1. In 1880s & 1890s, prices remained depressed, money was tight, and volume of currency in circulation lagged far behind increasing volume of business. -- Silver too radical a solution: i. Discredited cause for expanded currency ii. Set back movement for agrarian reform 2. New gold discoveries in Canada, Alaska, South Africa, and Australia. 3. New cyanide process for extracting gold from low-grade ore. AMERICAN IMPERIALISM: 1890-1913 Overview: Unlike previous “Manifest Destiny” where expansion was on the North American continent and congruous with existing territory, the new “Manifest Destiny” would extend to islands that were heavily populated, far from the U.S., and not seen as suitable by the U.S. to become territories, and later states, but only as colonies. New imperial influence of U.S. (1898-1917): New territories gained in Spanish American War: Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, Philippines Panama Canal Zone (1903) Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine: U.S. became “policeman” of the Western Hemisphere and justified numerous invasions of Latin American countries. “Dollar Diplomacy” under Taft: Government protected with force American investments abroad. Wilson: Initially an anti-imperialist in rhetoric but invaded more countries than any other president I. Causes of U.S. imperialism A. End of the frontier: 1890 report from the Superintendent of the Census 1. Many Americans believed U.S. had to expand or explode. a. Increase in population, wealth, and industrial production demanded more resources. i. Some feared existing resources in U.S. might eventually dry up ii. Panic of 1893 convinced some businessmen industry had overexpanded resulting in overproduction & underconsumption b. Labor violence and agrarian unrest (Populism) rampant due to industrialism. c. Overseas markets a possible safety valve for U.S. internal pressures. 2. The experience of subjugating the Plains Indian tribes after the Civil War had established a precedent for exerting colonial control over dependent peoples. B. Foreign trade becoming increasingly important to American economy in late 19th c. -- Americans considered acquiring new colonies to expand markets further. C. Desire to compete with Europe for overseas empires. 1. Influential minority sought international status for U.S. like Great European Powers. 2. Between 1870 and 1900, Europeans had taken over 1/5 of land and 1/10 of population of the world. 3. Germany became America’s biggest imperialist foe and largely spurred U.S. into imperialism; Germany sought colonies in Africa, Asia, Latin America & Caribbean. D. Proponents of U.S. expansion 1. Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan: The Influence of Sea Power upon History, (1890) a. Thesis: Control of the sea was the key to world dominance and empire. i. U.S. should build large navy and build defensive bases and refueling stations strategically placed on world’s oceans. -- Take Hawaii and other Pacific islands. ii. Advocated U.S. build a canal across the isthmus of Central America to link Atlantic & Pacific Oceans. b. Helped stimulate naval race among the great powers. c. Persuaded “yellow journalists” to push for modern navy of steel ships. d. By 1898, the U.S. had fifth most powerful navy; third by 1900. 2. Josiah Strong: Our Country(1885) a. Advocated superiority of Anglo-Saxon civilization b. Urged Americans spread religion & democratic values to “backward” peoples. 3. Theodore Roosevelt and Henry Cabot Lodge a. Social Darwinism meant earth belonged to the strong & fit -- U.S. -- Stronger nations dominating weak ones was part of natural law. b. If U.S. was to survive in competition of modern states, it too would have to become an imperial power 4. Senator Albert Beveridge: The American Republic is part of the movement of a superior race, ordained by God 5. “Yellow journalism” of Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst stimulated Americans’ interest abroad. E. Pan-Americanism, James G. Blaine 1. Secretary of State under Presidents Garfield and B. Harrison. 2. “Big Sister” policy aimed to gain Latin American support of U.S. leadership and to open Latin American markets to U.S. products. -- Essentially guaranteed U.S. hegemony in Latin America in 1880s. 3. First Pan-American Conference in Washington, D.C. held in 1889. a. U.S. proposals rejected by Latin American countries. i. Inter-American customs union not appealing because European goods were cheaper for Latin Americans. ii. Hemispheric arbitration organization rejected due to fears of U.S. dominance. b. Opened door for future hemispheric conferences. F. Samoan crisis @ Pago Pago 1. U.S. and German navies nearly engaged each other in 1889 over Samoan Islands. -- Germany did not wish to provoke U.S. and agreed to settlement 2. Issue resolved in 1900 treaty with Germany and Britain a. U.S. gained 76 square miles -- American Samoa including Pago Pago. b. Germany received the two largest islands. c. Britain was compensated with other territories in the Pacific. II. Venezuela Boundary Dispute, 1895-1896 A. Boundary between British Guiana and Venezuela in dispute for over half a century. -- Issue became moot when gold was discovered in the border region. B. President Cleveland warned Britain not to takeVenezuelan territory 1. Violated Monroe Doctrine; U.S. stated it now called shots in Western Hemisphere. 2. London should submit the dispute to arbitration. C. Britain denied legality of Monroe doctrine and refused arbitration. D. Cleveland urged appropriation from Congress for commission of experts who would create an equitable border between Venezuela and Br. Guiana. -- If Britain refused to accept it, U.S. would go to war. E. Britain had no real urge to fight (despite naval superiority of 32-5 in battleship class warships) 1. Biggest reason for British concern: Boer War in South Africa 2. Canada still vulnerable 3. British merchant marine vulnerable to American commerce raiders. 4. British preoccupied with German naval threat and Russian & French unfriendliness. F. London consented to arbitration. G. Results 1. Prestige Monroe Doctrine enhanced 2. Latin American republics pleased by U.S. determination to protect them. 3. Britain courted U.S. for friendship in the face of the continental threat. -- Left U.S. able to pursue aggressive foreign policy w/o British reprisals. III. Hawaii A. Since early 19th century, America gradually came to regard Hawaiian Islands as an extension of the Pacific Coast. B. 1890, McKinley Tariff raised barriers against Hawaiian sugar. -- American sugar planters sought annexation as it would eliminate tariffs. C. Queen Liliuokalani, a nationalist, insisted Hawaiians should control Hawaii --White planters, mostly Americans, alarmed at Queen’s policies and American tariff. D. Tiny minority of white planters led by Sanford B. Dole organized successful revolt in 1893. 1. Openly assisted by American troops who landed under unauthorized orders of U.S. minister in Honolulu, John C. Stevens. 2. Stevens: “The Hawaiian pear is now fully ripe and this is the golden hour for the U.S. to pluck it.” 3. Treaty for annexation rushed to Washington E. Before treaty could be passed through Senate, Cleveland assumed office and refused to sign any annexation bill and sent special investigator to Hawii. 1. Findings indicated majority of Hawaiians did not favor annexation: 2. Provisional gov’t had been established by force 3. Cleveland ordered troops to be removed F. Results 1. Cleveland unsuccessful in reinstating the queen. a. U.S. public opinion would not have tolerated force to unseat white planters. b. Revolutionaries proclaimed a Hawaiian Republic on July 4, 1894 with Dole as president. 2. Annexation abandoned until 1898; Dole served as territorial governor from 1900-03 3. First full-fledged imperialistic debate in U.S. history. a. Cleveland savagely criticized for trying to stem the new Manifest Destiny. b. Cleveland’s motives honorable in the face of international imperialism.. IV. Cuba A. Atrocities in Cuba sensationalized (and even made up) by “yellow press” 1. Spanish misrule as well as the devastating Wilson-Gorman Tariff of 1894 damaged Cuba’s sugar-based economy (many plantations owned by Americans) -- A new Cuban rebellion in the 1890s resulted in American property losses as well as Cuban and Spanish 2. Reconcentration -- Spanish military concentrated masses of Cuban civilians in areas under their control. -- About 100,000 died between 1896 and 1898. -- Spain’s leader in Cuba, Valeriano Weyler, portrayed in “Butcher Weyler” 3. President Cleveland refused to intervene and issued neutrality proclamation. -- U.S. mediation was offered in the conflict but Spain refused. 4. Pulitzer and Hearst attempted to out do each other; lesser competitors also involved a. Hearst sent artist Frederic Remington to Cuba to draw sketches. b. When Remington reported conditions not bad enough to warrant hostilities, Randolph allegedly replied, “You furnish the pictures & I’ll furnish the war.” c. Remington depicted Spanish customs officials as brutally disrobing and searching an American woman.(In reality, female attendants did the duty) 5. McKinley’s ascension to presidency began stronger rhetoric toward Spain. a. In autumn of 1897, McKinley came close to delivering an ultimatum to Spain that would have resulted in war. b. Spain ended reconcentration in 1897, removed Weyler, & gave some autonomy to Cubans c. It appeared war might be avoided. B. Cuban Revolt 1. Spanish in Cuba rioted to protest Spain’s talk of granting Cuba type of self-gov’t. 2. U.S. sent Battleship Maine to Cuba in 1898 a. Aimed to protect and evacuate Americans if danger occurred while also giving voice to popular distaste for Spain’s reconcentration policies. b. Sent ostensibly as a “friendly visit” 3. de Lome letter a. Feb. 9, 1898, Hearst sensationally headlined a stolen private letter written by Spanish minister in Washington, Dupuy de Lome that portrayed McKinley as corrupt and indicated Spain lacked good faith in instituting reforms in Cuba. b. U.S. uproar forced Dupuy de Lome to resign before U.S. called for his recall. C. Explosion of Maine, Feb. 15, 1898 – immediate cause of Spanish American War a. 266 officers and men dead. b. Spanish investigation announced explosion as internal, presumably accidental. c. American version reported blast caused by a submarine mine. -- 1976 U.S. Navy report showed blast inside the ship was accidental. d. Americans accepted the submarine mine view and leapt to conclusion that Spanish gov’t was responsible. Yellow press helped to fuel the public fire. e. Americans now cried for war: “Remember the Maine! To hell with Spain!” V. Spanish-American War -- 1898 A. Spain agreed to US demands: revocation of reconcentration & armistice with Cuban rebels. B. McKinley and Wall Street not eager for war but yellow press forced the issue 1. McKinley did not want war but was savagely criticized by jingoes e.g. TR. -- McKinley did not believe Cuban independence was in U.S. long-term interests. 2. Mark Hanna and Wall Street did not want war: might interfere with trade in Cuba. 3. Public, prodded by yellow press, demanded war to free the abused Cubans. 4. Demands of preserving Republican party biggest factor in decision for war. C. McKinley sent war message to Congress on April 11, 1898. 1. Urged armed intervention to free oppressed Cubans; Congress agreed 2. Teller Amendment -- Proclaimed to the world that when the U.S. had overthrown Spanish misrule, it would give the Cubans their freedom. -- Europeans skeptical D. U.S. army small and weak compared to Spain; U.S. Navy slightly less powerful than Spain’s E. Admiral Dewey victorious at Manila Bay 1. While Secretary of War was away, Undersecretary of War Roosevelt cabled Commodore George Dewey to attack Spain’s Philippines in the event of war. -- McKinley subsequently confirmed these instructions 2. May, 1898, Dewey’s 6 warships sailed into Manila Harbor and destroyed all 10 of Spain’s ten warships; 400 Spaniards killed & wounded; 1 American death (heat stroke) 3. Germans arrived with 5 warships; more powerful than Dewey. a. Dewey threatened German commander with war “as soon as you like” b. False story emerged that British prevented Germans from destroying U.S. fleet. 4. Three months later, American troops finally arrived and captured Manila in August. -- Aided by Filipino insurgents commanded by their well-educated, part-Chinese leader, Emilio Aguinaldo (brought in from exile). 5. After U.S. annexation of Philippines, Aguinaldo led an insurrection against the U.S. F. Annexation of Hawaii (July 1898) 1. U.S. used the pretense of needing Hawaii as a coaling and provisioning way station, in order to send supplies and reinforcements to Dewey in Manila Harbor. 2. White-dominated gov’t in Hawaii eager to be annexed (like Texas earlier) 3. Joint resolution of annexation rushed through Congress and approved by McKinley -- Hawaiians granted U.S. citizenship and received full territorial status in 1900. G. U.S. invasion of Cuba and Puerto Rico 1. Spanish fleet eventually landed at bottle-shaped Santiago Harbor where they were promptly blockaded by the more powerful American fleet. 2. Invading American army took high ground near Santiago without serious opposition. a. Theodore Roosevelt’s Rough Riders part of the invading army. b. Heavy fighting on at El Caney and San Juan Hill where “Rough Riders” charged up after the hill had been largely won. i. Two black regiments provided heavy support (about 1/4 of invasion force) ii. In actuality, the “Rough Riders” first took Kettle Hill; heavy casualties. 3. July 1, Spanish fleet completely destroyed a. U.S.S. Oregon used more firepower than Spain’s 4 armored cruisers combined. -- About 500 Spaniards killed; only one American . b. Santiago surrendered by Spain shortly thereafter. 4. U.S. casualties: about 379 dead in battle; over 5,000 dead due to disease H. U.S. Army invaded Puerto Rico 1. U.S. sought to take the island before the war with Spain ended. 2. Most of population regarded U.S. soldiers as liberating heroes. 3. Spain signed Armistice on August 12, 1898. I. Treaty of Paris, 1898 1. Cuba freed from Spain 2. U.S. received Pacific island of Guam which they had captured early in the war. 3. U.S. gained Puerto Rico, the last vestige of Spain’s American empire. 4. Philippine issue a major dilemma in the negotiations. a. U.S. took Manila the day after Spain sued for peace i. Philippines thus not one of the spoils of war. ii. U.S. agreed to pay Spain $20 million. b. McKinley’s dilemma i. Valuable Philippines larger than British Isles; population of 7 million. ii. Did not feel U.S. should give islands back to Spain esp. after fighting a war to free Cuba. iii. If left alone, Philippines might fall into anarchy -- Perhaps Germany would then seize it creating a world war. iv. Least of evils was to take Philippines and leave independence for later. VI. Imperialism debate touched off by spoils of Spanish American War A. Philippines issue created a huge imperialism debate 1. Expansionist pressure from various groups also forced McKinley’s hand a. Philippines (& Hawaii) seen as necessary stepping-stones to Asia (esp. China). b. Protestant missionaries eager to convert Catholic Filipinos. c. Businessmen clamored for new Philippine market inc. Hanna. d. Raw materials desireable 2. McKinley later reported as saying an inner voice told him to take all the Philippines and Christianize and civilize them after he had knelt seeking divine guidance. B. Democrats tended to be anti-imperialist especially William Jennings Bryan. 1. Feared foreign issues would overshadow much needed reform at home. 2. Some feared foreign workers would lower wages at home. 3. Others feared American factories would be relocated overseas. 4. Colonies would require standing army; farmers’ son’s would be in harm’s way. -- Increased army would result in higher taxes. 5. Others feared mongrelization of America. 6. Exploited racial minorities in America opposed to doing the same overseas. C. Anti-Imperialist League 1. Formed to oppose McKinley’s expansionism. 2. Group inc. presidents of Stanford & Harvard Universities, philosopher William James, and Mark Twain; Samuel Gompers and Andrew Carnegie. 3. Filipinos wanted freedom and annexation violated “consent of the governed” philosophy in the Declaration of Independence. -- Despotism abroad might lead to despotism at home. 4. Annexation would entangle the U.S. politically and military in Asia. D. Expansionists and imperialists 1. Appealed to patriotism and to the glory of annexation. 2. Played up possible trade profits; Manila might become another Hong Kong. 3. Philippines had abundance of natural resources. 4. U.S. should help uplift (and exploit) the world’s poor. E. Senate passed treaty on Feb. 6, 1899 with the unexpected support of Bryan. 1. He claimed the sooner U.S. passed treaty, the sooner Filipinos would get their independence. 2. Responsibility for the Philippines thus rested with the Republicans. F. Insular cases 1. Cases appeared before the Supreme Court concerning extent to which constitutional rights applied to peoples of newly acquired territories. 2. 1901 Supreme Court rulings a. Some rights are fundamental and applied to all American territory. b. Other rights are procedural and should not be imposed upon those unfamiliar with American law. c. Congress must determine which procedural rights applied in unincorporated territories. d. The Constitution did not follow the flag. G. The question of Cuban independence 1. U.S. military gov’t set up under General Leonard Wood (Rough Riders) a. Major advances achieved in gov’t, finance, education, agriculture, and public health. b. Gains made on yellow fever epidemic by Dr. Walter Reed. 2. U.S. withdrew from Cuba in 1902 in honor of the Teller Amendment. 3. Platt Amendment a. Mechanism to ensure that Cuba would not be vulnerable to foreign powers and to maintain U.S. influence in Cuban affairs. b. Cubans forced to write Platt Amendment into their own Constitution of 1901 c. Provisions: i. Cuba bound itself not to impair their independence by treaty or by contracting a debt beyond their resources. -- U.S. gov’t had right to approve all Cuban treaties. ii. U.S. might intervene with troops to restore order and to provide mutual protection. iii. Cubans promised to sell or lease needed coaling or naval stations. -- Guantanamo Bay Naval Base still controlled by U.S. today. VII. Post-war nationalism after the Spanish American War (“splendid little war”--John Hay) A. Established America’s first overseas empire, albeit modest compared to contemporary European standards. B. European powers accorded U.S. more respect; Monroe Doctrine given a significant boost. -- Latin America deeply suspicious of U.S. motives C. Britain became an ally while Germany grew more frustrated. D. Philippines drew U.S. into Asian affairs; later proved a liability to defend (WWII vs. Japan) E. Mahan’s view of necessity for larger navy prevailed; U.S. undertook a large naval buildup. F. Elihu Root improved War Department; later important when U.S. involved in World War I. G. War served to further heal the rift between North and South; soldiers fought side by side. H. Nationalism the result of an urban, mass-culture, industrial society. VIII. Insurrection in the Philippines A. Filipinos assumed they would be granted freedom after the war, like the Cubans. 1. Senate narrowly refused to pass such a resolution; Philippines became a protectorate 2. Filipinos were thus tragically deceived. B. Open rebellion began Feb. 1899; Emilio Aguinaldo declared Philippines independent. 1. More savage fighting and resulted in more casualties than Spanish American War. 2. Filipino armies fled to the jungle where they waged vicious guerrilla warfare. -- Infuriated American troops responded with atrocities 3. 4,300 Americans and 57,00 Filipinos dead C. Anti-Imperialists redoubled their protests. 1. U.S. fighting to free Cuba, was now waging a war 10,000 miles away and depriving the population of their liberty. 2. Atrocity stories boosted their protests (like “Butcher” Weyler in Cuba) D. Insurrection finally broken in 1901 when Aguinaldo was captured. E. McKinley appointed Philippine Commission to make appropriate recommendations in 1901. 1. Led by William H. Taft who called Filipinos his “little brown brothers” 2. U.S instituted education, sanitation, public health, and infrustructure reforms though Filipinos remained resentful.. 3. Philippines finally got their independence on July 4, 1946. IX. Open Door Policy in China A. Foreign powers in China lured by huge Chinese market and missionary zeal. 1. By late 19th c., Japan and western European powers had carved much of China into separate spheres of influence. -- Within each sphere, on nation held economic dominance. 2. Americans manufacturers feared Chinese markets would be monopolized by Europeans while American missionaries had a number of groups in China. B. Open Door Note (summer of 1899) 1. Issued by Secretary of State John Hay (ex-Lincoln secretary) -- U.S. at a disadvantage geographically compared to Russian and Japan and Americans feared they might get frozen out if they didn’t act quickly. 2. Urged all the Great Powers to announce that in their leaseholds or spheres of influence they would respect certain Chinese rights and ideal of fair competition. -- In effect, when any Great Power dealt with a foreign trader, it would observe Open Door. 3. Open Door gained wide acceptance in the U.S. 4. Policy did not gain international acceptance as it was weak and relatively short-lived. C. Boxer Rebellion (1900) 1. Millions of Chinese enraged over Open Door Policy 2. Superpatriotic group of Chinese “Boxers” killed over 200 missionaries & other whites. -- A number of foreign diplomats besieged in Beijing. 3. Multinational force of about 18,000 arrived to put down the rebellion. -- Included Japan, Russia, Britain, France, Germany and U.S. troops (2.5K) 4. Victorious allies assessed an indemnity of $333 million (U.S. share $24.5 mil) a. When Washington found their sum excessive, remitted $18 million. b. Appreciative of U.S., Chinese gov’t set aside money to educate a select group of Chinese students in the U.S. as a gesture of goodwill. -- Students played significant role in westernizing the Orient. D. Hay announced in 1900 that henceforth the Open Door would embrace territorial integrity of China in addition to its commercial treaty. 1. Sought to eliminate carving up of China with Boxer outrages as a pretext. 2. Hay did not ask for formal acceptances. 3. China thus spared partition during these years. -- Probably due more to distrust among great powers than Hay’s policy. X. Election of 1900 and Theodore Roosevelt’s ascendancy to the White House A. Election of 1900 1. Republicans nominated McKinley a. Had won the war, acquired territory, est. gold standard, and brought economic prosperity. b. Platform endorsed prosperity, gold standard, and overseas expansion. -- Yet, between 60-88% of Americans were poor or very poor. c. Theodore Roosevelt nominated as vice president. 2. Democrats nominated William Jennings Bryan -- Ill-conceived platform once again pushed for free silver 3. Campaign similar to 1896 a. McKinley waged a “front porch” campaign b. Bryan campaigned throughout the nation criticizing Republican imperialism and support of trusts; imperialism issue now passe. c. Teddy Roosevelt out-campaigned Bryan and cut into his Midwest following. -- Claimed that Bryan would rock the boat of prosperity. 4. McKinley d. Bryan 292-155 and by nearly 900,000 popular votes. B. McKinley assassinated in Sept. 1901 by deranged anarchist (Polish immigrant), Leon Czolgosz 1. TR became the youngest president thus far in U.S. history at age 42. 2. Roosevelt pledged he would carry out policies of his predecessor. C. Theodore Roosevelt 1. 1st President to play a significant role in world affairs 2. Imperialism in the Western Hemisphere: “Speak softly but carry a big stick [and] you will go far” 3. Major proponent of military and naval preparedness. XI. Panama Canal A. Spanish-American War emphasized need for a canal to connect Atlantic & Pacific Oceans. -- U.S. now had to protect Puerto Rico, Hawaii, the Philippines, & the U.S. merchant marine. B. Overcoming legal challenges 1. Clayton-Bulwer Treaty of 1850 prohibited any country from securing exclusive control over an isthmian canal. 2. Between 1878 & 1889 the builder of Suez Canal, Ferdinand de Lesseps, could not make a canal in Panama work. U.S. now eager to take over project. 3. Hay-Pauncefote Treaty (1901) a. Britain agreed to give U.S. right to build canal and right to fortify it as well. b. Britain occupied with unfriendly Europe and South African Boer War. 4. Colombian Senate rejected a treaty negotiated with the U.S. for a canal in Panama (which was part of Colombia); declared U.S. inadequate for such a valuable region. C. Creation of Panama -- “gunboat diplomacy” on part of U.S. 1. French representative, Phillipe Bunau-Varilla, worked with Panama revolutionists to raise tiny “patriot” army and win independence from Colombia. 2. Nov. 3, 1903, Panama revolution a. U.S. naval forces did not allow Colombian troops across the isthmus. b. Nov. 6, TR extended recognition of Panama. 3. Hay--Bunau-Varilla Treaty (November, 1903) a. Bunau-Varilla, now Panamanian minister despite his French citizenship, signed treaty in Washington with Sec. of State John Hay. b. Provisions: i. U.S. would pay Bunau-Varillas’s New Panama Canal Co. $40 million. ii. Zone of canal widened from 6 miles to 10 miles. D. Roosevelt’s role in Panama issue became controversial 1. Although American public initially saw Roosevelt’s role in Panama as politically legitimate, TR in 1911 claimed “I took the canal,” thus sparking a wave of controversy. 2. U.S. suffered diplomatically as Europeans sneered at apparent U.S hypocrichy. 3. Latin American countries grew weary of the “Colossus of the North” in the face of Puerto Rico, Cuba, and now Panama. E. Canal completed in 1914 at initial cost of $400 million 1. Organization perfected under Colonel George Washington Goethals. 2. Colonel William C. Gorgas, made canal zone safe by using sanitation methods he also used in Havana. XII. Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine A. Motivation: TR concerned German & British bill collection violated Monroe Doctrine. 1. Specifically, both Venezuela and Dominican Republic owed much money 2. Venezuela Crisis, 1902 -- Germany sank two Venezuelan gunboats trying to seek forced payment for heavy Venezuelan debt to Germany. -- Britain also owed by Venezuela 3. TR devised policy of “preventive intervention” (Roosevelt Corollary) B. Policy: In future financial crises concerning Latin American debt, U.S. would intervene, take over customshouses, pay off the debts, and keep European powers out of the Western Hemisphere. 1. U.S. had moral obligation because it would not allow European nations themselves to intervene in bankrupt “banana republics.” 2. Thus, U.S. became "Policeman of the Caribbean." -- Contrasted with Monroe Doctrine that had merely told Europeans to stay out. 3. TR’s policy radical departure but its association with Monroe Doctrine helped it to gain public acceptance. 4. More than any other factor, policy promoted the “Bad Neighbor” policy toward Latin America during these years. 5. Policy eventually used to justify wholesale interventions and repeated landings of U.S. marines C. In 1905, a Dominican treaty gave U.S. supervisory powers over Dominican tariff collections. -- In effect, Dominican Republic became a protectorate of the U.S. D. Cuba 1. U.S. kept high tariffs against Cuban sugar at behest of U.S. sugar growers. 2. Resulting recession in Cuba combined with discontent over Platt Amendment led to a Cuban revolution in 1906. 3. TR sent in Marines in 1906 who remained until 1909. 4. U.S. troops would reoccupy Cuba in 1917 during WWI and remain until 1922. XIII. Russo-Japanese War (1904) and Japanese-American relations A. Russia and Japan went to war over issue of ports in Manchuria & Korea. 1. Japan destroyed much of Russian fleet -- First defeat of a non-European power since the Turkish invasion of 1500s. 2. As war dragged on, Japanese ran short of men and money. 3. TR eager to prevent either side from gaining a monopoly in Asia but did not seek war. a. Concerned about safety of newly acquired Philippines. b. Japan secretly asked Roosevelt to help sponsor peace negotiations. B. Treaty of Portsmouth (1905) 1. Both sides met at Portsmouth, NH, in 1905. a. Japanese demanded huge indemnity and all of strategic Sakhalin island. b. Russians refused to concede defeat. 2. Agreement: Japanese gained southern half of Sakhalin but no indemnity. -- Secretly, TR agreed to accept future Japanese dominance of Korea. 3. For his mediation, TR received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1906. -- Also for his helping arrange int’l conference at Algeciras, Spain in 1906 to mediate North African disputes. 4. Negative results: a. U.S. -- Russian relations soured that TR robbed them of military victory. -- Savage massacres of Russian Jews drew U.S. protest b. Japan felt robbed of its indemnity and blamed U.S. -- Naval arms race bet. U.S. & Japan in Asia resulted as mutual distrust grew C. San Francisco Schoolboard Incident 1. 1906, 70,000 Japanese immigrants poured into California as a result of dislocations and tax burdens caused by the Russo-Japanese War. -- Californians feared being confronted with another “yellow peril” and feared mongrelization of the races; formed influential Asian Exclusion League. 2. Local San Francisco school officials ruled Asian children should attend a special school. -- School system hard pressed in face of devastating 1906 earthquake. 3. People of Japan furious over discrimination, highly sensitive to race issues. a. Irresponsible talk of war sizzled in the “yellow press” b. TR concerned of California starting a war other states would have to fight. 4. TR invited entire San Francisco Board of Education to the White House. a. Coerced Californians to repeal the order and accept what came to be known as the “Gentleman’s Agreement” b. Provisions: i. Japanese agreed to stop flow of laborers to U.S. ii. Californians agreed not to ban Japanese from public schools. D. U.S. -- Japanese Relations to 1920 1. Fearing Japanese perception of U.S. weakness, TR sent the “Great White Fleet” on a highly visible tour around the world in 1907 starting in VA. 2. Root-Takahira Agreement (1908) a. U.S. and Japan pledged to respect each other’s territorial possessions in the Pacific and to uphold the Open Door in China. b. TR regarded the voyage of his fleet as his most important contribution to peace. 3. Lansing-Ishii Agreement (1917) a. U.S. acknowledged Japan’s “special interests” in China through reiteration of its Open Door policy. b. Aimed partially to reduce German influence in & around China in WWI. XIV. "Dollar Diplomacy" under President Taft (1909-1913) A. Two aspects: 1. Using foreign policy to protect Wall Street dollars invested abroad (esp. Far East) 2. Using Wall Street dollars to uphold foreign policy. a. Sought to reduce rival powers e.g. Germany, from taking advantage of financial chaos in the Caribbean. b. Thus, U.S. bankers would strengthen U.S. defenses and foreign policies while bringing prosperity to the U.S. 3. Thus, “Dollar Diplomacy” supplanted the “Big Stick” B. China -- Manchurian Railroad Scheme 1. Taft saw the Manchurian railway monopoly by Russia and Japan as a threat to the Open Door. 2. 1909, Taft proposed that a group of U.S. and foreign bankers buy the railroads and turn them over to China under a self-liquidating arrangement. a. Plan ill-conceived as Japan and Russia refused to give up important railroads. b. Taft showered in ridicule. C. Caribbean 1. Washington urged Wall Street bankers to pump money into Honduras and Haiti to keep out foreign funds. 2. Ultimately, U.S. sent forces to Cuba, Honduras, the Dominican Republic, and Nicaragua to restore order. XV. Imperialism under Wilson -- aimed to reinforce Western Hemisphere in the face of WWI. A. Although Wilson hated imperialism he eventually invaded more countries in Latin America than any other president in U.S. history (to protect U.S. lives and property in those countries) 1. Kept marines in Nicaragua making that country, in effect, a U.S. protectorate. 2. U.S. forces sent to Haiti in 1914-15 when Haitian president torn to pieces. 3. 1916, U.S. marines sent to Dominican Republic when riots & civil war broke out. a. Debt-cursed country became a protectorate of U.S. 4. 1917, U.S. purchased Virgin Islands from Denmark -- Caribbean sea increasingly now dominated by U.S. (along with Panama route) B. U.S. invaded Mexico in attempt to capture Pancho Villa. AMERICAN SOCIETY IN THE 1920s I. Political philosophies A. Radical (Socialist/ Communist in this era) -- refers to advocating drastic revolutionary changes in society and in the gov’t. B. Conservative -- refers to preserving the existing order; conserving rather than changing (often means pro-business) C. Reactionary -- desire to move society backwards into a past society, usually idealized. -- Mugwumps; some Progressives wanting to return to WASP ideals D. Liberal -- advocating changes in society’s institutions to reflect changing conditions. -- Progressive movement E. These terms refer to means as well as ends; one can pursue radical goals by conservative means, e.g., socialists running for political office in a democratic political system (Eugene Debs) II. "Americanism" in the 1920s A. "Red Scare" and the "Great Unrest" 1. Overview: a. Fear of radicalism (esp. Bolshevism), large numbers of strikes, and bombings resulted in street violence and government crackdown on suspected radicals. b. "Red Summer" resulted in deaths of blacks and whites due to racial violence. -- Apex of racial violence in 20th century. 2. Oct. 1917, Bolshevik Revolution in Russia sparked paranoia that communism would spread to the U.S. a. Two small communist parties formed in the U.S. (70,000 members total) b. WWI anti-German hatred transferred to any foreigners 3. Large numbers of strikes occurred after World War I (economy not ready for returning soldiers from Europe); 4 million workers went on strike after WWI a. Largely result of inflation during the war and frustrated union-organizing drives. i. More strikes occurred in 1917 but number of strikers far more in 1919. -- 20% of all workers; largest proportion in U.S. history. ii. Wilson lifted war-time price controls but refused to lift anti-strike regulations. iii. Corporate leaders repudiated war-time concessions they had made to labor. iv. Millions of returning veterans furious at the economic situation at home. -- Price of food doubled; cost of clothing nearly tripled v. Labor had sacrificed during the war and would now expect payback. b. Many Americans believed that labor troubles were the result of Bolshevism. -- Evangelist Billy Sunday: described a Bolshevik as "a guy with a face like a porcupine and a breath that would scare a pole cat.. If I had my way, I’d fill the jails so full of them that their feet would stick out the window." c. Wilson’s 6-month absence from the U.S. to negotiate Versailles Treaty began to cripple federal gov’t during the Great Unrest of 1919. d. Seattle General Strike (Jan, 1919) – most famous general strike in U.S. history. i. 35,000 shipyard workers went on strike after they failed to get wage increase to compensate for inflation during the war. ii. All unions in Seattle, 60,000 additional workers, demanded higher pay for shipyard workers. iii. Although strike peaceful and orderly, conservatives feared a European-style labor takeover. iv. Seattle mayor called for federal troops to head off the "anarchy of Russia." -- Later toured U.S. bragging he had put down Bolshevik uprising e. Labor sought industrial democracy: AFL, liberals and Socialists. i. Permanent federal ownership of railroads (like all other nations) ii. Board of directors representing consumers, labor and gov’t would set policy but workers would manage railroads on daily basis. iii. Public and railroad workers would divide all profits. iv. Conseratives viewed this as blow to representative gov’t. v. Voted down by Congress in August 1919. f. Boston Police strike (Sept. 1919) i. Over 70% of Boston’s 1,500 policemen went on strike seeking wage increases and the right to unionize. -- Some worked between 73 to 98 hrs per week with no pay for parade duty. -- Some hailed the strike as another victory for the Bolsheviks. ii. Gov. Calvin Coolidge called out the National Guard stating there was "no right to strike against the public safety by anybody, anywhere, anytime". -- Refused Gompers’ offer to settle strike, demanding police had no right to form a union. -- Coolidge became a national hero (vice president in less than 2 years) iii. Most frightening strke in the minds of many Americans. -- Police went on strike in 37 other cities. iv. Police were fired and a new force was recruited from national guards. g. Steel Strike: i. AFL attempted to organize the steel industry in Sept. 1919 -- Major shift: now attempting to organize unskilled labor by industry -- Sought 8-hr day, 6-day week, end to 24-hr shift every 2 weeks, & union recognition. ii. Judge Elbert H. Gary, head of USX refused to negotiate on grounds that representatives of AFL were not his employees. -- Nearly half of nation’s steel workers worked for USX iii. After much violence and the use of federal and state troops, the strike was broken by January 1920. iv. Failure of strike marked hardening of Americans on labor matters. f. United Mine Workers of America Strike: under John L. Lewis struck for shorter hours and higher wages on November 1, 1919. i. Attorney General Palmer obtained injunctions and the union called off the strike. -- Wilson used WWI legislation that prohibited strikes in war industries ii. An arbitration board later awarded the miners a wage increase. 4. Palmer Raids a. After bomb scares, Wilson’s Attorney General, A. Mitchell Palmer, got $500K from Congress to "tear out the radical seeds that have entangled American ideas in their poisonous theories." (Palmer aspired for Democratic pres. nom. in 1920) i. Identities of persons who sent bombs never identified: radicals, Bolsheviks and Wobblies blamed. ii. May Day violence against Socialists done by servicemen esp. Cleveland, Boston, & NY. (although servicemen in Europe more violent towards radicals) iii. Some terrorist bombings in 1919 & 1920 inc. Wall Street (38 dead) & Palmer’s Washington home. iv. Several cities required teachers to sign loyalty oaths; emphasized "Americanism. b. Nov. 1919, 249 "radicals" deported to Russia after nationwide dragnets; mostly anarchists i. Many orders came from Mrs. Wilson and the president’s secretary. ii. American Legion took the lead in going after dangerous foreigners. -- Inherited role from GAR during WWI. c. Jan. 2, 1920, 5,000 suspected communists arrested in 33 cities during i. Most seized w/o warrants, denied attorneys, deprived of food, heat and other bathroom facilities. ii. 550 Russians were deported; many were U.S. citizens. d. Public reaction i. Most Americans condoned Palmer’s actions. ii. Many began to question the compromising of individual rights. -- IWW and other radicals vigorously prosecuted. -- 1920, 5 members of NY legislature denied seats because they were Socialists. e. "Red Scare" ended in Summer of 1920 when alleged May Day strikes never occurred. -- Palmer was discredited. f. Conservatives used the "red scare" to break the backs of fledgling unions. i. Labor’s call for "closed" shop denounced as "Sovietism in disguise." ii. Recession of 1921 futher weakened unions -- Prices fell faster than wages; by 1922 real wages up 19% than in 1914 -- Paved way to prosperity of 1920s. iii. Employers’ antiunion campaign for "open" shop: "the American plan." -- AFL lost ¼ of its members. B. Sacco and Vanzetti case 1. 1921, Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti charged & convicted of killing two people in a robbery in South Braintree, Massachusetts. 2. Jury and judge probably prejudiced: defendants were Italians, atheists, anarchists, and draft dodgers. a. The defendants’ radicalism became an issue during the trial. b. Evidence not conclusive; many believe sentence unjust and due to prejudice. 3. Repeated motions for a new trial were denied by Judge Webster Thayer and the Massachusetts Supreme Court. 4. In 1927, Judge Thayer sentenced the men to death by electric chair. a. Case attracted world attention as riots broke out in Japan, Warsaw, Paris, and Buenos Aires after the executions. -- (like Rodney King trial and L.A. riots?) b. Because the powers that convicted Sacco and Vanzetti were members of the upper class, the execution seemed to be class-based. c. Distinguished Americans such as Felix Frankfurter, Albert Einstein, and George Bernard Shaw protested; Italian-American community deeply affected. 5. In 1977, Gov. Michael Dukakis of Mass. vindicated both men claiming faults existed in the case: "any stigma & disgrace should be forever removed from their names." C. Ku Klux Klan 1. Resurgence of the Klan began in the South but also spread heavily into the Southwest and the North Central states -- Il, IN, OH a. Northcentral states = 40% of new Klan membership; far west only 6.1%; LA = 25%; South = 16%; Total membership as high as 5 million. b. Resurgence spawned by 1915 movie Birth of a Nation, by D.W. Griffith. i. First blockbuster epic (3 hours) ii. Based on 1905 book The Clansman: An Historical Romance of the KKK, by Thomas Dixon 2. More resembled nativist "Know-Nothings of 1850s (anti-Irish & German) and American Protective Association of late 19th c. (anti-eastern & southern European) than the antiblack terrorist organization of the 1860s. a. Antiforeign, anti-Catholic, antiblack, anti-Jewish, antipacifist, anti- Communist, anti-internationalist, antievolutionist, antibootlegger, antigambling, antiadultery, and anti-birth control. b. Pro-WASP (White Anglo Saxon Protestant) and pro-"native" American. c. Extremist and ultraconservative uprising against forces of diversity and modernity transforming American culture: nationalist, racist, narrow minded. 3. Demise of the KKK a. 1925 -- David Stephenson, KKK leader in Indiana, went to jail for 2nd degree murder of woman who he had brutally kidnapped and abused. i. "I am the law in Indiana" ii. Scandal led to a large-scale decline in the Klan’s influence. -- Stephenson provided evidence of other Klan activities by high-level officials in Indiana) iii. The Klan’s claim as a protector of the virtue of white women was compromised. b. Embezzlement by Klan officials led to a congressional investigation. -- $10 initiation fee constituted a racket. 4. Violence against blacks in 1919 race riots partly due to attitudes proliferated by KKK D. Closing the doors on immigration 1. Many in America, esp. rural areas, believed immigrants were eroding old-fashioned American values. 2. 1921 Immigration Act: ended open immigration with a limit and quota system. a. 350,000 total per annum and no more than 3% of the people already in U.S. -- Based on 1910 census b. Only 158,367 from countries other than N. and W. Europe 3. 1924 National Origins Act (Immigration Act of 1924) a. Reduced immigration to 152,000 total per annum. b. 3% down to 2%; 21,847 from countries other than N. and W. Europe c. Census year to base figures was changed from 1910 to 1890. i. Reduced #s from E. and S. Europe as most had come after 1890. ii. Poles, Italians, Russians seen as "less American." d. Asians banned completely e. Irish and Germans not as affected: were discriminated against in 1850s. f. Canadians and Latin Americans exempt from the quota system. -- Mexicans migrated to L.A., San Antonio, and Denver in large numbers where they held low-paying jobs and lived in poor neighborhoods - barrios. g. Five years later, the Act of 1929, using 1920 as quota base, virtually cut immigration in half by limiting the total to 152,574 per annum. i. By 1931, more foreigners left than arrived. ii. Congress abolished the national origins quota system in 1965. E. Scopes Trial 1. Fundamentalists a. Believed teaching of Darwinian evolution was destroying faith in God and the Bible while contributing to the moral breakdown of youth in the jazz age. b. Numerous attempts made to pass laws prohibiting the teaching of evolution in the public schools. -- Tennessee and two other states adopted such measures 2. Scopes Trial -- "Monkey Trial" -- 1925 in Dayton, eastern Tennessee a. High-school biology teacher John Scopes indicted for teaching evolution. i. Tennessee’s Butler Law of 1924 banned any teaching of theories that contradicted the Divine Creation of man as taught in the Bible (Book of Genesis). ii. ACLU wanted to fight the case and ran ad in the NY Times asking for a teacher to volunteer to be arrested for violating the Butler Law. -- Scopes volunteered. iii. Case attracted huge public following -- Broadcast over the radio. b. Clarence Darrow defended Scopes c. William Jennings Bryan was the prosecutor; Presbyterian Fundamentalist d. Fundamentalism itself seemed to be on trial. i. Darrow put Bryan on the witness stand the last day to defend a literal interpretation of the Bible. ii. Bryan asked at length about his literal biblical beliefs: Did he think the earth was created in 6 days? -- Bryan: "Not six days of 24 hours" e. John Scopes found guilty of violating the Butler Act and fined $100. -- Supreme Court of Tennessee, however, set aside the fine on a technicality. f. Fundamentalism suffered a setback as well. i. Bryan was aware of his contradictions and died less than a week after the trial due to a stress-caused stroke. ii. Yet, Fundamentalism remained vibrant esp. in Baptist church and the rapidly growing Churches of Christ, organized in 1906. F. Prohibition (One of last of the Progressive reforms) 1. 18th Amendment ratified by states in 1919. a. Supported by churches and women. i. Heavy support in the Mid-west and esp. in the South. ii. Southern whites eager to keep stimulants from blacks. b. Volstead Act of 1919 implemented the amendment. c. Opposed in larger eastern cities where colonies of "wet" foreign-born peoples cherished their drinking habits. 2. Problems with enforcement a. Federal authorities had never satisfactorily enforced a law where the majority of the people -- or a strong minority -- were hostile to it. -- Most drinkers ignored "dry" laws. (Everybody that continued to drink became a criminal or something they had done legally before.) b. Lack of enforcement officials c. Alcohol could be sold by doctor's prescription. d. Alcohol was necessary for industrial uses (poison was supposed to be added to it to prevent consumption). e. Alcohol could be manufactured in small amounts almost anywhere e.g. homes -- 700 million gallons of home brew made in 1929! f. "Near Beer" was legal (1/2 of 1% of alcohol) but you had to produce real beer and then reduce the alcohol content to make it. 3. Results of Prohibition a. Rise of organized crime i. Huge profits from "bootlegging" became foundation for corruption. ii. Al Capone -- Most powerful gangster of the 1920s. -- 1925, began bootlegging business that lasted six years and netted him millions of dollars. -- Eventually jailed for tax evasion & served most of 11-year sentence iii. John Dillinger was another powerful gangster boss. iv. Increase in gang violence: About 500 gang members killed in Chicago during 1920s. v. Many gov’t officials accepted bribes and did not enforce prohibition. vi. Organized crime spread to prostitution, gambling, and narcotics. -- Honest merchants forced to pay "protection money" to gangsters. vii. By 1930, annual "take" of underworld estimated at $12 to $18 billion. -- Several times the income of federal gov’t. b. Rise of speakeasies (supposedly secret bars operated by bootleggers) i. Middle class havens for drinking. ii. Women could now drink in speakeasies where before they were forbidden to drink in saloons. c. Disappearance of saloons -- Most "wet" immigrants affected; could not afford speakeasies d. Many Americans became used to casually breaking the law. e. Prohibition may have worked if light wine and beer allowed -- Ironically, had liquor became more easily accessible than beer and wine 4. Prohibition was repealed in 1933, only 14 years after it was passed. III. Mass-Consumption Economy A. Glorification of business --Business became almost a religion. 1. The Man Nobody Knows by Bruce Barton became top selling book in 1925-1926. a. Called Jesus the first modern businessman i. "Picked up 12 men from the bottom of society and forged an organization that conquered the world." ii. "Every advertising man ought to study the parables of Jesus. They are marvelously condensed, as all good advertising should be. 2. Calvin Coolidge: "The man who builds a factory builds a temple; The man who works there worships there." 3. Businessmen were considered the people that "ruled" the nation. B. Booming Economy 1. U.S. came out of WWI the world’s largest creditor nation. a. Brief depression, 1920-1921 b. Andrew Mellon’s "trickle down" tax policies favored the rapid expansion of capital investment. c. Buying on credit became another innovative feature of the postwar economy. 2. Between 1922 & 1928, industrial productivity (amount of goods produced by each hour of labor) rose 70%. 3. Wages at an all-time high. 4. Electric power increased 19-fold between 1912 and 1929. a. Before WWI, 20% of homes had electricity; by 1930 = 70%. b. Refrigerators, vacuum cleaners, and electric stoves came into vogue. 5. New technology = greater efficiency a. Electric motors b. Assembly line 6. New industries: a. light metals-aluminum, synthetics b. Movies, radio manufacturing c. Auto industry became king. -- Led to petroleum, steel, rubber, machine tools, and road building. 7. Inventions a. Telephoto and Television (though not widely available until 1947) b. Medical breakthroughs i. Iron lung (respirator), cures for TB and small-pox ii. Life expectancy in 1910 = 49 years; 1930 = 59 years 8. Construction a. Skyscrapers began to change the horizon of major cities. b. Empire State Building -- tallest building in the world at 102 stories. 9. 1st trans-Atlantic telephone C. Corporate Revolution 1. Mergers continued at a furious pace in 1920s. -- By 1929, 1/2 nation’s wealth absorbed by top 200 corporations 2. Chain stores became common (e.g., Sears and Roebuck) D. Managerial Revolution 1. Corporate leadership began to be controlled by college-trained, replaceable managers, rather than the "build the company from the ground up Henry Ford types." 2. Business schools began to open up on college campuses around the country. 3. Business began adding more and more layers of management. E. New White Collar Workers 1. 1920-1930, white collar jobs rose 38.1%; 10.5 million to 14.5 million -- 1900, 18% of workers white collar; 44% by 1930 2. Manual labor jobs up only 7.9%, 28.5 million to 30.7 million. 3. Huge increase of consumer products created a need for advertising and sales people. -- Sales profession attractive to men with promises of high incomes 4. Women increasingly entered the work force. a. Typewriter, invented by Remington Co. in 1874, significant b. Almost all typists were middle-class, high school-educated and female. i. Job needed good speller, knowledge of grammar, etc. ii. Lower class men and women lacked these skills. iii. Upper class men could get better paying jobs. c. Women also teachers, shop clerks, cashiers, & switchboard operators. d. Yet, 57% of female work force comprised of black and foreign-born women, mostly in domestic service jobs. F. Advertising emerged as a new industry. 1. American manufacturers seemed to have mastered problems of production and were now more concerned about finding mass markets for their goods. a. Typical worker: young white college grads or former newspaper writers. b. Men outnumbered women 10 to 1. 2. Used persuasion, allure, and sexual suggestion -- By 1925, U.S. corporations spent over $1 billion on advertising. 3. Sports became big business a. Babe Ruth and Jack Dempsey became house-hold names due to "image making." b. Fans bought tickets in such numbers that Yankee Stadium became known as "the house that Ruth built." c. 1921, heavyweight champion Jack Dempsey knocked out French lightweight George Carpentier and attracted the first in a series of million-dollar "gates." G. Scientific Management -- Frederick W. Taylor 1. Started movement to develop more efficient working methods increasing productivity, which eventually led to increased wages, which led to increase profits. 2. The Principles of Scientific Management (1911) very influential. a. Auto industry accepted it right away (especially Henry Ford) b. No established regulations. c. Workers hated Taylorism as it concentrated power in production process to managers rather than workers and intially resulted in lower wages. H. Henry Ford and the assembly line 1. Detroit emerged as the automobile capital of the world a. 1890s, Americans began to adapt the European gasoline engine to the making of cars. b. By 1910, 69 companies existed with a total annual production of 181,000 units. -- Henry Ford and Ransom E. Olds (Oldsmobile) most successful with the use of a limited assembly line operation. c. By 1929, Ford, General Motors and Chrysler made 83% of vehicles ("the Big Three") 2. Ford realized workers were also consumers a. In 1914, raised worker salaries from $2 a day to $5 if workers adopted "thrifty habits" (e.g. learn English, no gambling, drinking, etc.) b. Ford paid good benefits, hired handicapped, convicts, and immigrants. c. Ford called a "traitor" to his class by many wealthy people. 3. Ford’s use of the assembly line made him about $25,000 a day throughout the 1920s a. Took only 1.5 hours to build a car (before assembly line: 14 hours) -- One car produced every 10 seconds at his Rouge River plant near Detroit. b. Model-T became the staple car in America for many years. c. By 1930, Americans owned almost 30 million cars; 20 million Model T’s. d. Drawback: work incredibly tedious -- machine often set the pace. Sometimes, workers were actually chained to the machine to prevent accidents. 4. Automobile’s impact a. Replaced the steel industry as the king industry in America. b. Employed about 6 million people by 1930. c. Supporting industries such as rubber, glass, fabrics, highway construction, and thousands of service stations and garages. i. Steel industry further buttressed. ii. Petroleum industry exploded: oil derricks shot up in CA, TX and OK d. Nation’s standard of living improved. e. Railroad industry decimated by passenger cars, buses, and trucks. f. Speedy marketing of perishable foodstuffs were accelerated. g. New network of highways emerged; 387,000 mi. in 1921 to 662,000 in 1929 h. Leisure time spent traveling to new open spaces. i. Women less dependent on men. j. Isolation among sections broken down while less attractive states lost population at an alarming rate. k. Buses made possible consolidation of schools and to some extent churches. l. Sprawling suburbs spread out even further as America became a nation of commuters. m. One million Americans had died in car accidents by 1951, more than all killed in all America’s battles hitherto. n. Home life broke down partially; youth became more independent o. Crime waves of 1920s and 1930s partially facilitated by the automobile. I. The Airplane 1. Dec. 17, 1903, Wright Bros. (Orville and Wilbur) flew a gasoline-powered plane 12 seconds and 120 feet at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. -- Launched the air age 2. Airplane used with some success for various purposes during World War I. 3. Shortly after the war, passenger lines with airmail contracts came into being. -- First transcontinental airmail route established from NY to SF in 1920. 4. By the 1930s and 1940s, travel by air on regularly scheduled airlines was markedly safer than on many overcrowded highways. 5. 1927, Charles Lindbergh flew the first solo flight across the Atlantic. a. Spirit of St. Louis flew from NY to Paris in 39 hours and 39 minutes. b. Lindbergh became an American icon and world hero. 6. Impact of the airplane: a. Civilization became more closely linked b. Railroads received yet another setback as airplanes stole passengers and mail service. c. Airplanes used with devastating effects on cities during World War II. J. Radio 1. Guglielmo Marconi, an Italian, invented wireless telegraphy in the 1890s. -- Technology used for long-range communication during World War I. 2. First voice-carrying radio came in Nov. 1920 when KDKA in Pittsburgh carried the news of the Harding landslide. 3. Later, transatlantic wireless photographs, radiotelephones, and TV emerged. 4. National Broadcasting Co. organized in 1926; Columbia Broadcasting Co. in 1927 -- Formed first national radio networks. 5. Impact of the radio: a. Created a new bustling industry b. Added to American life as leisure hours were filled listening to programs. -- Families brought closer together in the face of the automobile. c. Nation more closely-knit. i. Various sections heard Americans with standardized accents. ii. Millions "tuned in" to comedy favorites like "Amos and Andy." d. Advertising perfected as an art. e. Sports further stimulated f. Politicians used the airwaves to garner votes. g. Newscasts informed millions of listeners. h. Music of famous artists and symphony orchestras beamed into homes. K. Movies 1. Emergence of the movie industry a. 1890s, peep-show penny arcades gained some popularity. b. First real moving picture in 1903 when the first story sequence reached the screen. i. The Great Train Robbery shown in 5-cent theaters called "nickelodeons." ii. Attracted large working-class audience. c. First full-length classic was D.W. Griffith’s Birth of a Nation (1915) which glorified the KKK and defamed blacks. d. Movies got a tremendous boost as anti-German propaganda during World War I. e. Hollywood became the movie capital of the world. i. Silent movies until 1927 ii. Major stars: Charlie Chaplin, Rudolph Valentino iii. Cecil B. de Mille helped found Paramount Pictures in 1914 and he produced and directed during the next 40 years more than 70 films that grossed over $750 million. f. 1927, first "talkie," The Jazz Singer, featured Al Jolson in a blackface. -- Silent movies decreased in popularity and movie theaters now wired up for sound. g. By 1930, some color films were being produced. 2. Impact of movies a. Eclipsed all other new forms of amusement. i. By 1930, weekly admissions totaled 100 million (many repeaters) in a population of 123 million. ii. Vaudeville effectively exterminated and the live theater decreased in attendance. iii. Americans spent 10X more $ than 2nd most popular attraction - Sports. b. Became new major industry employing about 325,000 people in 1930. c. Actors and actresses, some with huge salaries, became more popular than the nation’s political leaders. d. American culture bound more closely together as movies became the standard for taste, styles, songs, and morals. e. Provided education through informative "shorts" such as newsreels and travelogues. f. Tabloids and the cheap movie magazine emerged as two by-products of the movie industry. L. Changes in Working Conditions 1. Reduction in Hours a. 1923 - US Steel offered its workers three eight-hour shifts instead of a 12-hour shift, partially because of pressure from Harding. b. By mid-20s, steel making so efficient that workers given more time off. 2. Welfare Capitalism - An American Plan of Business a. If workers are taken care of, no unions or strikes would be needed. i. Increased employee benefits included one-week paid vacations (two-weeks for seniority), basketball courts and baseball diamonds near factories where workers could play for an hour, a nurse or doctor available at the factory to treat injuries or illnesses, and company cafeterias offering good food at reasonable prices ii. Union membership declined in the 1920s -- AF of L had 5 million members in 1920, but only 3.5 million by 1929. b. Only one major flaw -- Unions could not compete with industrial prosperity, so that wages were not raised significantly. i. Workers had more time off but no money to spend ii. Prices increased faster than wages so that workers could not buy many of the products they manufactured themselves. iii. Attempts were made to sell US products overseas, but trade barriers on foreign imports entering the US prevented capital from going overseas. IV. Social life during the "Roaring 20s" A. Census of 1920 revealed for the first time that Americans no longer lived in the countryside but in urban areas. B. A sexual revolution 1. Theories of Dr. Sigmund Freud mistakenly interpreted by Americans that sexual repression was responsible for a variety of nervous emotional ills. -- Not pleasure alone, but health, demanded sexual gratification and liberation. 2. The "flaming youth" of the "Jazz Age" emphasized sexual promiscuity and drinking, as well as new forms of dancing considered erotic by the older generation. a. Occurred mostly among some urban dwellers, middle class people, and students, who were an economically-select group at the time. b. Behavior: new codes for dancing and dress -- Charleston, thinner clothes, juvenile look, sleeveless dresses, shorter skirts c. Double standard: Women began to assert publicly their right to imitate male standards (e.g. sexually). -- Only affection necessary for sex. d. Reasons for changing standards i. WWI: Maxim "eat, drink, and be merry" often appears after wars. -- WWI had highest ratio of killed & injured to participants in any war. -- Small matters of morality seemed less important after carnage ii. Women: greater independence, less parental supervision, 19th Amend., -- Joined labor force in large numbers and more lived alone. iii. Impersonality of urban areas iv. Automobile, by giving people mobility and privacy, generally considered to have contributed to sexual license. 4. Although illegal, birth control promoted by Margaret Sanger and others and was widely accepted. 5. Sexual revolution brought about some emancipation a. Flapper styles expressed the new freedom of women b. One-piece bathing suits shocked older Americans. c. Women could smoke & socialize with men in public more freely than before. 6. As women became more independent, they continued to organize a. National Women’s Party began in 1923 to agitate for an Equal Rights Amendment to the Constitution (ERA) -- Alice Paul i. Idea shocked traditionalists ii. Amendment finally defeated in early 1980s. b. League of Women Voters founded in 1920 by leaders of the NAWSA. c. Divorce laws were liberalized in many states at the insistence of women -- 1920 = 1 divorce for ever 7.5 marriages; 1929 = 1 in 6 d. Many women stayed in the work force after WWI e. Rise in church and synagogue membership as a reaction to a changing society. -- Rise of nationally popular evangelists: Billy Sunday, Aimee Semple McPherson C. "Jazz" 1. The term "Jazz" became popular after WWI (dance music) 2. Pre-WWI development a. African influenced slave spirituals grew into jubilees and the blues. b. Blacks folk music retained a certain melodic, harmonic, and rhythmic element that formed a common body of sound. 3. Late 19th Century a. Minstrelsy, vaudeville, sentimental ballads, & band music were the most popular genres among both white and black audiences. b. Ragtime works became published in the late 1890's; considered to be earliest jazz. -- First black music ever to achieve widespread popularity and comical distribution. c. Blues developed simultaneously along with ragtime 4. New Orleans Dixieland Jazz a. Group improvisation: trumpet playing the lead, the clarinet playing a counter melody, trombone playing more counter melody, piano, guitar or banjo for accompaniment, bass or tuba, and drums. b. Moderate to fast tempos in 2/4 meter c. Louis Armstrong become first master improviser--some see this as the creation of jazz. d. During WWI, the migration of blacks north also meant the migration of jazz to northern cities. 5. New Orleans exports jazz a. In the 20's, Chicago became a center among jazz musicians. Many came from New Orleans. Would later become the center during the 1930's swing era. b. New York also flourished (the Cotton Club) during Harlem Renaissance E. The Harlem Renaissance 1. Development a. Harlem, a black enclave in NYC with about 100,000 residents in the 1920s, grew rapidly during and after WWI (largest black pop. in Northern U.S.) b. Significance: Harlem produced a wealth of African American poetry, literature, art, and music, expressing the pain, sorrow, and discrimination blacks felt at this time. 2. Poets: Langston Hughes & Claude McKay 3. Jazz: Duke Ellington (1899-1974) and the Cotton Club (famous night club) -- Piano player who formed one of most famous Jazz bands in history. 4. Marcus Garvey a. Leader of the United Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) i. "Back to Africa Movement": Purpose was to promote the resettlement of American blacks in Africa. ii. Advocated black racial pride and separatism rather than integration. -- Urged blacks to buy only from blacks & founded chain of businesses including grocery stores, restaurants, and laundries. iii. Garvey a native of Jamaica and founded UNIA there. b. Black Star Steamship Co., intended to transport his black followers to Africa, went bankrupt in 1923. c. FBI director J. Edgar Hoover monitored Garvey and eventually sought to have him arrested and imprisoned. -- Garvey convicted of mail fraud in sale of line’s stock, imprisoned, and then deported. d. Garvey instilled self-confidence and self-reliance among blacks, and later became the basis for the Nation of Islam (Black Muslim) movement in 1960s G. The "Lost Generation" 1. After WWI, a new generation of writers outside of the dominant Protestant New England burst upon the literary scene. a. Their works often conveyed resentment of ideals betrayed by society. b. Term coined by Gertrude Stein, one of leaders of "Lost Generation" 2. Henry L. Mencken, in his American Mercury magazine, assailed marriage, patriotism, democracy, prohibition, Rotarians, and the middle-class American "booboisie." a. Attacked do-gooders as "Puritans": Puritanism was the "haunting fear that someone, somewhere, might be happy." b. Became somewhat of patron saint of many young authors who he admired for their critical attitude toward American society. 3. F. Scott Fitzgerald (1896-1940) a. At age 24, published This Side of Paradise; he became an overnight celebrity. i. Became a kind of Bible for the young; read by aspiring flappers and their lovers, who displayed a bewildered abandon toward life. ii. "All gods dead, all wars fought, all faiths in man shaken" b. The Great Gatsby (1925) -- depicted the glamour and cruelty of an achievement-oriented society. 4. Theodore Dreisler: An American Tragedy -- Dealt with the murder of a pregnant working girl by her socially ambitious young lover. 5. Ernest Hemingway (1889-1961) a. Fought in WWI on the Italian front in 1917. -- Among the writers most affected by the war. b. Responded to propaganda and overblown appeal of patriotism by devising his own lean, word-sparing style. c. The Sun Also Rises (1926) -- wrote of disillusioned, spiritually numb American expatriates in Europe. d. Farewell to Arms (1929) -- One of the finest novels in any language about the war experience. e. Shot himself in the head in 1961. 6. Sinclair Lewis (1885-1951) a. Chronicled midwestern life from his home in Minnesota as acquisitive, amoral, and hypercritical. b. Mainstreet (1920) -- Story of one woman’s unsuccessful war against provincialism. c. Babbitt (1922) -- Affectionately pilloried George F. Babbitt, a prosperous vulgar, middle-class real estate broker who slavishly conformed to the respectable materialism of his group. 7. William Faulkner (1897-1962) -- Mississipian a. Considered perhaps the best American novelist of the 20th century. b. Soldier’s Pay (1926) -- Bitter war novel c. The Sound and the Fury (1929) and As I Lay Dying (1930) depicted the consciousness from the constricted souls of his ingrown southern characters. 8. Poetry a. T.S. Eliot (took up residence and citizenship in England in 1927) -- "The Waste Land" (1922): One of the most influential poems of the century. b. Robert Frost criticized his adopted New England. c. e. e. cummings -- most innovative of all -- Relied on diction & peculiar typesetting to produce new poetical effects. G. Architecture: Frank Lloyd Wright 1. Most famous architect in U.S. history. 2. Buildings should grow from their sites; not slavishly imitate Greek & Roman models. -- Guggenheim Museum in New York City most famous THE GREAT DEPRESSION AND THE NEW DEAL I. Franklin D. Roosevelt A. Background 1. Born at family estate at Hyde Park, New York; raised in a wealthy family 2. Undersecretary of the Navy during WWI -- responsible for increased naval strength 3. Vice Presidential nominee for Democratic Party in 1920 (James Cox lost election) 4. Struck by polio in 1921 a. Confined to a wheelchair for the rest of his life b. disease strengthened his will, patience, tolerance and compassion. 5. Elected governor of NY in 1928 and 1930 a. Depression programs for the unemployed, public works, aid to farmers, and conservation attracted national attention. b. Dubbed "traitor to his class" by the rich c. Spoke frequently of his concern for the plight of the "forgotten man." 6. Politically suave and conciliatory a. The premier orator of his generation b. Really a conservative in many ways: fiscally frugal, not anti-big business B. Eleanor Roosevelt 1. Niece of Theodore Roosevelt 2. Pushed FDR to maintain political career; vigorously campaigning on his behalf. 3. Major leader of the female wing of the Democratic party in 1920s and early 30s. 4. Became the "conscience of the New Deal" a. Published a syndicated newspaper column b. Lobbied extensively for her husband. 5. Championed causes for women, children, the impoverished, and African Americans 6. Most active first lady in American History II. Election of 1932 A. Roosevelt -- Democratic candidate (chosen over Al Smith) 1. "I pledge you, I pledge myself to a new deal for the American people." 2. Somewhat vague and contradictory during campaign a. Promised balanced budget & 25% cuts in gov’t spending -- Criticized present deficits. b. Promised gov’t aid for the unemployed c. Advocated repeal of Prohibition B. Hoover -- Republican candidate 1. Platform: Higher tariffs and maintenance of the gold standard. -- Predicted repeal of Hawley-Smoot tariff would be economically devastating. 2. Reaffirmed faith in American free enterprise and individual initiative 3. Defensive in tone contrasted with Roosevelt's optimism. C. Roosevelt defeats Hoover 1. 472 to 59 in the electoral count; Hoover carried only 6 states. 2. 22,809,638 to 15,758,901 in popular vote 3. Blacks, traditionally loyal to Republican party of Lincoln, shifted to Democrats -- Became vital element in the Democratic party. D. "Lame duck" period 1. Hoover tried unsuccessfully to bind Roosevelt to an anti-inflationary policy that would have jeopardized future New Deal programs. 2. Hoover managed to arrange two meetings with FDR but Roosevelt refused to carry out Hoover's plans or suggestions. 3. Meanwhile, the American economy came to a virtual halt. 4. Twenty-first Amendment passed by Congress in February, 1933 a. Repeal of prohibition b. March -- new Congress legalized light beer c. Amendment ratified by the states and took effect in December, 1933 E. Twentieth Amendment (adopted in 1933) 1. Presidential, vice presidential, and congressional terms begin in January 2. FDR first president to begin new presidential term on January 20th, 1936 -- Congress assumed its offices on January 3rd. III. Effects of the Great Depression by 1932 A. 25%-33% unemployment B. About 25% of banks failed C. 25% of farmers lost their farms D. Large numbers of businesses failed E. Loss of self-worth among millions of Americans IV. The New Deal "Let me assert my firm belief that the only thing we have to fear is fear itself." -- Inaugural address A. FDR’s administration 1. "Brain Trust": FDR selected experts for his "inner circle" rather than the typical politicians or businessmen. 2. Notable cabinet members and members of Roosevelt’s "inncer circle" a. Cordell Hull -- Secretary of State b. Frances Perkins became the first woman cabinet member; sec. of labor c. Harold L. Ickes -- sec. of interior; headed PWA d. Harry Hopkins -- head of FERA and later, WPA e. Eleanor Roosevelt B. First "Hundred Days" (March 9-June16, 1933) 1. FDR did not have a developed plan when he took office. a. Intended to experiment and find out what worked. b. As a result, many programs overlapped or contradicted others. c. Sought practical solutions to practical problems. d. Used the fireside chats as a means to communicate with the American people. 2. Plan: Relief, Recovery, and Reform a. Short-range goals were relief and immediate recovery, esp. within 1st 2 years b. Long-range goals were permanent recovery and reform of current abuses, espeically those that had produced the Great Depression c. Embraced such progressive ideas as unemployment insurance, old-age insurance, minimum-wage regulations, conservation and development of natural resources, and restrictions on child labor. d. Designed to deal with immediate emergencies, some measures of which were derived from progressive ideas. 3. Unprecedented passage of legislation in U.S. history a. Congress eager to cooperate with FDR due to his strong mandate b. Gave the president extraordinary blank-check powers c. Some legislation delegated legislative authority to the chief executive. d. 1st 100 Days legislation has left a lasting mark on the nation 4. 1933-1935 programs now called First New Deal a. EBRA, Glass-Steagall Act, Truth-in-Securities Act, SEC, HOLC, FHA, FERA, CCC, PWA, AAA, NIRA (NRA), TVA b. 1935-1938 programs referred to as Second New Deal (see below) C. The Banking Crisis 1. Crisis a. 5,190 banks failed in 1933 bringing total number to 10,951 b. Banks in 38 states were closed by state governments. c. Remainder open for limited operations only. 2. FDR declared national "banking holiday" between March 6-10 a. Only banks who were solvent could reopen (the majority did) b. Aimed to restore faith in the nation's banking industry c. Government endorsement of banks would encourage people's trust 3. Took nation off the gold standard (March 6, 1933) a. Ordered all private holdings of gold to be surrendered to the Treasury in exchange of paper currency. b. Congress responded by canceling the gold-payment clause in all contracts and authorizing repayment in paper money -- "managed currency" c. In 1934, reduced value of the gold content of the dollar to 50.06 cents i. Value of dollar set at $35 per ounce of gold, 59% of its former value. ii. FDR wanted to stimulate business through controlled inflation iii. New purchasing power not significantly changed except with the unfavorable purchase of foreign goods. d. Forbade the export of gold or redemption of currency in gold 4. Emergency Banking Relief Act of 1933 (March 9, 1933) a. Gave president (Treasury) power to open sound banks after ten days and to merge or liquidate unsound ones. b. Provided additional funds for banks from the RFC and the Federal Reserve c. Forbade the hoarding of gold. 5. March 12, first of his 30 "Fireside Chats", listened to by 35 million Americans, gave assurances that it was now safer to keep money in the reopened banks than "under the mattress." -- Confidence in the nation's banking was restored as deposits outpaced withdrawals. 6. Home Owner's Loan Corporation (HOLC) -- June 13, 1933 a. Designed to refinance mortgages on about 1 million nonfarm homes. b. Banks were bailed out as a result as many foreclosures were prevented. c. Eventually lent over 3 billion dollars to over one million home owners. d. Middle-class loyalties shifted to the Democratic party. 7. Glass-Steagall Banking Reform Act (Banking Act of 1933) -- June 16, 1933 a. Provided for the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) -- Individual deposits of up to $5,000 were federally insured b. Separated commercial banking from the more speculative activity of investment banking. D. Regulation of Banks and Big Business 1. "Truth in Securities Act" (Federal Securities Act) -- May, 1933 -- Required promoters to transmit to the investor sworn information regarding the soundness of their stocks and bonds. 2. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) -- June 6, 1934 -- Designed to protect the public against fraud, deception, and inside manipulation. The stock market would operate more efficiently. 3. Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 (August 26) -- 2nd New Deal a. Reduced the possibilities of a business buying up other businesses with a minimum amount of capital. b. Empowered Securities and Exchange Commission to restrict public holding companies to one natural region and to eliminate duplicate holding companies. 4. Banking Act of 1935 created a strong central Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System with broad powers over the operations of the regional banks. E. Relief and Unemployment programs of the Hundred Days 1. Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) -- March 31, 1933 a. Most popular of New Deal programs b. Provided for the employment of 2.75 million young men (18-24) in fresh-air government camps to keep them out of trouble during the 1930s.. i. Reforestation, firefighting, flood control, swamp drainage, and further developing national parks. ii. Under direction of the War Department c. Workers ate together in mess halls, lived in barracks, and followed a strict schedule -- Some immigrants fearful that their sons being trained for the army. d. Mot of monthly payment made to the family of each member.. e. Some criticized it as being too militaristic in nature 2. Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) a. Created by Federal Emergency Relief Act (May 12, 1933) b. Headed by Harry Hopkins c. Ultimately granted $3 billion to states for direct dole payments or preferably for wages on work projects. d. Later, Hopkins felt that giving people $ broke down their self-respect and and will to work; sought relief programs to put people back to work. e. Civil Works Administration (CWA) (branch of the FERA) -- Nov. 1933 i. 4 million unemployed received jobs in mostly make-work tasks -"boon-doggling" -- such as raking leaves, sweeping streets and digging ditches. ii. Widely criticized and terminated in April 1934. 3. Public Works Administration (PWA) -- Created by NIRA in 1933 a. Headed by Harold L. Ickes b. Allocated over $4 billion to state and local governments to provide jobs on 34,000 public projects such as building schools and dams, refurbishing gov't buildings, planning sewage systems, improving highways, and generally modernizing the nation. c. Problem: Ickes did not spend the money quickly enough; millions remained out of work. 4. Works Progress Administration (WPA) -- May, 1935 (2nd New Deal) a. Created on the heels of unrest and criticism from such figures as Father Charles Coughlin, Huey Long, and Dr. Francis Townsend. b. Employed nearly 9 million people on public projects such as buildings, bridges, and hard-surfaced roads, airports, schools, hospitals. c. Total cost: $11.4 BILLION; eventually employed 40% of nation’s workers. d. Workers employed for 3-hours per week at pay double the relief payment but less than private employment. e. Federal Arts Project -- Agencies of the WPA also found part-time occupations for high-school and college students and for actors, musicians, and writers. 5. National Youth Administration (NYA) -- June, 1935 a. Created as part of the WPA b. Provided part-time jobs for high school and college students to enable them to stay in school, and to help young adults not in school to find jobs. F. Agricultural Programs of the Hundred Days 1. Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA) -- May 12, 1933 a. Headed by George Peek b. Attempted to eliminate price-depressing surpluses by paying growers to reduce their crop acreage -- subsidies. i. Goal: Prices equal to those of 1909-1914 period. ii. Subsidy money came from a tax on the processing of the commodities. -- Processing tax later ruled unconstitutional. c. Much of the cotton crop for 1933 was plowed under. d. Several million pigs were purchased and slaughtered. Much meat was either distributed to people on relief or used for fertilizer. e. Criticized for destruction of food at a time when thousands were hungry. -- Much of criticism unwarranted f. Farm income was increased but tenants and sharecroppers were hurt when owners took land out of cultivation, thus removing the tenants but retaining the subsidies. g. Eventually killed in the Supreme Court case Butler vs. U.S. -- FDR resolved to continue program by creating 50 small AAAs in states. h. Commodity Credit Corporation est. in Oct. 1933 to make loans to corn and cotton farmers against their crops so that they could hold onto them for higher prices (similar to Populist idea of a subtreasury plan) 2. Federal Farm Loan Act a. Allocated millions of dollars to help farmers meet their mortgages. b. Consolidated all farm credit programs into the Farm Credit Admin. 3. Addressing the Dust Bowl refugees a. Late 1933, drought struck states in the trans-Mississippi Great Plains -- Millions of tons of powdery top soil were blown as far as Boston b. In five years, 350,000 Oklahomans and Arkansans -- "Okies" and "Arkies" migrated to southern California. c. Frasier-Lemke Farm Bankruptcy Act of 1934 i. Allowed farmers to defer foreclosure on their land while they obtained new financing. ii. Helped them to recover property already lost through easy financing. d. Resettlement Administration (RA) May 1935 i. Relocated destitute families to new rural homestead communities or suburban towns. ii. Set up by FDR to move devastated farmers to better land e. CCC employed many who planted more than 200 million new trees f. Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck educated many on the crisis. 4. Rural Electrification Administration (REA) -- May 1935 -- Provided loans and WPA labor to electric cooperatives to build lines into rural areas not served by private companies. G. Industry and Labor 1. National Industrial Recovery Administration (NIRA) -- June 16, 1933) a. Most complex and far reaching of New Deal programs was designed to prevent extreme competition, labor-management disputes, & over- production -- FDR and advisors believed nation’s economy had reached its growth limit and that laissez faire was damaging to the mature American economy. (This would prove incorrect as the US economy burgeoned in later decades.) b. Board composed of labor leaders and industrial leaders in over two hundred individual industries were to work out codes of "fair competition". i. Maximum work hours: spread employment out among more people. ii. Minimum wages were established. iii. Minimum prices set (to avoid cutthroat competition) iv. Production limits and quotas instituted (to keep prices higher) c. Antitrust laws temporarily suspended for two years. -- Some leftist critics believe that FDR sought to merely preserve the capitalist system where the real winners were the industrialists. d. Section 7a i. Workers formally guaranteed the right to organize and bargain collectively through representatives of their own choosing. ii. "yellow dog", or antiunion contract was forbidden. e. Certain safeguarding restrictions were placed on the use of child labor. 2. National Recovery Administration (NRA) a. Created under leadership of Hugh Johnson to enforce the law and generate public enthusiasm for the NIRA. b. The "blue eagle" was displayed by merchants adhering to NRA codes with the slogan "we do our part." c. Results: i. In the short run, business did improve -- Yet, unsuccessful in stabilizing small businesses ii. NRA eventually shot down by the Supreme Court in Schechter "sick chicken" decision. -- Congress had delegated legislative authority to the code-makers. iii. Criticized by some as favoring large firms as they were the ones making the codes. 3. Wagner Act (National Labor Relations Act of 1935) -- 2nd New Deal a. A major milestone in the American labor movement b. Reasserted the right of labor to engage in self-organization and to bargain collectively through representatives of its own choice c. Encouraged the creation of the CIO (Congress of Industrial Organizations) started by John L. Lewis for unskilled labor. i. In 1936, CIO organized a sit-down strike in a GM factory in Flint, Michigan. It became recognized as the sole negotiator for its workers. ii. Became independent of the AFL in 1938 -- Skilled-craft AFL refused upstart unions affiliated with CIO. 4. Fair Labor Standards Act (Wages and Hours Bill) -- 1938 (2nd New Deal) a. Last of the New Deal legislation b. Established minimum-wage and a 40-hour week for industries involved in interstate commerce. c. Labor for children under 16 forbidden; dangerous labor forbidden under the age of 18. 5. Labor became a staunch ally of Roosevelt and the Democratic party. H. Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) -- May, 1933 1. TVA was a public corporation under a 3-member board. -- Proposed by FDR as the first major experiment in regional public planning. 2. Intended to reform the power monopoly of utility companies by building hydroelectric power plants in the Tennessee valley while employing thousands. a. 20 dams build in an area of 40,000 sq. miles to stop flooding and soil erosion, improve navigation, and generate hydroelectric power. b. Govt’s Muscle Shoals property on the Tennessee River the nucleus of the project. 3. Sought to establish fair rates by discovering how much the production and distribution of electricity cost. 4. Huge success: provided full employment in the region, cheap electric power, low-cost housing, abundant cheap nitrates, restoration of eroded soil, reforestation, improved navigation, and flood control. 5. Criticized by many as socialistic due to government control of public utilities and a planned regional economy. a. Fought unsuccessfully in the courts by private power companies. b. Congress refused other similar projects. I. Housing Reform 1. Federal Housing Administration (FHA) -- 1934 a. Stimulated the building industry by supplying small loans to householders for improving their dwellings or completing new ones. b. One of the few "alphabetical agencies" to outlast the age of Roosevelt 2. United States Housing Authority (USHA) -- 1937 a. Lent money to states or communities for low-cost construction b. For first time in a century, slum areas in US stopped growing; even shrank. c. Criticized by real estate promoters, builders, and landlords ("slumlords") as well as anti-New Dealers who considered it a waste of money. d. The project fell far short of its ambitious goal of 650,000 units. J. Social Security Act of 1935 (August, 1935) -- 2nd New Deal 1. One of the most complicated and far-reaching laws ever to pass Congress. a. Inspired by examples of highly industrialized European nations and pressure from the left (Coughlin, Townshend and Long). b. By 1939, over 45 million Americans were eligible c. First benefits, ranging from $10 to $85 per month, were paid in 1942. 2. Provided for federal-state unemployment insurance 3. Provided for old-age pensions for retired workers 4. Financed by a payroll tax on both employers and employees 5. Funded assistance for dependent mothers with children. 6. Provision also made for the blind, physically handicapped, delinquent children, and other dependents. 7. Criticized by conservatives being built on a cult of leisure rather than work. K. Revenue Act of 1935 1. Raised income taxes on higher incomes, and also inheritance, large gift, and capital gains taxes. 2. Reversed many of Andrew Mellon’s tax cuts in the 1920s. L. Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 1. Bureau of Indian Affairs commissioner, John Collier, persuaded Congress to repeal the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887. 2. New law restored tribal ownership of lands, recognized tribal constitutions and government, and provided loans to tribes for economic development. -- Ended laws forbidding use of Indian ceremonies, dress, and languages. 3. Collier also secured creation of Indian Emergency Conservation Program, an Indian CCC for projects on the reservations. -- Helped Indians secure entry into WPA, NYA, and other programs. M. Effects of the First New Deal -- Economy improved bud did not get well between 1933 and 1935 a. GNP rose from $74.2 billion to $91.4 billion. b. Manufacturing salaries and wages increased about 50% with average weekly earnings going from $16.73 to $20.13. c. Farm income more than doubled. d. Money supply, as currency and demand deposits grew nearly 15%. e. Unemployment dropped from about 25% of nonfarm workers to about 20.1% (10.6 million). -- Still far short of 3.2% pre-depression 1929 unemployment rate. V. Critics of the New Deal A. The American Liberty League 1. Group of wealthy Republicans and conservative Democrats (e.g. Al Smith and John W. Davis) formed in 1934 to fight "socialistic" New Deal schemes. 2. Sought to defend business interests and promote the open shop. 3. Unsuccessful in overthrowing FDR in 1936 elections. B. Father Charles Coughlin 1. Initially a New Deal supporter who eventually bitterly criticized it. -- Believed the NIRA and AAA benefited only industry and well-off farmers. 2. Had largest radio audience in U.S. history -- 40 million listeners 3. Called Roosevelt a liar for not nationalizing the nation's banks 4. Eventually resorted to anti-Semitism, strong fascist rhetoric, and demagoguery that caused his show to be canceled. C. Senator Huey P. ("Kingfish") Long 1. "Share Our Wealth" program promised to make "Every Man a King" by supplying each family with $5,000 at the expense of the prosperous. -- High inheritance taxes on large estates would be levied against the wealthy. 2. Popular Governor in Louisiana due to his raising taxes to gain funds for schools and hospitals to serve the poor; roads were improved & bridges built in neglected areas. 3. Controlled Louisiana politics from his senate seat by abolishing local Louisiana governments and putting himself in control of all appointments to gov't offices. 4. Assassinated in 1935; may have posed a challenge to Roosevelt in 1936 5. Reverend Gerald L. K. Smith appointed himself Long’s successor as head of the Share Our Wealth Society, but he lacked Long’s ability. D. Dr. Francis Townsend 1. Organized over 5 million supporters for his Old Age Revolving Pension Plan. 2. Advocated giving each senior citizen $200 per month (about 2X the average worker’s salary) provided that the money be spent within a month. 3. Scheme would be funded by a national gross sales tax. 4. Some estimates had the scheme costing about 1/2 the national income. VI. Second New Deal A. Roosevelt responded to Democratic voters apparently under the spell of Townsend, Long and Coughlin; the imminent destruction of the NRA, and the approaching election of 1936. B. Roosevelt pushed a series of new programs in the spring of 1935 and much of it was passed during summer (sometimes called the "Second Hundred Days.") C. Programs included: WPA, NYA, REA, Wagner Act (NLRB), Social Security Act, Banking Act of 1935, Public Utility Holding Company, Revenue Act VII. 1936 elections A. New coalition in Democratic party: blacks, unions, intellectuals, big city machines, South. -- Platform: expanded farm program, labor legislation, more rural electrification and public housing, and enforcement of antitrust laws. B. Republicans could offer no viable alternatives 1. Alfred Landon of Kansas, a former progressive supporter of TR, nominated. 2. Criticized New Deal for operating under unconstitutional laws and called for balanced budget, higher tariffs, and lower corporate taxes. 3. Did not call for repeal of all New Deal legislation but promised better and less expensive relief, farm and labor programs. C. Union Party 1. Organized by Townsend, Coughlin, and Gerald L.K. Smith. 2. Vicious attacks by Smith and Coughlin on FDR brought a backlash against them while American Catholic leaders denounced Coughlin. D. Result: Roosevelt d. Republican candidate Alfred M. Landon 523 to 2 (VT and ME) VIII. Roosevelt and the Supreme Court A. Court Challenges to the New Deal 1. Schechter vs. US (1935) ("sick chicken" case) a. Court ruled the NRA as unconstitutional b. Congress could not "delegate legislative authority" to the executive branch or to code-makers in industry. c. Congressional control of interstate commerce could not apply to local Brooklyn fowl business of the Schechter brothers. d. Decision may have helped Roosevelt since NRA was already floundering and FDR could blame the Supreme Court’s "horse & buggy" decisions. 2. Butler vs. US (1935) a. Court ruled regulatory taxation provisions of the AAA as unconstitutional b. Federal gov't could not tax businesses that bought agricultural products for the benefit of the farmers who received federal subsidies. 3. As a result of both cases, Roosevelt in 1935 revamped his recovery and reform measures to launch the Second New Deal. -- FDR's New Deal was defeated in seven of nine supreme court decisions. B. Judiciary Reorganization Bill -- 1937 1. Attempt by FDR to remove old conservative justices by imposing a retirement requirement for justices 70 years or older; six over 70 at the time. -- If justice refused to step down, president. could appoint an additional justice. 2. Critics accused FDR of being a "dictator" and trying to pack the court -"court packing" -- FDR condemned for tampering with delicate checks and balances 3. Bill was not passed 4. Interestingly, the court began siding with FDR on later court decisions. a. Minimum wages for women, Wagner Act, Social Security Act. b. Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes and Justice Owen Roberts began to vote with more liberal members of the Court. 5. Ironically, FDR made 9 appointments to the Court due to resignations or deaths. IX. The End of the New Deal A. Recession of 1937-38 1. FDR authorized reduction in the "pump priming" practices in early 1937 -- He had always had a goal to balance the federal budget and get away from deficit spending. 2. By 1938, the country had slipped into a deep recession, wiping out most of the gains since 1933. 3. Programs --such as the WPA -- giving direct aid through work programs were once again resumed and the economy began to improve in 1938. 4. FDR employed economic theory of John Maynard Keynes a. Government should spend money from deficit spending in order to "prime the pump" of the economy. b. Government would make up the money when the economy improved through increased tax revenue. c. These programs intended to provide temporary relief for people in need, and to be disbanded when the economy improved. B. Congressional elections in 1938 cut heavily into the Democratic control. 80 seats lost. -- "Conservative coalition" in Congress could now successfully block FDR’s legislation. C. Clouds of war diverted public attention away from the domestic economy X. Criticisms of the New Deal A. The New Deal failed to cure the Great Depression B. Bureaucracy mushroomed: with hundreds of thousands of employees, it became the largest business in the country. C. States faded further into the background; more central control from the federal government D. The national debt doubled from 1932 to 1939 (19.5 billion to 40.4 billion) E. America was becoming a "handout" state, undermining old virtues of thrift and initiative. F. Business accused the New Deal of fomenting class strife while laborers and farmers were pampered G. Critics claimed that the New Deal was a "planned economy" and "creeping socialism" that was far too interventionist in the private sector. H. FDR criticized for attempting to change the Supreme Court I. Criticism for FDR trying to "purge" members of Congress in 1938 elections and create a "dummy Congress." J. More farm surpluses under Roosevelt than under Hoover. K. Millions still unemployed L. The New Deal didn't cure the depression, the Second World War did. XI. Support of the New Deal A. The New Deal relieved the worst of the crisis in 1933 -- Relief had been the primary objective B. Promoted the principle that the federal government was morally bound to prevent mass hunger and starvation by "managing" the economy C. America's economic system was kept from collapse D. A fairer distribution of national income was achieved E. Citizens were enabled to retain their self-respect. F. FDR deflected popular resentments against business and may have saved the American system of free enterprise. G. Roosevelt purged capitalism of some of its worst abuses H. FDR provided reform without a bloody revolution, as was the case in Europe. I. Middle-of-the-road approach -- not radical left wing or conservative right wing -- made him the greatest American conservative since Hamilton. ROAD TO WORLD WAR II I. Attempts at Collective Security in 1920s and the Great Depression A. Treaty of Versailles punished Germany severely; excluded most of Wilson’s 14 Points 1. League of Nations sought collective security but without support from U.S., USSR and Germany, the League was crippled. 2. U.S. Senate refused to adhere to World Court, League of Nation’s judicial arm. 3. Effectiveness of League of Nations a. Helped settle disputes between small powers b. Less successful when major powers involved -- Ultimately did not stop Japanese, Italian, or German aggression. B. Washington Disarmament Conference -- 1921-1922 1. Sought to reduce naval arms race between U.S., Japan & Britain and resolve disputes in the Pacific. 2. Five Power Treaty (5-5-3 battleship ratio) and other agreements week as they had no enforcement provisions. 3. U.S. naively gave Japan the advantage in the Pacific. 4. Open Door in China preserved. C. Locarno Pact (1926) 1. Western Europe agreed to guarantee existing borders and seek peaceful solutions. 2. Germany promoted peaceful settlement of disputes with its neighbors in E. Europe-Poland & Czech. 3. Many Europeans believed the "spirit of Locarno" would mean no more war in Europe. D. Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928) -- (Pact of Paris) 1. Ratified by 62 nations: made war illegal except for defensive purposes. 2. Major flaws: No enforcement mechanism; aggressors could use "defensive purposes" argument when attacking. 3. Gave Americans a false sense of security in the 1930s. E. War debts and reparations 1. US the largest creditor nation after WWI; Allies owe US $16 billion 2. Allies couldn't pay so they depended on Germany's reparation payments to pay US a. U.S. tariff policies hurt European recovery b. Germany economy couldn't handle pressure and collapsed in 1923 3. Dawes Plan (1924) a. US bankers loaned Germany $. Germany paid UK & Fr. who paid back U.S. b. U.S. credit continued to help this finance issue until crash of 1929. 4. Hoover declared debt moratorium in 1931 and before long, all debtors defaulted (except Finland which paid its loan ending in 1976). 5. U.S. policies harbored ill-will among European nations toward U.S. -- Contributed to neutrality legislation passed by Congress during 1930s. F. The Great Depression became a major cause of totalitatianism in Japan and Germany 1. Stock Market Crash in US triggered world wide depression. 2. Germany ravaged by 50% unemployment & enormous inflation. 3. Japan exports fell by 50%; blames West for protectionist trade policies. a. Begins to attack the disarmament policy established in 1922. b. Military restless with parliament & economy; assassinates prime minister in1930. II. American Foreign policy in early 1930s A. Good Neighbor Policy 1. Pre-FDR polices began an improvement of relations with Latin America. a. U.S. troops removed from several Latin American countries b. Oil crisis with Mexico in 1928 resolved peacful c. Clark Memorandum (1928): U.S. will not intervene in Latin America for its own national purposes (rebukes TR’s "Big Stick" policy) 2. Policy essentially a reaction to overseas aggression a. Important to have everybody in Western Hemisphere united b. Made FDR popular figure in Latin America --"the good neighbor respects himself and the rights of others." c. Policy of non-intervention and cooperation 3. Montevideo Conference -- 7th Pan-American Conference (1933) a. Sec of St. Cordell Hull --"No state has the right to intervene in the internal or external affairs of another." b. Recommended tariffs be lowered 4. U.S. withdrew from Nicaragua in 1933. 5. 1934 -- Marines withdrew from Haiti and stayed out of war-torn Cuba a. 1st time since 1915 no US troops in Latin America b. Signed treaty with Cuba repealing the Platt Amendment (Guantanamo retained) 6. 1936 Buenos Aires Convention -- U.S. agreed to admit all American disputes to arbitration. 7. 1938 -- US did not intervene when Mexico nationalized its oil fields -- U.S. companies lost much of their original holdings. 8. Declaration of Lima (1938) -- 21 states agreed to resist together any threat to peace in the hemisphere 9. Declaration of Panama (1939) -- U.S. eased policy toward Panama B. London Economic Conference 1. Attended by 66 nations in summer of 1933 2. Purpose: Confront the global depression -- Goals: stabilize national currencies and revive international trade. 3. FDR torpedoed conference as he did not want to return to a gold standard. -- Resulted in more international isolationism and extreme nationalism. C. Reduction of Tariffs under Sec. of State Cordell Hull 1. Trade agreements a. Aimed at both relief and recovery; part of Good Neighbor Policy b. Low-tariffs would be implemented (including reduction of Hawley Smoot) c. Significance: i. Reversed high-tariff policy since Civil War that had damaged U.S.and international economies after WWI. ii. Paved way for U.S.-led free-trade int’l economic system after WWII. 2. By 1939, Hull successfully negotiated pacts with 21 countries. a. U.S. trade increased b. Relations with Latin America improved. D. FDR Recognizes U.S.S.R. (late 1933) 1. Soviet Union had already received recognition from other great powers. 2. FDR believed recognition of Moscow might bolster U.S.S.R. against Japan. 3. Americans also hoped trade with U.S.S.R. would help U.S. economy. 4. Soviets formally promised to refrain from revolutionary propaganda in U.S. -- Promptly broke pledge when huge U.S. loan to Russia was not granted as U.S.S.R. seen as bad credit risk. E. Philippines: Tydings-McDuffie Act (1934) 1. Islands to become free after 10-year period of economic and political tutelage. -- U.S. would relinquish military establishments but naval bases would probably remain. 2. Jones Act in 1916 supported by Sec. of State William Jennings Bryan -- Had granted Philippines territorial status and promised independence as soon as a "stable gov’t" could be established. 3. Why give up Philippines? a. Organized labor wanted low-wage Filipino labor excluded from U.S. b. U.S. sugar growers and other producers eager to restrict competition from Philippines. c. U.S. isolationists eager to be rid of a political liability in Far East. 4. U.S. economic terms towards Philippines were harsh 5. Japan encouraged by U.S. unwillingness to maintain control of Far East possessions. IV. Failure of collective security A. Rise of totalitarian regimes (sought to control every aspect of the lives of the people) 1. fascism: glorified the state and sought to expand ("survival of the fitttest") a. Italy -- Mussolini (1922) b. Japanese military dictatorship (early 1930s) c. Germany -- Adolf Hitler (1933) 2. communism: became a ruthless dictatorship under Stalin in USSR (1924-1953) B. 1931 -- Japan invades Manchuria 1. League of Nations condemns action; no enforcement a. Japan violated Nine Power Treaty and the Kellogg-Briand Pact b. Hoover-Stimson Doctrine: President Hoover refused to consider economic or political sanctions but refused to recognize Japanese conquest of "Manchukuo" c. Japan withdraws from League of Nations 2. Reasons for Japanese aggression a. Badly needed raw materials (coal, oil, & iron) b. Wanted more space for its large population i. Angry at US, Australia, & Canada for limiting immigration ii. National Origins Act (1924) banned Asians from immigrating to U.S. c. Wanted to open new foreign markets but economically frustrated -- High tariffs of other nations limited Japanese exports (down 50% 1929-1931) d. Anger at the U.S. for Japan’s given unequal status in the 1921 naval treaties e. Anger at Hoover and Stimson for refusing to recognize Manchukuo 3. 1934, ended Washington Naval Treaty (1922) & started on massive naval buildup 4. 1936, signs Anti-Comintern Pact with Nazi Germany (against communism esp. USSR) 5. 1940, signs Tripartite Pact: Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis C. 1935 -- Italy invades Ethiopia with bombers and tanks; wins in 1936 1. Mussolini sought to reestablish the glory of the Roman Empire. 2. League of Nations hit Italy with economic sanctions except oil. 3. July, League lifts sanctions: seen as end of League of Nations V. American Isolationism in the face of fascist aggression A. Americans concerned with their own economic depression 1. Sought to avoid involvement in Europe in the face of rising dictatorships 2. Not immediately alarmed at totalitarianism. 3. American sentiment cried for a constitutional amendment to forbid a declaration of war by Congress -- except in case of invasion -- unless there was first a favorable public referendum. B. Nye Committee (headed by ND Senator Gerald P. Nye) 1. Many believed WWI was needless and US entered so munitions makers could profit a. Nye Committee investigated this charge. b. Munitions manufacturers dubbed "merchants of death" 2. Committee charged bankers had wanted war to protect loans, arms makers to make $ and Wilson had provoked Germany by sailing in to warring nation's waters. 3. Today many believe the committee was flawed and excessively anti-business 4. Resulted in the Neutrality Acts between 1935 & 1937 C. Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936, and 1937 1. When president proclaimed existence of a foreign war, certain restrictions would automatically go into effect: a. Prohibited sale of arms to belligerent nations b. Prohibited loans and credits to belligerent nations c. Forbade Americans to travel on vessels of nations at war (in contrast to WWI) d. Non-military goods must be purchased on a cash and carry basis--pay when goods are picked up e. Banned involvement in the Spanish Civil War 2. In effect, limited options of President in a crisis 3. America declined to build up its armed forces where it could deter aggressors. a. Navy declined in relative strength. -- Believed huge navies caused wars. b. Did not want to burden taxpayers during the depression D. Spanish Civil War (1936) 1. Nationalists, led by Francisco Franco, fight the democratic Republican gov't (Loyalists) a. Wants to restore power of church & destroy socialism & communism in Spain b. Calls for fascist state 2. Congress, encouraged by FDR, amends neutrality legislation to apply to an arms embargo to both Republican Loyalists and fascist rebels. 3. International implications: a. Democracies of the world stood by as the Loyalist democracy in Spain was killed by fascist aggressors. i. Italy sends troops to help Franco ii. Hitler sends air force to bomb cities held by Republicans b. Both Mussolini & Hitler use Spain as testing ground for future aggression 4. Rome-Berlin Axis help Nationalists win (1939); Franco imposes fascism in Spain a. Italy signs Anti-Comintern Pact with Germany in 1937 b. Weakness of democratic countries encourage Hitler & Mussolini E. Japan launches full-scale attack on southern China (1937) 1. Invaded from northeastern China moved south & west a. Established "new order in Asia" in which Japan had commercial supremacy in China; end of the Open Door b. Further expansion: French Indochina (Vietnam); Dutch East Indies c. Chang-Kai-shek, Chinese nationalist leader, heads Chinese resistance to Japanese militarism in China. 2. Panay Incident a. Dec. 12, 1937, Japanese bombed and sank a U.S. gunboat -- the Panay -- and three Standard Oil tankers on the Yangtze River. i. Two killed; 30 wounded ii. Yantzee River was by treaty an international waterway (Open Door) iii. Japan was testing U.S. resolve (like Hitler in the Rhineland in 1936) b. Roosevelt reacted angrily: planned to seize U.S.-held property in China. c. Japan apologized, paid U.S. an indemnity, and promised no further attacks. d. American public called for withdrawal of all American forces from China. i. Most Americans satisfied and relieved at Japan’s apology ii. Japanese interpreted U.S. tone as license to vent their anger against U.S. civilians in China via slappings and strippings. 3. Roosevelt’s "Quarantine Speech" (1937) a. Condemned Japan and Ethiopia for their aggressive actions. b. Called on democracies to "quarantine" the aggressors by economic embargoes. c. Criticized by isolationists who feared FDR’s posture might lead U.S. into war. d. FDR retreated and sought less direct means to address totalitarianism. F. German aggression 1. Hitler withdrew from League of Nations in 1933 2. 1937, withdrew from clauses of Treaty of Versailles that pertained to Germany. 3. Germany absorbs Austria in March 1938 ("Anschluss") a. British P.M. Neville Chamberlain adopts a policy of appeasement toward Germany (does not want another World War—British still haunted by WWI) i. Rejects joining alliance w/ France & Russia claiming it would destroy possibility of future negotiations. ii. Appeasement--: Making concessions to an aggressor in order to preserve peace iii. Pacifism--: Refusal to fight in a war --widespread in Br. & Fr. as memories of WWI still deep b. US isolationism: Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936, and 1937 3. Germany takes Czechoslovakia a. Hitler demands the Sudetenland (a German-speaking province in Czechoslovakia b. Munich Conference (Sept. 1938) -- Attended by Germ., Fr., UK, It. i. Czechoslovakia & its ally USSR not invited! ii. Terms: --Czechoslovakia loses Sudetenland (could have waged successful defense) -- Hitler guarantee of independence of Czechoslovakia -- Hitler claims he will not make any more territorial demans in Europe. iii. Czechs shocked that fate of own country decided by others iv. Europeans thought threat of war was now over c. March 1939, Hitler invades rest of Czechoslovakia (six mos. later) 4. Invasion of Poland starts WWII a. 1 week after invasion of Czechoslovakia Hitler demands return of Danzig on the Baltic Coast in Polish Corridor. -- Polish Corridor separated East Prussia from Germany. b. Chamberlain says Britain would aid Poland if attacked; France follows suit c. Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact--Aug. 23rd, 1939 i. World shocked by this treaty: fascists and communists traditional arch-enemies. ii. Hitler wanted to prevent a 2-front war if he invaded Poland. iii. Stalin was afraid of Hitler and wanted assurances. -- Soviet Army was weak due to purges in the 1930s. iv. Provisions. -- Public clause: Non-aggression agreement between the 2 countries. -- Secret clause: Division of Poland between Hitler & Stalin -- USSR would sell Germany much needed raw materials for Nazi war machine. v. Pact allowed Germany to move against Poland w/o fear of Soviet interference. e. Sept. 1, 1939, Germany troops invade Poland e. Two days later, Britain & France declare war on Germany; WWII begins f. Sept. 5, 1939 -- FDR officially proclaimed U.S. neutrality. Axis vs. Germany (1939) Italy (1939) Japan (1940) Hungary (1940) Romania (1940) Bulgaria (1941) Allies Great Britain (1939) France (1939) U.S.S.R. (1941) U.S. (1941) China 43 other countries VI. Axis offensives in Europe and elsewhere A. Germany invades Poland--Sept. 1, 1939 1. Blitzkrieg--"lightning war"--new type of warfare a. Combines Luftwaffe, tanks divisions, artillery divisions, and mechanized infantry. b. Pierces a hole in enemy line & quickly cuts it off; chops enemy into smaller groups -- Luftwaffe strafes civilian roads and bombs cities. 2. Poland unable to successfully defend itself; surrenders Sept. 27, 1939 -- Britain & France could not aid Poland in time. B. Soviet Union expansion in the East 1. USSR invades Poland from the east about a month after Germany. 2. Stalin annexes Estonia, Latvia, & Lithuania (1940) a. Believes Hitler will one day attack USSR b. Fortifies defenses in Baltics 3. Invades Finland (November 1939) "Winter War" and wins in March 1940 C. Neutrality Act of 1939 (response to German invasion of Poland) 1. Britain and France desperately needed U.S. airplanes and other weapons. -- Neutrality Act of 1937 forbade sale of weapons to warring countries. 2. Sept. 5, 1939 -- FDR officially proclaims U.S. neutrality (but not neutrality in thought). -- 84% of public supports Britain and France. 3. Sept. 21, FDR persuades Congress in special session to allow U.S. to aid European democracies in limited fashion. 4. Provisions of Neutrality Act of 1939 a. Sale of weapons to European democracies on a "cash-and-carry" basis. -- U.S. would thus avoid loans, war debts, and torpedoing of U.S. arms- carriers. b. FDR authorized to proclaim danger zones which U.S. ships & citizens could not enter (contrast to Wilson’s WWI policy) 5. Results a. Democracies benefited as they controlled the Atlantic -- Aggressors could not send ships to buy U.S. munitions. b. U.S. economy improved as European demand for war goods helped bring the country out of the recession of 1937-1938. -- Unemployment crisis solved. C. German expansion in Western Europe 1. April 1940: conquered Denmark & Norway 2. April 1940, FDR declared that Greenland, a possession of conquered Denmark, was covered by the Monroe Doctrine. -- U.S. supplied military assistance to set up a coastal patrol there. 3. May 1940: Netherlands, Belgium, & Luxembourg fall -- French & British troops unsuccessful 4. Fall of France (June, 1940) a. German troops occupied 2/3 of France & took control of its gov't. b. Vichy gov't installed as puppet gov't "Vichy France" (capital--Vichy) D. Battle of Britain 1. Hitler's demands to Britain: a. Return of German colonies b. Agree to Germany's domination of continental Europe. c. Britain categorically refuses 2. Hitler orders German bombers to attack Royal Air Force (Aug.13) -- Reason: Soften Britain for German invasion (Operation Sealion) 3. Germans bomb London (beginning Sept.7) i. Change of bombing tactics--major mistake: first of Hitler’s fatal blunders ii. RAF allowed to recover from exhaustion; Waves of German planes are lost 4. Results a. RAF defeated the Luftwaffe b. Plans are cancelled for German invasion of Britain c. British morale increases: Winston Churchill inspirational leader: E. Tripartite Pact (September, 1940) 1. Japan was added to the Rome-Berlin axis for mutual defense and military support. 2. U.S. policy toward Japan increasingly grew more confrontational. F. Germany & Italy expand into Balkans & N. Africa: Greece, Yugoslavia, Egypt. G. Germany invades Soviet Union in June, 1941 1. Lebensraum--"living space" for new German Empire extending into Eastern Europe 2. Germany’s advance halted on outskirts of Moscow in late 1941 (winter set in) 3. Siege of Leningrad lasted two years 4. U.S. eventually sent $11 billion of Lend-Lease aid to the Soviets -- Defense of Russia seen as a defense of the United States 5. Russian invasion was Hitler’s second fatal error: opened a second front before Britain was subdued. VII. U.S. response to the war in Europe A. FDR’s "Arsenal of Democracy" speech (December 29, 1939) -- "Fireside Chat" 1. U.S. cannot remain neutral since its independence has never before been in such danger 2. Nazi war aim was world domination 3. Many feel this speech marked entrance of U.S. into the war. B. U.S. response to fall of France and Battle of Britain 1. FDR called on America to build a huge airforce and 2-ocean navy. 2. Congress appropriated $37 billion (more than total cost of WWI) and 5X larger than any New Deal annual budget. 3. Sept. 1940, Congress passes Selective Service and Training Act a. America’s first peace-time draft -- Men 21 to 35 were registered and many were called for one year of military training. b. Act later expanded when U.S. entered the war. 4. Havana Conference of 1940 a. U.S. agreed to share with 20 Latin American republics the responsibility of upholding the Monroe Doctrine. b. First time Monroe Doctrine was multi-lateral. C. Internationalism 1. Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies a. Most potent of pro-intervention movement. b. Claimed U.S. couldn’t let Axis powers dominate the world. -- Even if Axis could not target Western Hemisphere, U.S. would be turned into "fortress America." c. Urged direct aid to Britain. d. Appealed to isolationists for "All Methods Short of War" to defeat Hitler. 2. Roosevelt had strong internationalist sympathies but had to temper them publicly D. Isolationists: 1. America First Committee a. Slogan: "England will fight to the last American." b. Advocated U.S. protection of its own shores if Hitler defeated Britain. c. Charles Lindbergh most famous of isolationists. -- Ironically, served as U.S. "spy" to track of Luftwaffe buildup in mid-1930s. 2. Senator Robert A. Taft: argued for "Fortress America"; defense not intervention E. Destroyer-Bases Deal 1. Sept. 2, 1940, FDR agreed to transfer to Britain 50 WWI-class destroyers 2. Britain promised U.S. 8 valuable defensive base sites from Newfoundland to South America. -- These bases would remain in U.S. control for 99 years. 3. Agreement achieved by simple presidential agreement. -- Critics charged FDR had circumvented Congress F. Election of 1940 1. Republicans nominated Wendell L. Willkie. a. Condemned FDR’s alleged dictatorship & deficit spending of the New Deal. -- Willkie not opposed to New Deal, just its excesses. b. Like FDR, promised to stay out of war & strengthen U.S.’s defenses. -- Claimed FDR was a war-monger 2. Democrats nominated FDR for a third term a FDR vowed to keep U.S. out of the war. b. Vigorously defended the New Deal and U.S. aid to the Allies. 3. Result: a. FDR d. Willkie 449-82; closer than 1932 and 1936 elections. b. Democrats maintained their majority in Congress G. "Four Freedoms" speech (January 6, 1941) -- made to Congress 1. Now elected, FDR did not have to worry as much about critics. 2. FDR asked Congress for increased authority to help Britain. 3. Four Freedoms: a. Speech and expression b. Religion c. Freedom from Want d. Freedom from fear 4. Congress responded with Lend-Lease H. Lend-Lease (April 1941) and increase U.S. involvement in the European war. 1. Considered one of most momentous laws ever passed by Congress. 2. Provisions: a. Authorized President to give military supplies to any nation he deemed "vital to the defense of the US." -- British rapidly exhausting their cash reserves with which to buy U.S. goods. b. Accounts would be settled after the war. -- FDR: "Loan a neighbor your hose to save his house from fire; worry about the hose later." 3. Criticism a. Isolationists and anti-Roosevelt Republicans saw it as "the blank check bill." b. Some saw it as getting the U.S. even closer to involvement in the war. 4. Results: a. Effectively ended U.S. neutrality; economic declaration of war. b. U.S. war production immediately increased c. Hitler began sinking U.S. ships on a limited scale with German subs i. Until then, Germany avoided sinking U.S. ships, remembering U.S. entry in WWI. ii. Convoy system between U.S., Britain and Canada began in July. d. By wars end, U.S. had sent about $50 billion worth of arms and equipment to nations fighting aggressors esp. Britain and U.S.S.R. I. U.S. patrol of Western Atlantic 1. April 1941, FDR started the American Neutrality Patrol. -- U.S. navy would search out but not attack German submarines in western half of the Atlantic, and warn British vessels of their location 2. Convoys a. July 1941, FDR orders navy to escort lend-lease shipments to Iceland b. British would take them the rest of the way. c. Many ships still sunk d. Sept. 4, FDR proclaimed a shoot-on-sight policy vis-à-vis German U-boats. e. Nov. 1941, Congress proclaimed merchant ships could now be armed and could enter combat zones with munitions for Britain. i. Neutrality Law of 1939 now obsolete. ii. Cause for action: sinking of U.S. destroyer Kearny on Oct. 16 and destroyer Reuben James on Oct. 30 with 115 lives lost. 3. April 1941, U.S. forces occupy Greenland and in May. 4. July 1941, Occupation of Iceland (Danish territory) to protect it from Germany. XIII. Atlantic Conference and the Atlantic Charter (August 1941) A. Secret meeting between FDR and Churchill on U.S. warship off coast of Newfoundland. 1. First of a series of conferences between the two leaders 2. Held in response to Hitler’s invasion of the Soviet Union. B. Atlantic Charter 1. Formally accepted by FDR and Churchill and endorsed by Stalin later that year. 2. No territorial changes contrary to the wishes of the inhabitants (self-determination) 3. Gov’ts abolished by the dictators would be regained. 4. Called for "a permanent system of general security" -- Foundation for the United Nations. C. Reaction: 1. Liberals applauded the charter as they had Wilson’s 14 Points. 2. Isolationists condemned neutral U.S. conferring with "belligerent" Britain on common policies. IX. Escalating tensions with Japan A. Escalating tensions between Japan & US 1. US refused to recognize Manchukuo when Japan invaded Manchuria in 1931. a. U.S. wary of Japan when it signed Anti-comintern Pact with Germany in 1936. b. Condemned Japanese attack on China in 1937 c. Roosevelt's famous "Quarantine speech" in 1937 largely aimed at Japan. 2. Japan outlined the proposed Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere a. Japanese empire of undefined boundaries in east Asia and Western Pacific. b. Declared the Open Door policy ended and forced out American and other business interests from occupied China. 3. Embargo of 1940 passed by Congress (July) a. Following fall of France, new militant Japanese gov’t got the right from Vichy France to build air bases and to station troops in northern French Indochina. b. U.S. placed embargo on export of aviation gasoline, lubricants, scrap iron and steel to Japan and granted an additional loan to China. c. In December, extended embargo to include iron ore and pig iron, some chemicals, machine tools, and other products. 4. Sept. 1940, Japan signed Tripartite Pact: Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis -- All agreed to support each other if attacked by the U.S. 5. Early 1941, FDR moves American Pacific Fleet from West Coast to Pearl Harbor to demonstrate military readiness 6. Embargo of 1941 a. July, Japan gained new concession from Vichy France by obtaining military control of southern Indochina. b. U.S. freezes Japanese assets in the U.S., closes the Panama Canal to Japan, and activates the Philippine militia, and places embargo on export of oil and other vital products to Japan. B. Japanese-U.S. negotiations. 1. Offered withdrawal from southern Indochina if US would resume economic relations -- Japan insisted on remaining in China 2. US demanded Japanese withdrawal from Indochina and China, promise not to attack any other area in western Pacific, and withdraw from the Tripartite Pact. 3. No agreement reached. 4. Negotiations an attempt by U.S. to buy time to fortify Philippines and build 2-ocean navy authorized by Congress in 1940. C. Final negotiations 1. October, 1941 Hideki Tojo, an outspoken expansionist, becomes Prime Minister 2. Japanese secretly decide if no agreement by November 25, Japan would attack U.S. D. Japanese decision to attack 1. Made during unsuccessful negotiations with US on December 1. 2. Felt war with US inevitable a. Tried to seize the initiative rather than waiting and maybe later be in weaker position. b. Felt surprise attack would cripple US 3. Japanese war plan: a. Take Dutch East Indies, Malaya, and Philippines to gain oil, metals and other raw materials. b. Attack on Pearl Harbor would destroy U.S. Pacific fleet and keep it from interfering with its plans. 4. U.S. experts crack the top-secret code of the Japanese a. Between Dec. 1 and Dec. 6 expect Japan to attack Dutch East Indies and Malaya. b. U.S. thought Japan would avoid direct attack on U.S. to avoid provocation. c. Evidence that FDR knew about Pearl Harbor unsubstantiated and misleading. E. Pearl Harbor--Dec. 7th, 1941 (7:55 A.M. Sunday -- second wave at 8:50 A.M.) 1. Damage: a. Japanese sank or badly damaged all 8 battleships inside the Harbor including the Oklahoma and the Arizona. b. Damaged 10 other ships; destroyed 188 planes c. Over 2,500 Americans killed; 1,100 wounded d. 3 aircraft carriers escaped destruction--out at sea f. Japanese losses much smaller 2. Roosevelt asks Congress for Declaration of War against Japan(Dec. 8) a. "a date that will live in infamy." b. Congress quickly complies with only 1 dissenting vote. 3. Germany & Italy declare war against U.S. (three days later) a. Ally with Japan b. Hitler's 3rd fatal blunder: Germany didn't have to declare war on U.S.; FDR and Churchill then agreed to defeat "Germany first" rather than U.S. concentrating on Japan 4. U.S. increase of troops--2 to 12 million (1946) THE UNITED STATES IN WORLD WAR II I. Declarations of war A. U.S. declared war on Japan on December 8, 1941 B. December 11, Axis Powers -- Germany and Italy -- declare war on the U.S. C. Britain and U.S. decide to focus on Germany first; later concentrate on Japan D. Declaration of the United Nations 1. January 1, 1942, representatives of 26 nations meet in Washington, D.C. and sign the Declaration of the United Nations 2. Pledge themselves to the principles of the Atlantic Charter. 3. Promise not to make a separate peace with their common enemies. II. Japanese Empire A. Conquests in Pacific 1. U.S. islands of Guam, Wake Island, and the Gilbert Islands fell by end of December. 2. Japan controlled Singapore, Dutch East Indies, Malay peninsula, Hong Kong, and Burma by spring 1942 3. Defeat U.S. in the Philippines (March 1942 -- General MacArthur "I shall return") B. Resources 1. Controlled 95% of world's raw rubber; 70% of tin; 70% of rice. 2. Oil from Dutch East Indies fueled Japan’s war machine 3. Indochinese rice fed soldiers C. Dominated population of 450 million! 1. Played on Asians’ bitterness of European colonial rule 2. "Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere" --"Asia for the Asians" 3. Forced labor for construction projects; often abused the population D. Recognized the independence of Burma (1943), Vietnam, & Indonesia E. Nationalists organized resistance to Japanese rule (like Chiang kai-shek in China) III. The Home Front A. Military mobilization 1. Selective Service registration expanded to men 18-65 after Pearl Harbor. Period of enlistment extended to 6 months after fighting. 2. 258,000 women enlisted as WAC's (Women's Army Corp), WAVES (Women Appointed for Voluntary Emergency Service), and WAF's (Women's Auxiliary Ferrying Squadron). a. medical & technical support b. flying military equipment to war zones c. cryptography decoding 3. By war's end, 16 million men and women served. a. only 72,000 claimed "conscientious objection" b. only 5,500 refused to register; were jailed c. Nearly a million African Americans served in segregated units. B. Economic mobilization 1. OWM (Office for War Mobilization) established to supervise various agencies intended to increase war production. 2. War Production Board a. WPD est. in 1942 by FDR to regulate the use of raw materials b. 1/2 of factory production went into war materials. By 1943, the US was producing twice as many goods as all the enemy countries combined. 3. "Rosie the Riveter" a. More than five million women joined the labor force during the war, often moving to new communities to find jobs in the aircraft, munitions, and automobile industries. b. Propaganda campaign urged women to fill ranks of the nation’s assembly lines i. Films characterized "Rosie the Riveter" as an American heroine ii. Women’s magazines and newspapers discussed the suitability of women’s smaller hands for "delicate" tasks. c. Women’s increased wages from jobs in industry helped to swell family incomes and pave the way for postwar consumer demand. d. Despite these gains, in 1945 an average woman’s pay was still less than two-thirds that of a male worker, and at war’s end, pressures increased on women to return to homemaking rather than to stay in the work force. 4. Demographic impact of war mobilization a. "Sunbelt" region began to emerge during the war years in California and in certain areas of the South. b. Population and power shift from Northeast to Southwest & South C. Controlling inflation 1. More people were working but less consumer goods were available. 2. Too much $ = inflation; cost of living increased 3. War Labor Board: sought to maintain but not improve a worker's standard of living; wages kept pace with rise in cost of living. -- Contrast to WWI where inflation reduced earning power of workers causing thousands of strikes. 4. Office of Economic Stabilization -- Office of Price Administration (OPA) a. Froze prices and rents at March 1942 levels b. Rationing i. Certificate Plan: buy cars, tires, typewriters, etc.: -- Apply to a local rationing board. If accepted, you received a certificate allowing you to buy the item. ii. Coupon Plan -- more widely used -- Family issued book of coupons for the purchase of meat, coffee, sugar, gas, etc. -- No. of coupons received depended on size of family. No coupons, no purchase. 5. Anti-inflation measures successful a. WWI cost of living up 170% b. WWII -- less than 29% D. Taxes were increased to finance the war 1. Many who had never had to pay taxes were now required to. 2. 1939 -- 4 million filed tax returns; in 1945 --50 million! E. Beginning of National Debt 1. 1941 = $49 billion; 1945 = $259 billion 2. 2/5 was pay as we go; 3/5 was borrowed! 3. New Deal + WWII = "warfare welfare" state F. Volunteerism 1. During WWII, few restrictions were put into place 2. In contrast with WWI, there was little hysteria and pressure to conform. G. Smith-Connolly Antistrike Act (1943) -- expired in 1947 1. Authorized gov’t seizure of plant or mine idled by a strike if war effort was impeded. 2. Response to strikes especially by John L. Lewis --1943, 450,000 United Mine Workers members went on strike who had beem denied a raise by the National War Labor Board. H. Science goes to war: Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) 1. Organized before Pearl Harbor, led to advances in technology, radar, insecticides, etc. 2. Manhattan Project--1942 a. Established to research all aspects of building A-bomb. b. Formed after Albert Einstein and Enrico Fermi warned FDR in a letter in 1939 that the Germans were working on building a bomb through nuclear fission. c. Conducted at various locations with scientists from various countries. d. Los Alamos, New Mexico -- group charged with building the bomb itself -- Headed by Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer e. Trinity -- first test July 16, 1945 in desert outside Alamogordo, New Mexico. IV. Discrimination during the war A. African American civil rights issues 1. During war years, there was massive migration of minorities to industrial centers. -- Resulted in competition for scarce resources (e.g. housing) & tension in the workplace. 2. Violence plagued 47 cities, the worst example occurring in Detroit. a. Detroit Race Riot in June, 1943; 25 blacks dead; 9 whites; i. 6,000 federal troops needed to restore order ii. $2 million in property damage 3. A. Philip Randolph, president of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters a. African-Americans were excluded from well-paying jobs in war-related industries. b. Randolph made three demands of the president i. Equal access to defense jobs ii. Desegregation of the armed forces iii. End to segregation in federal agencies c. March on Washington Movement -- Randolph proposed a black March on Washington in 1941 if his conditions were not met. d. FDR issued Executive Order 8802 in June, 1941 establishing the Fair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC) to investigate violations in defense industries. i. FDR did not agree to other two demands ii. Randolph canceled the march e. Result: i. Gov’t agencies, job training programs, and defense contractors ended segregation ii. Randolph dubbed "father of the Civil Rights movement" 4. NAACP grows in membership from 50,000 before the war, to 500,000 by war’s end 5. Adam Clayton Powell from Harlem elected to the Senate in 1944 B. Mexican Americans 1. Bracero Program -- During the war, the need for increased farm production led to a U.S. government policy for short-term work permits to be issued to Mexican workers. 2. Zoot Suit riots in L.A. (1943) a. Young Mexican-Americans became object of frequent violent attacks in LA. b. Sailors on leave roamed streets beating "zooters," tearing their clothes, cutting their hair. c. Radio reports blamed zooters but a city committee under Earl Warren revealed the truth and need for improved housing. C. Internment of Japanese Americans -- Japanese relocation 1. Executive Order 9066 (Feb. 19, 1942) -- FDR authorized the War Dept. to declare the West Coast a "war theater". 2. 110,000 people of Japanese ancestry were forcibly interned. Pearl Harbor left public paranoid that people of Japanese ancestry living in California might help Japan. a. 1/3 were Issei -- foreign born b. rest were Nisei -- American born usually too young to vote 3. General John DeWitt organized the removal of people of Japanese ancestry to 10 locations in 7 states a. They were given 48 hours to dispose of their belongings -- Most families received only about 5% of their possessions’ worth. b. Camps were in desolate areas c. Conditions harsh, yet many remained loyal to US; after 1943, 17,600 Nisei fought in US Army. d. Relocation became "necessary" when other states would not accept Japanese residents from California. e. Although gov’t considered relocation of Germans and Italians, the Japanese were the only ethnic group singled out by the gov’t for action. 4. Army considered Japanese potential spies. a. Korematsu v. US – Supreme Court upholds internment i. Could not second-guess military decisions ii. Court also ruled that persons couldn’t be held once loyalty was established. -- By then, camps were being closed down. b. Seen by military as potential "fifth column" 5. Labor and business wanted Japanese removed to help themselves 6. Represented the greatest violation of civil liberties during WWII. a. $105 million of farmland lost b. $500 million in yearly income; unknown personal savings. 7. No act of sabotage was ever proven against any Japanese-American 8. Camps closed in March, 1946 9. 1988, President Reagan officially apologized for its actions and approved in principle the payment of reparations to camp survivors totaling $1.25 billion. 10. In 1990 Congress appropriated funds to pay $20,000 to each internee. Background: 1942 was a critical year for the survival of the Allied powers. Japan controlled all of Southeast Asia and most of China; Germany controlled Western Europe, N. Africa, and were deep inside the Soviet Union. V. The Grand Alliance A. A coalition of the nations who were at war with the Axis Powers created with the signing of the "United Nations Declaration", Jan 1, 1942. -- FDR & Churchill's close relationship helped B. Objectives 1. Hitler first -- Churchill & FDR wanted to concentrate on defeating Germany before giving Japan higher priority. 2. Many who were outraged from Pearl Harbor complained. C. Military Plans: 1. Economic blockades on Germany & Italy 2. Air attacks on Germany 3. Peripheral strikes in the Mediterranean 4. Final direct assault on Germany VI. Allied defeats: during first 6 months, it looked likely that the Allied Powers would lose the war. A. Asia and the Pacific 1. Japanese took Guam, Wake Island, Hong Kong, Singapore, Burma, Dutch East Indies, and the Philippines. -- Important Burma Road supply route into China from India was cut. 2. U.S. loss of the Philippines a. 20,000 U.S. troops led by General Douglas MacArthur withdrew to Bataan, close to Manila, but eventually surrendered. b. Bataan death march – 85-mile forced march of U.S. GIs who were tortured and eventually burned alive. c. MacArthur ordered by Washington to leave secretly for Australia. i. "I shall return" ii. Assumes command of all Allied Pacific forces 3. Doolittle Raid: Americans executed a militarily insignificant raid on Japan in April, 1942 in retaliation for Pearl Harbor. -- Helped American moral since U.S. had not yet struck back after Pearl Harbor. B. Early Defeats in Europe 1. German submarines sunk 8 million tons worth of allied supplies -- 25% of the USSR's. 2. Germans were as far east as Stalingrad by fall 1942, and as deep as El Alamein, Egypt VII. Allied Turning Points in the War A. Battle of Stalingrad (Sept. 1942) 1. Perhaps most important battle of the war a. First major Nazi defeat on land. b. Henceforth, German army in retreat from the east until Berlin is occupied by the Russians in the spring of 1945. 2. Stalin never forgave the Allies for not opening a 2nd front earlier; USSR had to bear the full brunt of Nazi invasion. -- Churchill opted for North Africa instead. B. North Africa -- Operation "Torch" - led by Gen. Eisenhower, Nov. 8, 1943 1. British had been desperately fighting German Panzer divisions in North Africa since 1941. -- Germans led by General Irwin Rommel (the "Desert Fox") 2. Nov. 1943, 100,000 Allied troops invaded N. Africa in Algeria & Morocco (Casablanca) 3. Major victory at the Battle of El Alamein—signaled end of Nazi presence in N. Africa -- Pushed Rommel all the way to Tunisia; massive German casualties. C. Europe 1. Invasion of Italy (commanded by George C. Patton) a. July 10, 1943, British and U.S. forces land on Sicily; victorious within 1 month b. Mussolini forced out of power by officials within fascist party. c. June 4, 1944 -- Allies march into Rome -- First capital city freed from Nazi control d. Other parts of Italy remain under Nazi control until Spring 1945. 2. D-Day (June 6, 1944) -- "Operation Overlord" – perhaps war’s most important battle a. Commanded by General Dwight D. Eisenhower b. 120,000 troops left England and landed at 5 beachheads at Normandy Coast. i. 800,000 more men within 3 weeks; 3 million total ii. Demonstrated siignificance of Battle of Britain four years earlier c. Casualties during D-Day: 2,245 Allies killed; 1,670 wounded d. Significance of battle: i. Second front established (to Russia’s joy) -- August 25, 1st Allied troops enter Paris. -- By end of summer, Belgium, France and Luxembourg liberated ii. Had Allies failed, Hitler could have focused on Eastern Front and perhaps negotiated an end to the war with Stalin leaving most of Europe under Nazi control. 3. Invasion of Germany a. Pre-invasion bombing i. Hamburg all but wiped out in summer 1943 ii. Berlin and other major cities and targets hit repeatedly especially factories and oil refineries. b. Allied invasion in Sept. 1944 repelled by Germany -- Had arrived at the Rhine by mid-September on the edge of Germany. c. Battle of the Bulge (December 16, 1944) i. Germans launched last major offensive on U.S. positions in Belgium and Luxembourg -- U.S. casualties: nearly 80,000 ii. General George Patton and his 101st Airborne Division stopped Hitler’s last gasp counter-offensive iii. By January, the Allies were once more advancing toward Germany. d. Britain & US attack Dresden with fire bombs killing 100,000 & destroying factories & rail lines. e. April 1945 i. U.S. approach Berlin from west while Soviets come from east. ii. German resistance in Italy collapsing. iii. Mussolini caught by Italian resistance and killed f. Hitler goes into bunker under Chancellery in April and commits suicide on April 30. g. Germany surrenders unconditionally on May 7, 1945 -- Allies celebrate V-E Day (Victory in Europe Day) D. Japan is pushed back to its mainland 1. Battle of the Coral Sea (May 1942)– entire battle fought with aircraft. -- Japan prevented from successfully invading New Guinea and Australia. 2. Battle of Midway (June 4-7, 1942) – turning point in the Pacific war a. Allies broke the Japanese code. b. Japan lost 4 aircraft carriers (of 10)--7 of 11 other ships destroyed; 250 planes. c. Significance:Japan no longer had any hopes of attacking US mainland. -- Yet, Japanese- Americans still interned 3. Island Hopping campaign begins in 1943 – eventually pushed Japanese forces all the way back to Japan. a. Sought to neutralize Japanese island strongholds with air and sea power and then move on. b. Battle of Guadalcanal (Solomon Islands -- August 1942-February 1943) -- First Japanese land defeat after 6 months of bitter jungle fighting. 4. Iwo Jima (February, 1945) -- Fighter planes now close enough to bomb Japan (would escort B-29s coming from the Marianas) 5. Okinawa (April 1, 1945 -- ends in June) a. 50,000 American casualties resulted from fierce fighting which virtually destroyed Japan’s remaining defenses. b. Bloodshed influenced the eventual use of the atomic bomb to prevent further U.S. casualties from ground assaults. 6. Bombing of Japan results in destruction of most major cities -- March 1945, 100,000 die in a single Tokyo raid; 60% of buildings destroyed. VIII. Election of 1944 and death of FDR A. FDR, with running-mate Harry S. Truman, defeated Republican opponent Thomas Dewey. -- FDR elected to an unprecedented fourth term in office. B. April 12, 1945 -- FDR dies at Warm Springs, GA C. Harry Truman becomes president IX. The Atomic Bomb A. U.S. successfully tests bomb in mid-July, 1945 at Alamagordo, New Mexico. B. Potsdam Conference (Mid-July - August) 1. Three allied leaders (Truman, Stalin, and Clement Atlee) warn Japan w/o specifics to surrender or suffer "complete and utter destruction." 2. Japan refuses removal of emperor but shows signs in secret dispatches it might be willing to surrender if emperor remains on throne. 3. Military advisors warn of casualties as high as 46,000 if U.S. invades Japan. C. August 6, 1945 -- First atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima 1. 80,000 killed immediately; 100,000 injured -- Countless die later of radiation sickness or cancer 2. Bomb dropped by the Enola Gay 3. Japanese gov’t still does not surrender D. August 8, Soviet Union enters the war against Japan as promised E. August 9 -- 2nd bomb dropped on Nagasaki; 60,000 dead F. August 14 -- Japan surrenders 1. World War II is over. 2. September 2, Japanese formally surrender aboard U.S.S. Missouri in Tokyo Bay. G. The decision to drop the atomic bomb became controversial in past few decades. 1. Recent scholarship suggests Truman sought to intimidate Soviet Union in the post-war world by using the bomb. Proponents of Truman’s decision say that this was not a key issue in Truman’s decision making; ending the war was the overriding goal 2. Some suggest a demonstration of the bomb to Japan was a viable alternative. Yet, U.S. did not know if the bomb would work and only two bombs available in August 1945. 3. Proponents of the bomb’s use argue that bloody U.S. victories at Iwo Jima and Okinanwa were only a preview of the horrific carnage that would occur if U.S. invaded the mainland. Japan was preparing women and children to defend Japan as well. 4. Some military officials believed Japan could be broken by the naval blockade and continued conventional bombing. General Eisenhower later lamented use of the bomb. 5. Critics of the decision maintain the U.S. let the emperor on the throne after the war: why not make that clear before using the bomb? 6. Some critics argue that Hiroshima was not a crucial military target and that civilians instead were the target. Hiroshima and Nagasaki had been spared bombing up until then. 7. Some critics argue that even if Hiroshima bombing was somewhat justified, the quick bombing of Nagasaki three days later was not. 8. Some critics argue that Truman and others connected with the gov’t mislead the public about the use of the bomb by misinformation in the press and movies. X. Allied Diplomacy during the war A. Casablanca Conference (January 14-25, 1943) 1. FDR and Winston Churchill declare a policy of unconditional surrender for "all enemies" 2. Agreed that Italy would be invaded first before opening a 2nd Front in France. B. Moscow Conference (October 1943) -- Secretary of State Cordell Hull obtained Soviet agreement to enter the war against Japan after Germany was defeated and to participate in a world organization after the war was over. C. Declaration of Cairo (issued December 1, 1943) 1. FDR met with Chang Kai-shek in November calling for Japan’s unconditional surrender. 2. Stated that all Chinese territories occupied by Japan would be returned to China and that Korea would be free and independent. D. Tehran Conference (November 28-December 1, 1943) 1. First meeting of the "Big Three" -- FDR, Stalin, and Churchill 2. Allies agree to an invasion of the Western Europe in 1944. 3. Stalin reaffirmed the Soviet commitment to enter the war against Japan and discussed coordination of the Soviet offensive with the Allied invasion of France. 4. Disputes over post-war world a. Stalin insisted on Soviet control of Eastern Europe and the carving up of Germany b. Churchill demanded free governments in Eastern Europe and a strong Germany after the war to preserve a balance of power in Europe. c. Roosevelt acted as a mediator and believed he could work with Stalin to achieve a post-world peace within the construct of the United Nations. E. Yalta Conference (February 4-11, 1945) 1. "Big Three" met to discuss post-war Europe. 2. Stalin agreed to enter Pacific war within 3 months after Germany surrendered 3. Stalin agreed to a "Declaration of Liberated Europe" which called for free elections. 4. Called for a world organization to meet in the U.S. beginning on April 25, 1945 and agreed Soviets would have 3 votes in the General Assembly and that the U.S., Great Britain, the Soviet Union, France and China would be permanent members of the Security Council. 5. Germany divided into occupied zones and a coalition government of communists and non-communists was agreed to for Poland. -- U.S.S.R. allowed to keep its pre-1939 territory. 6. FDR accepted Soviet control of Outer Mongolia, the Kurile Islands, the southern half of Sakhalin Island, Port Arthur (Darien), and participation in the operation of the Manchurian railroads. F. Potsdam Conference (July 17 to August 2, 1945) 1. Truman, Stalin, and Clement Atlee (Britain) met at Potsdam, eastern Germany. 2. Conference disagreed on most issues; war alliance beginning to break down. 3. During conference, Truman ordered dropping of the atomic bomb on Japan. 4. Established a Council of Foreign Ministers to draft peace treaties for the Balkans. 5. Approvals given to concept of war-crimes trials and the demilitarization and denazification of Germany. -- Reparations from Germany could be taken from each respective zone. XI. Aftermath A. Massive casualties 1. 46-55 million dead; 35 million wounded; 3 million missing a. About 30 million soldiers died (including about 300,000 Americans) b. 25 million civilians -- 15 million in USSR alone (23 million combined with military casualties)! B. 30 million Europeans lost their homeland (60% of them German) and relocated C. Massive destruction of cities (4 million homes in Britain; 7 million buildings in Germany; 1,700 towns destroyed in USSR) D. Holocaust 1. Six million Jews were liquidated as part of Hitler's "Final Solution" 2. Six million others also killed including Gypsies, Homosexuals, physically handicapped, Jehova's Witnesses and political opponents. 3. U.S. response to Europe’s Jews before and during the war was extremely biased. a. "Americanism" of 1920s continued into 1940s with strong anti-Semitism b. 40% of German immigration quota between 1933 & 1945 was unfilled while German Jews tried to get into the U.S. c. At one point, U.S. forced a ship full of German Jews that had made it to U.S. shores to turn around and go back to Germany. Many did in Nazi camps. XII. Post-war Political issues A. WWII made allies of ideological enemies 1. Prior to WWII, Stalin's communist dictatorship was condemned by the West. 2. Soviets conversely denounced "Western Imperialism" 3. Once the war was over, the rivalry between East & West quickly reemerged B. Fate of Eastern Europe 1. By war's end, the Soviets controlled most of Eastern Europe. a. Bulgaria, Romania, and Hungary surrendered to Soviets when they were invaded. b. Soviets drive Nazis from Poland and Czech. 2. Stalin promises free elections; West is wary that Europe will have communist governments imposed. C. Germany's fate 1. Soviets wished for a weak Germany 2. Britain & US wanted a strong economic Germany and a healthy democracy. D. Shift in balance of power 1. Western Europe was no longer the leader in world affairs. 2. US & USSR emerged as the two superpowers XIV. The Postwar World A. Nationalism become a major force throughout the world. 1. Colonies ruled by European nations demanded independence. 2. India had been promised greater freedom as a reward for fighting in the war. 3. French Indochina determined to resist European rule; nationalists had fought against Japanese. B. Social changes 1. African-Americans gained job opportunities during the war that had long been denied. -- Hopes were raised that further action against racial discrimination was raised. 2. Many women saw a future of wider opportunity after the war, while many returned to the home. 3. Shift in population to the "sunbelt" C. Technology 1. Synthetic materials such as plastics were developed to replace natural ones in short supply. 2. Improvement in airplanes and radar changed war 3. A-bomb changed the course of human history; years after 1945 called "Atomic Age" D. End of WWII sowed the seeds for the onset of the Cold War: 1946-1992 EISENHOWER’S PRESIDENCY AND THE 1950s I. Election of 1952 A. Truman did not seek reelection in the face of military deadlock in Korea, war-induced inflation, and White House scandal. -- Democrats nominated Adlai E. Stevenson of Illinois B. Republicans nominated Dwight D. Eisenhower 1. Eisenhower extremely popular hero of World War II (grandfatherly image) 2. Richard Nixon nominated for Vice President C. Eisenhower won by a landslide: 442-89 -- First time since 1928 the Republicans won some Southern states. II. McCarthyism (see previous chapter’s notes) III. Eisenhower Republicanism at Home -- "dynamic conservatism" A. In effect, Ike maintained New Deal programs 1. Social Security benefits extended and minimum wage raised to $1.00/hr 2. Sought middle-of-the-road approach to gov't policy in the face of the New Deal, WWII, & Fair Deal. 3. Interstate Highway system (1954) created modern interstate freeway system a. $27 billion plan built 42,000 miles of freeways. -- Countless jobs on construction speeded suburbanization of America. b. Federal gov’t paid 90% of cost and states 10% c. The railroad industry suffered significantly in the face of increased competition from automobiles and better transportation by airplane. 4. Dept. of Health, Education and Welfare created in 1953 to oversee some of FDR’s New Deal programs. B. Strove to balance the federal budget; succeeded only 3 times in 8 years. 1. Ike aimed to guard against "creeping socialism" 2. Reduced defense spending down to 10% of GNP from 13% 3. Eisenhower administration ttried unsuccessfully to reduce price supports to farmers but ended up spending more money than any previous sec. of agriculture. 4. By 1959, Ike accrued the highest peacetime deficit in US History. -- 1954, Ike lowered tax rates for corporations & individuals with high incomes. C. Favored privatizing large government holdings 1. Supported transfer of offshore oilfields from federal gov’t to states 2. Encouraged private power companies to compete with TVA D. Labor Unions grow in power 1. AFL and CIO merged in 1955 in the wake of unemployment jitters due to several business recessions in the 1950s: AFL-CIO 2. AFL-CIO expelled Teamster union in late 1950s when high Teamster officials resorted to gangsterism to achieve their political ends. a. Jimmy Hoffa, head of the Teamsters, became one of the most powerful union bosses in U.S. history; influenced politicians with hard-ball tactics. b. Hoffa's ascension triggered the split of the Teamsters and the AFL-CIO c. Landrum-Griffin Act of 1959 (further buttressed the Taft-Hartley Act of 1947) i. Ike’s response to Jimmy Hoffa threatening to defeat for reelection any Congressman who supported a tough labor bill. ii. Bill designed to clamp down on illegal financial activities by unions and to prevent union strong-arm tactics by imposing penalties. E. Republican lost both houses in 1954 due to economic troubles at home. F. Alaska admitted as 49th state in 1958; Hawaii becomes 50th state in 1959 IV. Civil Rights during the 1950s -- NAACP achieves desegregation A. Eisenhower did not intend to be a "civil rights" president. -- Yet he was president during some of the most significant civil rights gains in U.S. history. B. 1940s -- NAACP began to attack "separate but equal" by suing segregated colleges and universities; African Americans gained entrance into Southern universities. -- Elementary and secondary schools remained segregated. C. Earl Warren appointed by Eisenhower as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court in1953 -- Although viewed as a conservative, Warren would become the most significant Chief Justice of the 20th century and lead most liberal court of the 20th century. D. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 1954 1. NAACP filed suit on behalf of Linda Brown, a black elementary school student. a. Topeka school board had denied Brown admission to an all-white school. b. Case reached Supreme Court in 1954 2. Thurgood Marshallrepresented Linda Brown i. Charged that public school segregation violated the "equal protection" clause of the 14th Amendment to the Constitution. ii. Segregation deprived blacks an equal educational opportunity. iii. Separate could not be equal because segregation in itself lowered the morale and motivation of black students. 3. Chief Justice Earl Warren persuaded fellow justices to overturn Plessy v. Ferguson. a. "Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal. It has no place in public education. b. One year later, Court ordered school integration "with all deliberate speed." C. Response to Brown v. Board of Education 1. Southern officials considered ruling a threat to state and local authority. a. Eisenhower felt gov’t should not try to force segregation. -- Called appointment of Warren "my biggest mistake." b. 80% of southern whites opposed Brown decision. c. Some white students, encouraged by parents, refused to attend integrated schools. d. KKK reemerged in a much more violent incarnation than in 1920s. 2. Southern state legislatures passed more than 450 laws and resolutions aimed at preventing enforcement of Brown decision. a. "Massive Resistance" -- 1956, Virginia state legislature passed a massive resistance measure cutting off state aid to desegregated schools. b. By 1962, only one-half of one percent of non-white school children in the South were in integrated schools. 3. Crisis in Little Rock, Arkansas, 1957 a. Gov. Orval Faubus ordered National Guard to surround Central High School to prevent nine black students ("Little Rock Nine")from entering the school. b. Federal court ordered removal of National Guard and allowed students to enter. -- Riots erupted and forced Eisenhower to act. c. Eisenhower reluctantly ordered 1000 federal troops into Little Rock and nationalized the Arkansas National Guard, this time protecting students. -- First time since Reconstruction a president had sent federal troops into South to enforce the Constitution. d. Next year, Little Rock public schools closed entirely. i. White attended private schools or outside city schools. ii. Most blacks had no school to attend. e. August 1959, Little Rock school board gave in to integration after another Supreme Court ruling. D. Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955-56) 1. December 11, 1955, Rosa Parks arrested in Montgomery, Alabama, after refusing to give her bus seat to a white man; she was ordered to sit at the back of the bus. -- Found guilty and fined $14; over 150 others arrested and charged as well for boycotting buses during the following months. 2. Immediate calls for boycott ensued; nearly 80% of bus users were African Americans. -- Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr., leader of Dexter Avenue Baptist Church, became a leader of the boycott; emerged as leader of civil rights movement. 3. Montgomery bus boycott lasted nearly 400 days. a. King’s house was bombed. b. 88 other African American leaders were arrested and fined for conspiring to boycott. 4. Supreme Court ruled that segregation on Montgomery buses was unconstitutional. -- On December 20, 1956, segregationists gave up. E. Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) 1. Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) -- King president in Jan. 1957 2. Nonviolent resistance a. King urged followers not to fight with authorities even if provoked. b. King’s nonviolent tactics similar to Mohandas Gandhi (both were inspired by Henry David Thoreau’s On Civil Disobedience) i. Use of moral arguments to changed minds of oppressors. ii. King linked nonviolence to Christianity: "Love one’s enemy." c. Sit-ins became effective new strategy of nonviolence. i. Students in universities and colleges all over U.S. vowed to integrate lunch counters, hotels, and entertainment facilities. ii. Greensboro sit-in (Feb. 1960): First sit-in by 4 North Carolina college freshmen at a Woolworth lunch counter for student being refused service. -- After thousands participated in the sit-in merchants in Greensboro gave in 6 months later iii. A wave of sit-ins occurred throughout the country. -- Targets were southern stores of national chains. iv. Variations of sit-ins emerged: "kneel-ins" for churches; "read-ins" in libraries; "wade-ins" at beaches; "sleep-ins" in motel lobbies. 3. Student movement a. Nonviolence of students provoked increasingly hostile actions from those who opposed them. -- Some blacks were beaten, and harassed by white teen-agers. b. Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee created by SCLC to better organize the movement. (SNCC pronounced "snick") i. "Jail not Bail" became the popular slogan. ii. Students adopted civil disobedience when confronted with jail. F. End of "Massive Resistance" -- 1959, federal and state courts nullified Virginia laws which prevented state funds from going to integrated schools. V. Cold War Politics A. Sec. of State John Foster Dulles initiates new policy of massive retaliation 1. Two major principals: a. Encourage liberation of the captive peoples in E. Europe by widespread use of political pressure and propaganda. -- Radio broadcasts to E. European countries by the Voice of America and Radio Free Europe urged people to overthrow gov’t. b. Massive retaliation i. Soviet or Chinese aggression would be countered with nuclear weapons directly on USSR and China. ii. Brinksmanship -- the art of never backing down from a crisis, even if it meant pushing the nation to the brink of war. 2. Rejects containment policy because it tolerated Soviet power where it already existed -- US foreign policy should be to destroy communism; communism was "immoral" 3. US & USSR begin arms race to accumulate sophisticated nuclear arsenals. -- preemptive strike capabilities emphasized: destroy the other side before they can destroy you. 4. Eisenhower was able to appear as a moderate when compared to Dulles. -- Dulles was a mechanism to deter Soviets while deflecting attention from Ike. 5. Americans began preparing for the contingencies in case of nuclear war. B. "New Look Military" 1. Eisenhower sought to reduce the military budget by scaling back the army and navy while building up an air fleet of superbombers with nuclear weapons. 2. Nuclear force would cost less than huge conventional force -- "more bang for the buck." -- Nuclear force = "overkill"; US unable to respond to minor crisis (e.g. Hungary) 3. In reality, military costs soared due to expensive aerial & atomic hardware. 4. Eisenhower’s "Farewell Address" (1961) : warned Americans of the dangerous growth of the military-industrial-complex. a. Vast, interwoven military establishment and arms industry. b. Power was enormous (largely in National Security Council) and had potential to effect democracy itself. c. His own policies had nurtured its growth d. "In the councils of gov’t we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted the military-industrial-complex. The potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist. We must never let the weight of this combination endanger our liberties or democratic processes. C. Vietnam 1. Ho Chi Minh, a Communist, began fighting for the liberation of Indochina from French colonial rule days after the end of World War II. 2. Communists defeated French at Dien Bien Phu in March 1954; last major outpost a. U.S. had given much aid to France to prevent communist expansion. b. Dulles wanted US bombers to aid French (use of nuclear weapons) c. Eisenhower refused fearing British non-support 3. Multinational conference at Geneva split Vietnam in half at the 17th parallel. a. Ho Chin Minh accepted based on assurance that Vietnam-wide elections would occur within two years. b. In the south, pro-western gov't under Ngo Dinh Diem took control in Saigon. 4. Diem’s failure to hold elections seriously divided the country. a. Communist guerrillas in the south increased campaign against Diem. b. China continued to support North Vietnam 5. Dulles created the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) in order to prop up Diem's regime; Britain & France included. a. Supposed to be a "NATO" in Southeast Asia. -- Only Philippine Republic, Thailand, and Pakistan signed in Sept. 1954 b. US pledged to prevent communist expansion in Asia (Vietnam and China) c. Sent in military advisors to train S. Vietnamese forces 6. Domino Theory -- If one country becomes communist, neighboring countries will also fall like dominoes (included Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Burma, maybe India) -- This idea got U.S. involved in Vietnam War in 1960s D. Warsaw Pact 1. West Germany welcomed into NATO in 1955 with half million troops 2. 1955, Soviets sign Warsaw Pact in response new NATO strength in west. -- Countries include all the E. European satellite countries controlled by Moscow. E. Easing of the Cold War tensions occurred after Stalin’s death in 1953. 1. After 2 year power struggle, Stalin is succeeded by Nikita Krushchev in 1955. a. New leadership offered opportunity to reduce tension. -- Publicly denounced bloody excesses of the Stalin regime b. Set out to improve living conditions in USSR c. "Peaceful coexistence" with the western democracies. d. Khrushchev hoped to impress nations in Asia, Africa, and Latin America with superiority of communism as an economic system. -- To the West: "We will bury you" (economically) e. War between USSR & West now seen as unnecessary. -- Peaceful competition will demonstrate superiority of Soviet system 2. U.S.S.R. agrees to leave Austria in May 1955. 3. Eisenhower moves to relax tensions 4. Geneva Summit -- 1955 (July) a. US meets with USSR, Britain, & France to begin discussions on European security and disarmament. -- No agreements made b. USSR resists idea of reunited Germany, especially West’s ally. c. Both sides agreed to necessity of nuclear disarmament. -- US & USSR voluntarily suspend atmospheric testing in October, 1958 F. Souring of relations occurred in the wake of Hungarian Uprising 1. E. Europeans, inspired by Krushchev’s words, begin to seek more freedom in 1956. -- Polish workers riot against Soviets & gain greater control over own gov’t. 2. Hungarian Uprising -- 1956 a. Hungarian nationalists staged huge demonstrations demanding democracy and independence. b. Hungarians inspired by U.S. position to free people from communist control. c. Soviet tanks & soldiers quickly moved in to crush uprising. -- Americans never showed up; Ike didn't want a world war over Hungary. d. World watched as Budapest became a slaughterhouse e. US unable to help -- nuclear force too much "overkill" -- US-Soviet relations sour again. f. Many see Dulles’ "liberation" of E. Europe as impractical. i. Eisenhower unwilling to use "massive retaliation" over Hungary. ii. Proved Eisenhower was more moderate vis-à-vis the Cold War. 3. Sputnik, 1957 a. 1957, Soviets launch first ever unmanned artificial satellite in orbit. b. Americans are horrified at the thought of Soviet technology being capable of transporting nuclear weapons. i. Public demands "missile gap" be eliminated ii. America’s manned bombers still a powerful deterrent. c. National Defense Education Act (NDEA): Eisenhower orders rigorous education program to match Soviet technology. i. 1/3 of all University scientists & engineers went into full-time weapons research. ii. Special emphasis placed on math, science, & foreign languages. d. 1958, US successfully launches its satellite into orbit, Explorer I. e. 1958, NASA (National Aeronautics Space Agency) is launched by Ike f. US conducts massive arms buildup: more B-52’s, nuclear subs, short-range missiles in Europe. 4. Krushchev issues ultimatum on Berlin in November 1958. a. Gave Western powers 6 months to vacate West Berlin. b. Eisenhower and Dulles refused to yield; world held its breath c. Visitations ease the conflict i. Vice president Nixon visited the Soviet Union in 1959 and entered the "Kitchen Debates" with Khrushchev over which economic system was better. ii. Sept. of 1959, Krushchev makes two-week trip to US. iii. Ike and Khrushchev agree to hold summit next year iv. Krushchev states Berlin ultimatum extended indefinitely. 5. U-2 Incident results in worst U.S.-Soviet relations since Stalin a. May 1, 1960 -- U-2 spy plane shot down deep in Soviet territory -- Pilot Francis Gary Powers captured by Soviets b. Incident occurred 10 days before planned Paris Summit. c. Eisenhower admits he authorized U-2 flights for national security. d. Ike suspends further flights but Krushchev demands an apology at Paris. e. Ike refuses and Krushchev angrily calls off Paris summit conference. V. Other foreign policy challenges in the 1950s A. Middle East 1. Iran a. CIA engineered coup in Iran in 1953 that installed the Shah as dictator i. Nationalist leader Moussadegh wanted foreign oil holdings turned over to Iranian gov't. ii. US felt Moussadegh was dangerous to its interests b. In 1979, the Iranian Revolution overthrew the Shah and exacted revenge against the U.S. by holding 50 Americans hostage for 444 days. 2. Suez Crisis a. Egypt -- Gamal Abdel Nasser becomes president (Arab nationalist) i. Opposed existence of Israel (U.S. had supported Israel’s creation in 1948, at the expense of the Palestinians) ii. Sought funding for Aswan Dam on upper Nile for irrigation & power. iii. U.S. agreed to led money to Egypt but refused to give arms. b. US withdrew its financial aid offer when Nasser seemed to court Russia and established diplomatic relations with the People’s Republic of China. c. Nasser seized & nationalized the Suez Canal that was owned mostly by British and French stockholders. d. October 1956, France, Britain & Israel attacked Egypt in an attempt to internationalize the canal. -- World seemed on brink of WWIII e. Eisenhower honored the UN charter's nonaggression commitment and reluctantly denounced the attack on Egypt -- Siding with the US, the Soviets threatened to send troops to Egypt f. Britain, France and Israel withdrew their troops and UN force was sent to keep order. g. Nasser gained control of Suez -- Britain & France Angry at US for siding against a NATO ally. 3. Eisenhower Doctrine a. Empowered the president to extend economic and military aid to nations of the Middle East if threatened by a Communist controlled country. b. 1958, Marines entered Lebanon to promote political stability during a change of governments B. Quemoy & Matsu 1. 1955, Chinese Communists began to shell tiny Nationalist island where Jiang Jieshi had committed 1/3 of his Taiwanese army. -- People’s Republic of China claimed the two tiny islands. 2. Eisenhower received Congressional approval and sent the Seventh Fleet to aid Jiang. 3. Dulles convinced Jiang to renounce force in regaining Chinese mainland and thus, quieted Communist fears. C. Cuba 1. Prior to 1959, U.S. companies active in Cuba. a. Owned 90% of Cuban mines and 40% of Cuban sugar operations. b. Cuba had 2nd highest standard of living in Latin America; among highest literacy 2. Fidel Castrotakes control of Cuba, New Years Day, 1959 a. Fulgencio Batista, an oppressive leader since 1951, fled. b. Castro visits U.S. but Ike refuses to see him (U.S. unsure if Castro is communist) c. Castro eventually consfiscated American-owned property. d. September 1959, Khrushchev decides to aid Cuba. -- Deterioriating Cuban relations with U.S. leads Castro to seek alliance with USSR e. U.S. began plotting against Castro f. July 9, 1960—Khrushchev publicly extends Soviet nuclear umbrella to Cuba. -- Krushchev proclaimed Monroe Doctrine was dead and stated he would shower missiles on the U.S. if it attacked Cuba. g. Sept 1960—CIA opens talks with mafia to arrange a "hit" on Castro. i. U.S. breaks diplomatic relations in January, 1961 ii. Castro encourages revolution in other parts of Latin America. -- US now sees Castro as a serious threat to national security. 3. U.S. persuades the Organization of American States (OAS) to condemn Communist infiltration into the Americas. -- In turn, Congress responded to Eisenhower’s recommendation for $500 million in aid for Latin America -- Latin American "Marshall Plan" D. Overthrow of Guatemala : U.S. supported the overthrow of President Jacobo Arbenz Guzman in 1954 because he began accepting arms from the U.S.S.R. -- Vice President Nixon had to call off an eight nation good-will tour of Latin America after meeting hostile mobs in Venezuela and Peru in 1958. XII. Eisenhower evaluated A. America incredibly prosperous during the Eisenhower years. B. As opposed to most "lame duck" presidents (esp. in light of 22nd Amendment), Eisenhower showed more skilled leadership during his last two years than at any time before. 1. For six years, Democrats controlled Congress. 2. Ike use the veto power 169 times and was overridden only twice. C. Public works projects revitalized certain areas of the country. 1. St. Lawrence waterway project, constructed with Canada, turned cities in the Great Lakes into bustling seaports. 2. Federal Highway Project created nations modern interstate freeways system. D. Eisenhower’s greatest failing (perhaps) was his anemic stance on civil rights. E. Exercised restraint in military affairs despite being a general F. Furthered the cause of the New Deal and Fair Deal in numerous ways and further imbedded them in American life. THE 1960s KENNEDY’S PRESIDENCY I. Election of 1960 A. Nominees 1. Republicans nominated Vice President Richard M. Nixon a. One of most active vice presidents in U.S. history b. Traveled throughout the world as a "troubleshooter" in various capacities. -- Defended US democracy in his Moscow "kitchen debate" w/ Krushchev 2. Democrats nominated Senator John F. Kennedy a. Lyndon B. Johnson, Senate majority leader, was Kennedy’s runningmate b. Acceptance speech: Kennedy called upon American people for sacrifices to achieve their potential greatness -- The New Frontier -- "We stand today on the edge of a new frontier -- the frontier of the 1960s, a frontier of unknown opportunities and paths, a frontier of unfulfilled hopes & threats. The new frontier I speak is not a set of promises -- it is a set of challenges." B. Campaign 1. Kennedy’s Catholicism a major issue until Sept. 12 when he told a gathering of Protestant ministers that he accepted separation of church and state and that Catholic leaders would not tell him how to act as president. 2. Debates a. First-time debates shown on national television; determined fate of the election b. First debate most important (3 more followed) i. Those listening on the radio gave the edge to Nixon. ii. Those watching TV gave the edge to Kennedy 3. Kennedy earned the support of African Americans when he arranged to have Martin Luther King released from a Georgia jail (for having been involved in a protest) C. Result 1. Kennedy d. Nixon by slightly over 100,000 popular votes; 303-219 in electoralvotes -- Closest election in U.S. history; difference less than 1/10 of 1% 2. Only Catholic president in U.S. history; youngest to be elected at age 43. 3. Democrats swept both houses in Congress, although lost a few seats D. Inaugural speech: "Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country." II. Kennedy’s domestic policy A. Legislative failures: JFK unable to get much through Congress due to resistance from Republicans and conservative Southern Democrats. 1. Congress blocked plans for federal aid to education, urban renewal, medical care the aged, reductions in income taxes, and creation of Dept. of Urban Affairs 2. Lyndon Johnson would later get these measures passed after JFK was assassinated. B. Minimum wage raised from $1 to $1.25 an hour and extended to 3 million more workers. C. Area Redevelopment Act of 1961: provided $400 million in loans to "distressed areas." D. Housing Act of 1961: Provided nearly $5 billion over four years for preservation of open urban spaces, development of mass transit, and the construction of middle class housing. E. Steel Prices: 1961, Kennedy "jawboned" the steel industry into overturning a price increase after having encouraged labor to lower its wage demands. F. Space Race 1. Kennedy promoted $24 billion project to land an American on the moon. -- As of the early 1960s, the U.S. was behind the Russians in space technology. 2. Critics charge money could be better spent elsewhere. 3. 1969, Apollo 11 mission transported two American astronauts successfully to the moon: Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin G. The Kennedys continued their crusade against organized crime --Robert Kennedy (RFK) was JFK’s attorney general III. JFK and Civil Rights A. Did nothing during his first two years. 1. Tried to avoid losing either white or black southern vote. 2. Most civil rights initiatives were merely symbolic 3. RFK’s attempts at enfranchisement in the South was largely unsuccessful a. Only small percentage of blacks able to register due to spelling mistakes on literacy tests, poll taxes, white primaries, and grandfather clauses. b. White segregationists wreaked terror on Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC – "snick"); church bombings; assaults on blacks 4. While Kennedy was initially able to satisfy both sides of the issue, the rise of civil rights militants forced his hand. B. Kennedy and the militants 1. May 1961, Freedom Riders organized by CORE (Congress of Racial Equality) a. Rode interstate buses to verify that segregation was not occurring.. b. In Alabama, Freedom Riders were arrested by police, state troopers, and National Guard; some were severely beaten. c. More Freedom Riders kept coming all summer. d. RFK petitioned Interstate Commerce Commission to issue a ruling against segregation of interstate facilities; sent 400 marshals to protect freedom riders. e. ICC made the announcement on Sept. 22, 1961; CORE victorious. 2. Sept. 1962, JFK had to send the U.S. Army to enforce a court order to enroll James Meredith in the University of Mississippi ("Ole Miss) -- Kennedy was losing control of the segregation issue. 3. Showdown in Birmingham, Alabama a. 1963, Birmingham closed parks, playgrounds, swimming pools, and golf courses to avoid desegregation. b. King chose Birmingham because it was the toughest challenge and a victory would break segregation. c. MLK and supporters arrested on Good Friday for marching without a permit and spent 2 weeks in jail. "We know through painful experience that freedom is never voluntarily given by the oppressor; it must be demanded by the oppressed. Frankly, I have yet to engage in a direct-action campaign that was ‘welltimed’ in the view of those who have not suffered unduly from the disease of segregation. For years now I have heard the worked "Wait!" It rings in the ear of every Negro with piercing familiarity. This "Wait" has almost always meant "Never." We must come to see, with one of our distinguished jurists, that justice too long delayed is justice denied." -- Martin Luther King, Letter from a Birmingham Jail d. After his release, King began using black school children in the demonstrations: i. Police commissioner Eugene "Bull" Connor used cattle prods and ordered police dogs on demonstrators and used fire hoses on children as world watched in horror. ii. Public pressure mounted for civil rights legislation. e. Local business leaders gave in and agreed to desegregate the big department stores. -- King called off the demonstrations. f. Shortly after, King’s motel was bombed as was his brother’s home i. Rioting erupted. ii. Kennedy decided to side with King. 4. Kennedy actively pursues civil rights a. June 1963, JFK federalized Alabama National Guard to enforce a court order requiring the admission of two blacks to the University of Alabama. -- Governor George Wallace symbolically stood in the door way protesting that states’ rights were being crushed (earlier had said in his inaugural speech: "segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever.") b. That night, Medgar Evers, NAACP director in Mississippi, was assassinated -- Seen as retaliation for University of Alabama incident c. In response, JFK announced he would send Congress a civil rights bill which would crush segregation, outlaw discrimination in elections, and give the justice department authority to enforce school integration. d. March on Washington, August 28, 1963 i. Largest protest in nation’s history thus far; 200,000 -- Organized in part by A. Philip Randolph (who had started March on Washington Movement during WWII) ii. Protesters demanded support for Kennedy’s civil rights bill and for better and more jobs. iii. Martin Luther King, Jr. gave his "I have a dream" speech "I have a dream. I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: ‘We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal’....I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made plains, and the crooked places shall be made straight, and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together.... This will be the day when all of God’s children will be able to sing with new meaning, ‘My country ‘tis of thee, sweet land of liberty, of thee I sing. Land where my fathers died, land of the pilgrims’ pride, from every mountainside, let freedom ring’..... When we let freedom ring, when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God’s children, black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual, ‘Free at last! Free at last! Thank God Almighty, we are free at last!" iii. By the time JFK was assassinated, his civil rights bill was moving toward passage in the House. IV. Kennedy and the Cold War A. "flexible response" -- Kennedy developed conventional military trategies to deal with difficult challenges around the world. 1. Krushchev: "Soviets would back wars of liberation" in third world countries. 2.During presidential election of 1960, Kennedy had criticized Eisenhower for allowing a "missile gap" that favored the Soviets. -- When JFK became president, he learned that the gap was actually in favor of the US; yet he continued the largest peacetime military buildup in history. 3. Kennedy ordered buildup of conventional armed forces to fight localized wars in the Third World. a. Replaced Ike’s heavy reliance on nuclear weapons. b. Set up Green Berets (elite commando force) c. Built up nuclear arsenal for 2nd strike capability. B. Bay of Pigs 1. Early 1860, Eisenhower authorized CIA to organize, train, and arm in Central America a brigade of 1,400 Cuban exiles for an invasion of Cuba to overthrow Fidel Castro. a. Invaders would presumably trigger a popular uprising in Cuba b. JFK continued the plan 2. In April 1961, Bay of Pigs invasion pinned down and forced to surrender a. Kennedy had decided a day earlier against direct U.S. intervention as he did not want to spark an international diplomatic crisis. b. Some 1,189 men were captured, 400 killed, only 14 exiles rescued -- Cuban people did not support the invasion 3. Kennedy publicly took full responsibility on national TV for the ill-conceived mission. -- Privately Kennedy blamed the CIA for faulty information 4. Significance: brought USSR and Cuba closer together in planning for defense of a future U.S. invasion. C. Operation Mongoose 1. CIA-backed plan to overthrow and assassinate Fidel Castro 2. Ultimately failed and abandoned after Cuban Missile Crisis. D. Peace Corps – one of Kennedy’s most popular programs 1. Est. in 1961, sent young volunteers (doctors, lawyers and engineers) to third world countries to contribute their skills in locally sponsored projects to improve economic stagnation, poor health and inadequate education. 2. Alternative to military containment of communism. 3. By 1966, 15,000 volunteers served in 46 countries but were often overwhelmed. E. Alliance for Progress 1. 1961, JFK gave $20 billion in aid to Latin America ("Latin American Marshall Plan") 2. Primary goal was to help Latin American countries to close the gap between rich and poor thus quieting communist sympathies. 3. Result: Little positive impact on Latin America’s social problems. F. Berlin Wall 1. 1949-1961 -- Thousands of East Germans flee to West Berlin. 2. Krushchev delivered new ultimatum on Berlin; saw U.S. weakness in Bay of Pigs a. USSR would give Berlin to East Germany, stripping western access to Berlin. b. Kennedy: US would not abandon West Berlin 3. USSR announced increase in defense; Kennedy asked for a $3.2 billion increase as well. 4. August, 1961 -- Soviet Union builds wall separating West Berlin from the rest of Berlin and East Germany almost overnight. -- Purpose: Stem the flow of 100,000 people leaving East Berlin 5. Kennedy calls up 1,500 US reserves to reinforce West German garrisons. -- On personal trip to Berlin: "Ich bin eine Berliner" ("I am a Berliner") 6. Tensions eased as treaty not signed between USSR and East Germany -- Air and land routes to West Berlin were kept open. 7. Wall remained until November, 1989 G. Cuban Missile Crisis (October 1962) 1. Khrushchev began placing nuclear weapons in Cuba, just 90 miles off Florida coast in October 1962. a. Soviets intended to use weapons to force U.S. into backing down on Berlin, Cuba, and other troubled areas. b. Only the Pacific Northwest was out of range from the Soviet missiles. 2. Oct. 14, U.S. aerial photographs revealed Russians were secretly and speedily installing nuclear missiles. a. Warning of missile attack would shrink from 30 minutes to 2 minutes b. U.S. unaware that tactical nuclear missiles were also in Cuba. -- Designed to destroy invading armies. c. Soviets also had nuclear cruise missiles to destroy U.S. Navy near Cuba. 3. October 22, JFK ordered a naval "quarantine" of Cuba and demanded immediate removal of Soviet missiles from Cuba. a. Kennedy also stated any attack by Cuba on US or any other Latin American country would result in a full retaliatory response on the Soviet Union. -- Organization of American States had given Kennedy their full support. b. Kennedy rejected "surgical" bombing strikes against missile launching sites fearing it might mean war; no guarantees that all missiles would be hit. c. Also rejected a U.S. invasion of Cuba (many in cabinet & military favored this) i. Unbeknownst to Kennedy, Soviet tactical nuclear weapons in Cuba could have destroyed invading American army. ii. Had US invaded, WWIII would most likely have begun. d. Kennedy made the announcement on national television; Americans shocked e. All US forces put on full alert. 4. For a week, world watched as the Soviet ship carrying missiles steamed toward Cuba. a. Any U.S. attack would trigger war between the U.S. and U.S.S.R. b. October 24, 16 Soviet ships stopped before they reached the blockade 5. October 26, Krushchev agreed to remove missiles if U.S. removed its missiles from Turkey and vowed not to attack Cuba. a. This agreement publicly favored Kennedy as the U.S. quietly pulled its Turkish missiles out 6 months later. b. Agreement can be seen as a victory for Khrushchev: he saved Cuba and got U.S. missiles removed from Turkey. H. New spirit of cooperation 1. Kennedy and Khrushchev realized they had come dangerously close to nuclear war and had to work to prevent that likely from ever again occurring. 2. Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (July, 1963) a. Banned the atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons: land, sea, and outer space. -- Khrushchev refused on-site inspections. b. Did not reduce stockpiles c. Signed by all major powers except France and China. d. JFK considered the treaty his greatest achievement 3. Hot-line installed with 24-hour access between Moscow and Washington. V. Assassination of JFK A. November 22, 1963, Kennedy assassinated in Dallas while on a southern tour to drum up support for his policies; pronounced dead at 1 p.m. B. Lee Harvey Oswald, the alleged assassin arrested in a Dallas movie theater shortly after he allegedly killed a Dallas police officer. -- Oswald killed a few days later by Jack Ruby, who was affiliated with the Mafia. C. Warren Commission, ordered by Johnson, report stated that Oswald was the lone assassin. -- "Magic bullet theory" states that one single bullet went through Kennedy’s back, out his neck, and inflicted several wounds to Texas governor Connolly. D. Later views question the magic bullet, Oswald’s alleged connections with Moscow, and mysteries surrounding Kennedy’s autopsy. JOHNSON’S PRESIDENCY I. President Lyndon B. Johnson and the Election of 1964 A. Pledged to continue Kennedy’s policies when he became president in Nov. 1963. 1. Rammed Kennedy’s stalled Civil Rights and tax cut bills through Congress. -- Johnson one of very few southern Democrats in favor of civil rights. 2. Began his "War on Poverty" by pushing bills through Congress costing billions. 3. 1964 tax cut of about $10 billion resulted in an economic boom. B. Election of 1964 1. Democrats nominated LBJ on the platform of "The Great Society" a. Sweeping set of New Deal-type economic and welfare measures aimed to transform America. b. Public sentiment aroused by Michael Harrington’s The Other America(1962) which showed 20% of US population and over 40% of blacks lived in poverty. 2. Republicans nominated Barry Goldwater, senator from Arizona a. Attacked federal income tax, Social Security System, the TVA, civil rights legislation, nuclear test ban treaty, and the Great Society. b. Considered by many today as the "father of the modern conservatism" -- Reagan’s platform in 1980 very similar to Goldwater’s in 1964. 3. Campaign a. Johnson used Gulf of Tonkin Resolution to show he was a statesman and would not expand the war in Vietnam; offered economic reform: "Great Society" -- Characterized Goldwater the warmonger who might start a nuclear war. b. Goldwater disenchanted many of his fellow Republicans with his extremism. i. Suggested US field commanders be given discretionary authority to use tactical nuclear weapons. ii. Many Republicans more moderate vis-à-vis social programs 4. Results: Johnson d. Goldwater 486 - 52; about 43 million to 27 million a. Democrats swept both houses of Congress with lopsided majorities. b. Democratic president and Democratic Congress now had a mandate for an unprecedented passage of legislation in the next four years. III. The Great Society A. War on Poverty (after election of 1964): Office of Economic Opportunity ("Equal Opportunity Act") 1. Appropriation doubled to nearly $2 billion. 2. Appalachian Regional Development Act of 1966 -- Congress allocated $1.1 billion to redevelop isolated mountain areas. 3. Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 -- More than $1 billion given to aid elementary and secondary education. 4. Head Start prepared educationally disadvantaged children for elementary school. B. Medicare Act of 1965 passed for the elderly. -- Supported by millions of Americans being pushed to poverty by skyrocketing medical costs. C. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) created in 1966 1. Provided for 240,000 housing units and $2.9 billion for urban renewal. 2. 1966, Robert C. Weaver, HUD secretary, became first African American cabinet member in U.S. history D. Immigration Act of 1965 1. Discontinued national origins system from the 1920s 2. Immigration now based on first-come first-serve basis. -- Immigrants with families already residing in US had precedence. 3. Immigration on things such as skills and need for political asylum. -- Artists, scientists and political refugees given preference. 4. Act more than doubled number of immigrants coming in each year, mostly from Asia and Latin America. F. Consumer protection laws passed for full disclosure of cost of credit when borrowing money and regulating use of harmful chemicals in food. G. Culture 1. National Endowment for the Arts and Humanities aimed to lift level of U.S. culture 2. Public Broadcasting System created (PBS) H. Water Quality Act (1965) -- Federal gov’t could set clean water standards for states to force industry to clean up the nation’s lakes and rivers. I. Space program continued: U.S. won the space race. IV. Triumph of civil rights (part of the Great Society) A. 24th Amendment (ratified in January 1964): Abolished the poll tax in federal elections. B. Civil Rights Bill of 1964 1. Johnson’s skill with Congress allowed him to get Kennedy’s bill passed. 2. Provisions a. Forbade segregation in hotels, motels, restaurants, lunch counters, theaters, and sporting arenas that did business in interstate commerce. -- Equal Employment Opportunity Commission created to enforce the law. b. Relieved individuals of responsibility for bringing discrimination complaints to court themselves; federal government now responsible. c. Eliminated remaining restrictions on black voting. d. Title VII: Discrimination based on race, religion gender and national origin was illegal. 3. Result: Most businesses in the South’s cities and larger towns desegregated immediately. C. Voting Rights Act of 1965 1. Legislation still did not address the 15th Amendment guaranteeing the right to vote. 2. March from Selma to Washington a. Only 383 out of 15,000 African Americans registered to vote in Selma, Alabama b. After 2 months of beatings, arrests, and one murder, civil rights leaders in Selma announced a climactic protest march from Selma to Montgomery. c. First march: state troopers violently ended the march on bridge outside Selma. d. March 9, Martin Luther King led a second march i. This time he halted on the bridge and marched back to Selma as protesters sang "We Shall Overcome" ii. King had agreed to President Johnson’s request to discontinue march e. March 15, Johnson promised on TV to send a bill to Congress that would extend voting rights to African Americans in the Deep South. f. March 21, March proceeded peacefully from Selma to Montgomery with the protection of the federalized Alabama National Guard. 3. Provisions: a. Literacy tests unlawful if less than 50% of all voting-age citizens were registered. If so, African Americans could be enrolled whether or not they could read. b. If local registrars would not enroll African Americans, the president could send federal examiners who would. -- This gave teeth to the Civil Rights Act of 1964 c. As a result, 740,00 African Americans registered to vote in three years. i. Hundreds of African Americans elected by the late 1960s in the Old South. ii. African Americans no longer feared white reprisals during elections. iii. Southerners now began courting African American votes and businesses. iv. For first time since Reconstruction, African Americans migrated into the South. D. Affirmative Action (part of the Great Society) 1. Johnson signed an executive order in 1965 requiring employers on federal contracts to take "affirmative action" to ensure underprivileged minorities and women were hired. 2. President Nixon later furthered affirmative action. 3. Countless American corporations that did business with the gov’t, colleges and universities that received federal scholarship and research funding became obligated to meet guidelines. 4. Result: Black, Asian, and Hispanic enrollment in universities increased dramatically. 5. 1970s saw cries of "reverse discrimination as the economy began to suffer and whites faced increased competition for jobs or were denied promotions and students were denied college admission. 6. Bakke case, 1978 a. Supreme Court ruled that Allan Bakke, a white medical student, was unfairly turned down to medical school because of an admissions program that favored minorities. b. Court declared preference in admissions could not be given to members of any group on the basis of ethnic or racial identity alone. 7. Jesse Jackon became a leading advocate in the 1970s and 1980s for the continuing of affirmative action and the furthering of civil rights. 8. Affirmative action weakened by Supreme Court in late 1980s and 1990s D. 1967, Johnson appointed Thurgood Marshall as first African American to Supreme Court E. Forced busing 1. 1968, Supreme Court ordered end to de facto segregation of nation’s school. 2. Court ordered school districts to bus children from all-minority neighborhoods in the center cities to achieve integration of schools. 3. Issue became controversial with middle class suburban whites in early 1970s into1990s F. African-American civil rights movement in retrospect 1. Years between 1954 and 1968 seen as "2nd Reconstruction" -- Equality before the law largely achieved. 2. Other minorities, e.g. women, Native Americans, Hispanics and gays looked to civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s as a model for their own efforts. V. Rise of Black Power and racial violence A. Not all African Americans agreed with Martin Luther King’s non-violent methods. 1. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Voting Rights Act of 1965 King’s ideas seemed obsolete to many young blacks. 2. Many questioned whether it was a good idea for blacks to try to integrate with whites. B. Black Separatism 1. Called for the separation of the races in America by returning to Africa or occupying an exclusive area of land in the U.S. supplied by the federal gov’t. a. Opposite of integration. b. Inspired by ideas of Marcus Garvey (leader during "Harlem Renaissance") c. Nation of Islam (black Muslim movement) most notable and well-organized 2. Malcolm X a. Most vocal and brilliant orator of Nation of Islam b. Preached religious justification for black separatism and furthering of African American rights through "any means necessary." i. Advocated use of weapons for self-defense believing nonviolence encouraged white violence ii. Many in the white community were alarmed c. His views softened after his pilgrimmage to Mecca; he left Nation of Islam d. February 21, 1965, assassinated by three members of the Nation of Islam. e. Never supported King’s nonviolent methods: "The white people should thank Dr. King for holding black people in check." C. SNCC and Stokely Carmichael 1. Influenced by Malcolm X 2. 1966, CORE and SNCC called for civil rights movements to be staffed, controlled and financed by blacks, thus rejecting interracial cooperation. -- Black nationalism replaced integration as the goal. 3. Black Power -- attempt to seize political power in an Alabama election. 4. Carmichael later a member of Black Panthers, based in Oakland, and founded by urban revolutionaries Huey Newton and Bobby Seale. a. Revolutionary social movement to organize African American men in northern and western cities to fight for liberation. b. H. Rap Brown another leader of the movement. D. Racial violence 1. Poverty, unemployment, & racial discrimination common in major inner-cities. -- Empty promise of racial equality in the North ignited rage in many African American communities 2. "Long Hot Summers": throughout summers of 1965, 1966 & 1967, racial disorders hit. a. Watts Riots -- Los Angeles, August 11-16, 1965 -- 34 people dead, 1,072 injured, 4,000 arrested, 1,000 buildings destroyed, property loss nearly $40 million. b. 1967, 7,000 arrested in Detroit i. White businesses targeted but many black businesses inadvertently burned. ii. Snipers prevented fire-fighters from doing their work. c. During first 9 months of 1967, more than 150 cities reported incidents of racial disorders 3. Kerner Commission appointed by LBJ to investigate the riots. Conclusion: a. Frustrated hopes of African Americans led to violence. b. Approval and encouragement of violence both by white terrorists and by black protest groups led to violence c. Blacks had a sense of being powerless in a society dominated by whites. d. Recommended: i. Elimination of all racial barriers in jobs, education, and housing ii. Greater public response to problems of racial minorities iii. Increased communication across racial lines. E. Assassination of Martin Luther King -- April 4, 1968 1. 39-year-old minister shot while standing on a balcony with friends in Memphis. -- King was working to increase wages for Memphis trash collectors. 2. King had lost many supporters when he opposed the Vietnam War. 3. Was attempting to rebuild his support -- speech on April 3rd: "We’ve got some difficult days ahead. But id doesn’t matter with me now. Because I’ve been to the mountain top. I may not get there with you, but I want you to know tonight... that we as a people will get to the promised land." VI. Rise of the "New Left"and Counterculture A. Impact of baby boom generation 1. 1950 -- 1 million went to college; 1960 -- 4 million 2. Raised largely in economic security; 75% of college students came from families with income above the national average. 3. Student protest movement only a minority of student population -- 10-15% B. New Left 1. By mid-1960s majority of Americans were under age 30. 2. Universities became perceived as bureaucracies indifferent to student needs. 3. Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), headed by Tom Hayden called for "participatory democracy" in universities. 4. Free Speech Movement a. Students at U.C. Berkeley started sit-ins in 1964 to protest prohibition of political canvassing on campus. b. Came to emphasize the criticism of the bureaucracy of American society. -- Police broke up a sit-in in December and protests spread to other campuses C. SDS would become more militant during the Vietnam War. D. Many of America’s youth became critical of U.S. policy and turned to alternative lifestyles 1. Music: Bob Dylan, Joan Baez, Pete Seeger 2. Beatles became influenced by Americans counterculture 3. Woodstock, 1969: three days of sex, drugs and rock and roll -- Jimi Hendrix, Janis Joplin VII. The Warren Court A. Chief Justice Earl Warren appointed to the Supreme Court by Eisenhower in 1953. 1. His Court considered one of the two creative periods in US history -- John Marshall is considered to be the first of the great creative periods. 2. Warren’s court stressed personal rights (esp. 1st Amendment), placing them in a preferred constitutional position. B. Brown v. Board of Education (1954) most important of his court’s decisions. C. Reapportionment decisions -- "one-person, one-vote" 1. Result has been an electoral reform shifting voting power from rural districts to urban and suburban areas. 2. Required states redraw their voting districts for the U.S. Congress according to population so that each district had roughly the same number of people. D. Rights of the accused 1. Gideon v. Wainwright (1963): Established that people accused of a crime have the right to a lawyer, even if they cannot afford one. 2. Escobedo v. Illinois (1964): Ruled that one has the right to a lawyer from the time of arrest or when one becomes the subject of a criminal investigation. 3. Miranda v. Arizona (1966): Required that accused people be informed of their right to a lawyer and their right not to testify against themselves. E. School Prayer: 1962, banned school prayer and religious exercises in public schools. VIII. Women’s Rights A. Eleanor Roosevelt’s Commission on the Status of Women highlighted inequalities women faced, endorsed improvements in education, equal employment, child care, and governmental opportunities for women. B. Betty Friedan 1. Feminine Mystique (1963) considered a classic of women’s protest literature. -- Criticized plight of women with domestic duties (cult of domesticity) who also had to work full-time employment at jobs that paid women less than men. 2. With other feminists founded the National Organization for Women (NOW) in 1966. a. Called for equal employment opportunities and equal pay. b. Argued for changes in divorce laws to make settlements more fair to women c. Sought legalization of abortion (most controversial issue) d. 1967, began advocating and Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) to the Constitution extending the same guarantees contained in the 14th Amendment for racial and religious minorities. (Alice Paul had started this idea in 1923) i. Passed in Congress in 1972 but failed by early 1980sto get required 38 states necessary for ratification. ii. Failed to pass as movement limited to middle class women and pro- life groups argued against it. -- Feared ERA would deny them rights to financial support in case of divorce, or would end special treatment women had received in the way of "protective" courtesies in a male-dominated society. -- Opposition spearheaded by Phyllis Schlafly C. Gains 1. 1972, federal gov’t required colleges receiving federal funds to establish "affirmative action" programs for women to ensure equal opportunity. 2. Roe v. Wade -- Legalized abortion in 1973. -- Hitherto states had the right to determine legality of abortion. 3. Several corporations forced to provide back wages to female employees who had not received equal pay for equal work. -- Also had to abolish hiring and promotion practices that discriminated against women (Title VII of Civil Rights Act of 1964) 4. Woman experienced more inclusion in the military 5. Title IX guaranteed equal access for girls to programs boys benefited from (e.g. sports) 6. Sally Ride -- first female astronaut 7. Geraldine Ferraro -- became first woman in 1984 to be on a presidential ticket. IX. Other minorities fight for rights A. Chicanos (Mexican-Americans) 1. Caesar Chavez led the United Farm Workers Organizing Committee (UFWOC) and succeeded in gaining improved work conditions for mostly Chicano agricultural workers. 2. La Raza Unida -- locally-based political parties sought to increase the Mexican-American vote in urban areas. 3. Since 1970s a number of Mexican-Americans elected to promient political positions. B. Native Americans 1. American Indian Movement (AIM) founded in 1968 2. AIM seized Indian Bureau in Washington in 1972. -- Protested desperate conditions in reservations (e.g. unemployment and illiteracy). 3. 1973, militant Indians led by leaders of AIM and the Oglala Sioux occupied Wounded Knee, South Dakota. a. Held it for two months and gained national publicity. i. Several Indians dead and 300 arrested. ii. Leaders acquitted b. Eventually led to Indian gain of lost fishing rights and receiving of millions of dollars in payments for lands taken earlier in U.S. history. C. Gay rights movement emerged later using civil rights laws to win discrimination cases. X. Johnson’s legacy A. No president had shown more compassion for the poor, the ill educated, and minorities. 1. Achievements of first three years compared with the successes of the New Deal. 2. Poverty rate declined measurably in the next decade. a. Medicare dramatically reduced poverty among America’s elderly. b. Anti-poverty programs, such as Head Start, significantly improved the educational performance of underprivileged youth. c. Infant mortality rates fell in minority communities as general health conditions improved. B. No president since Lincoln had worked harder or done more for civil rights. C. "Great Society" programs heavily criticized by conservatives in subsequent years. 1. Most programs extremely costly and eventually required increased taxes to fund them. 2. Dubbed Great Society as "social engineering" that could not be solved simply by allocating billions of dollars. D. The Vietnam War siphoned off much of the energy of the Great Society 1. Inflation racked the Great Society programs. 2. War on Poverty eventually went down in defeat. 3. Johnson’s handling of the war caused the turbulence that characterized the 1960s and led to America’s skepticism over its government. VIETNAM WAR I. VIETNAM WAR -- Vietnam War spread across 5 presidencies and spanned 25 years. Direct U.S involvement from 1963-1973 A. France lost control of Vietnam after the battle of Dien Bien Phu in 1954 1. U.S. by 1954 had financed about 80% of France’s war effort. 2. Ho Chi Minh leader of Communists: Vietminh 3. Geneva Conference, 1954 -- Agreement reached to divide country into north and south along the 17th parallel until a 1956 unifying election. a. Ho Chin Minh accepted based on assurance that Vietnam-wide elections would occur within two years. b. Eisenhower refused to sign Geneva agreement -- Domino Theory -- if one country falls to communism, other surrounding countries will fall, one right after the other, like dominoes (included Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Burma, maybe India) c. In the south, pro-western gov't under Ngo Dinh Diem took control in Saigon. B. Vietnam’s Civil War 1. The Ngo Dinh Diem Regime a. U.S. backed Ngo Dinh Diem i. Nationalist and fierce anti-communist ii. Aloof and aristocratic Catholic autocrat ruling over a nation of poor Buddhist peasants. b. Ngo canceled 1956 elections and seriously divided the country. i. US supported him -- didn’t want Ho Chi Minh winning election. ii. South Vietnam in disarray from war and colonial rule c. Eisenhower promised economic and military aid to Ngo’s regime in return for social reforms. i. Reforms extremely slow ii. 4 of 5 dollars went to the military d. Dulles created the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) in order to prop up Diem's regime; Britain & France incuded i. Supposed to be a "NATO" in Southeast Asia. -- Only Philippine Republic, Thailand, and Pakistan signed in Sept. 1954 ii. US pledged to prevent communist expansion in Asia (Vietnam & China) -- Sent in military advisors to train S. Vietnamese forces 2. In response, the Vietcong’s (VC) political arm, the NLF (National Liberation Front) ,was formed in South Vietnam and tied to Ho Chi Minh in the north. a. Consisted of Vietminh and other groups opposed to Ngo. b. Supported by China and the Soviet Union c. Promised economic reform, reunification with the north, and genuine independence. -- Goal: Topple pro-American gov’t from power d. NLF assassinated 2,000 gov’t officials during 1960. e. Civil War resulted C. Kennedy and Vietnam 1. Kennedy had to choose between abandoning Ngo or deepening US involvement. -- Increased US military advisors from 652 to 16,000 i. Goal was to strengthen S. Vietnam Army with US technology. ii. Also hoped to pressure Ngo into making necessary reforms. 2. Fall of Ngo Dinh Diem a. Buddhist monk set himself on fire to protest Ngo’s regime (self-immolation) -- Photos of this changed world opinion overnight. b. Nov.1, 1963, a coup by S. Vietnamese generals overthrows and kills Ngo. i. Tacitly supported by US as Ngo’s corruption seen as a liability. ii. Three weeks later JFK is assassinated. 3. The question of whether or not Kennedy would have pulled out of Vietnam still remains unanswered today. D. Johnson’s War -- Political aspect -- "I’m not going to be the president who saw SE Asia go the way China went." 1. Keeps most of Kennedy’s cabinet: a. Dean Rusk - Sec. of State: Major proponent of the domino theory b. Robert McNamara -- Sec. of Defense: claims responsibility for war in 1995 c. McGeorge Bundy - NSC. 2. Johnson rejects any settlement in Vietnam not guaranteeing a non-communist gov’t. 3. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution a. Early Aug. 1964, Johnson announced N. Vietnamese torpedo boats had attacked two US destroyers on international waters Aug. 2 and 4 patrolling off the coast of N. Vietnam in the Gulf of Tonkin. -- "Attacks were unprovoked" b. Congress almost unanimously passes Gulf of Tonkin Resolution. -- Gave Johnson more authority to widen the war effort w/o waitingfor Congress to declare war. c. Years later, it became known that US ships were helping S. Vietnamese commandos raid N. Vietnamese islands and that attacks were not "unprovoked" d. In response, Johnson ordered a "limited" retaliatory air raid against North Vietnamese air bases, stating he sought "no wider war" e. LBJ used this episode effectively during 1964 presidential campaign. f. Major point: LBJ’s major error was using the G of T Resolution to justify his widening of the war without seeking congressional and popular approval. i. He sought to protect his Great Society programs by keeping the war’s decision-making secretive. ii. His lack of trust in the Joint Chiefs of Staff after the Cuban Missile Crisis meant top military officials were not part of the war's policy process. g. No evidence exists that LBJ intentionally sought to escalate the war. 4. Decision to escalate a. As situation unraveled, initial objective of S. Vietnamese stabilization no longer viable. i. The further U.S. got in, the harder it was to get out ii. Military demanded more bombing & escalation -- Key cabinet officials advised escalation; Ike also iii. Domino theory continually cited despite China turning inward during its Cultural Revolution and Soviet desire to promote negotiations. b. Under advisement, Johnson considered escalation w/o assurances that it would succeed. This was the fatal flaw in U.S. policy. 5. Operation Rolling Thunder a. 6 months after G of T incident (Feb. 1965), US base at Pleiku was attacked and 8 Americans died, over 100 injured. b. LBJ made fateful decision to escalate the war on March 2, 1965 c. LBJ ordered the 1st bombing of N. Vietnam which went nonstop for 3 years. i. Bombing aimed at bases, roads, and railways in North Vietnam. ii. Also targeted the "Ho Chi Minh Trial," a tangled network of dirt roads and muddy trails along which soldiers and supplies flowed from N. Vietnam through Cambodia and Laos into South Vietnam. iii. Raids failed to cut off N. Vietnamese aid to the NLF. iv. S. Vietnam still suffered heavy losses from the Vietcong. 6. Increase of US troops a. March 1965, two battalions begin arriving at Da Nang (1 mo. after Pleiku) b. 1965 -- 184,000; 1966 -- 385,000; 1967 -- 485,000; 1968 -- 538,000 -- Increases in US troops matched by increased numbers of North Vietnamese soldiers fighting with the Vietcong and increased aid from USSR and China. c. Annual bill more than $30 billion. 7. US forces initially but falsely optimistic about a short successful war effort a Tenacity and devotion of the N. Vietnamese was greatly underestimated. b. Ho Chin Minh had warned the French "you can kill ten of my men to one of yours, but even at those odds, you will lose and I will win. II. Fighting the Vietnam War -- General William C. Westmoreland, American military commander in Vietnam. A. Air War 1. Air strikes were preferred because it cost less US lives. 2. By 1967, US had dropped more bombs on Vietnam than the Allies dropped during all of WWII. 3. Vietcong dug 30,000 miles of tunnels to ship supplies and escape bombing. B. Ground War 1. Search and destroy missions to combat guerrilla tactics was common a. Westmoreland constantly urged significant escalation of U.S. ground troops. b. Just finding the enemy was difficult c. "The guerrilla wins if he does not lose, the conventional army loses if it does not win"; by definition, US was losing. d. Dense, humid, hot hostile jungle terrain e. Westmoreland’s attrition strategy relied heavily on firepower e.g. napalm (incendiary) and Agent Orange (a defoliant). 2. Vietcong knew the terrain and had much better peasant support. 3. "Pacification" programs -- Villages were uprooted by US and people moved to cities. 4. Average age of US soldier in Vietnam was 19 (26 in WWII); C. Tet Offensive in 1968 – beginning of the end to U.S. involvement in Vietnam 1. Westmoreland & other officials had been claiming the war’s end was "coming into view" 2. Tet New Year, Jan 30. 1968, massive coordinated strike by North Vietnam a. 67,000 Vietcong attacked 100 cities, bases, and embassy b. Offensive lasted approx. one month. c. Thousands of casualties on both sides. 3. Tet Offensive not militarily successful for Vietnam but psychologically destroyed American hopes. III. Critics of US policy A. New Left 1. Massive student protests began focusing on the Vietnam war. a. Many occurred at university campuses. b. SDS became more militant, used violence & turned to Lenin for its ideology. 2. New Left lost political influence after it abandoned its original commitment to democracy and non-violence. B. Antiwar movement 1. Starts with 1965 bombing escalation; antiwar sentiment explodes. 2. Religious, anti-nuke, women, civil rights groups all joined in the anti-war effort. 3. Draft the biggest cause for protest a. Small campus "teach-ins" in 1965 escalated to enormous public protests. b. NY and San Francisco saw hundreds of thousands of marchers yelling "Hell no, we won’t go," and "Hey, hey, LBJ, how many kids did you kill today?" 4. Draft numbers increased from 5K per month in 1965 to 50K per month in 1967. a. Poor were twice as likely to be drafted as middle class (until lottery in 1970) b. Thousands of draft registrants fled to Canada; others burned their draft cards 5. Millions of Americans felt pinch of war-induced inflation. (1966 - costs $2 billion/yr) C. Press 1. Technology allowed Vietnam to brought into American’s living rooms with very little censoring of the press. 2. Walter Cronkite -- "What the hell is going on. I thought we were winning the war. It seems now more certain than ever that the bloody experience in Vietnam is to end in a stalemate. The only rational way out is to negotiate." -- Johnson: "If I’ve lost Walter, then it’s over, I’ve lost Mr. Average Citizen" 3. Editorials in Newsweek, Time, and Wall Street called for negotiated settlement. 4. Military assessments and data was questioned. -- Body counts did not account for guerrilla war; McNamara defended them since U.S. was fighting a war of attrition. 5. Public support for the war eventually plunged from 40% to 26%. D. Senator Fulbright of Arkansas headed the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. 1. Staged a series of widely viewed televised hearings in 1966 and 1967 during which prominent commentators aired their largely antiwar views. 2. Public came to feel it had been lied to about the causes and "winnability" of the war. -- Increase in antiwar "doves" E. Hawks and Doves argued over US role. 1. Hawks defended president’s policy and drew on Truman’s containment policy. -- John Birch Society (formed in 1958) i. Radical Right organization est. to combat what was perceived to be communist infiltration into American life. ii. Advocated the impeachment of Earl Warren, perhaps the most liberal Chief Justice in U.S. history. 2. Doves argued war was a civil war in which U.S. should not get involved. a. Argued South Vietnam’s gov’t not democratic, opposed large-scale aerial bombings, use of chemical weapons, and the killing of civilians. b. Rejected the domino theory pointing out increased losses of American lives and the economic cost of the war. 3. Most Americans neither but disturbed by the war and protests. 4. Tet changed public opinion dramatically -- Hawks -- 62% to 22% from Jan 1968 to March 1968; Doves from 22% to 42% F. Democratic party challengers for 1968 nomination 1. Johnson’s popularity dropped from 48% to 36% -- McNamara’s departure rocked Johnson’s confidence of his political support. 2. Eugene McCarthy, liberal from Minnesota, ran an antiwar campaign in New Hampshire and nearly got 1/2 the vote on March 12; inspired Robert Kennedy to run. 3. March, Robert Kennedy launched antiwar based campaign. 4. March 31, 1968 -- Johnson announced he would not seek another term a. "I have decided that I shall not seek and I will not accept the nomination of my party for another term as your President." b. Tet, McCarthy, and RFK contributed to LBJ’s decision. c. Vietnam had claimed a presidency IV. Election of 1968 A. Nominees 1. Robert F. Kennedy assassinated after winning CA primary over Eugene McCarthy. a. Assassin a Palestinian named Sirhan Sirhan b. Assured Vice President Hubert Humphrey of the Democratic nomination. -- Riot occurred in Democratic convention in Chicago between police and anti-war activists; Nation and the world watched as riot was televised 2. Republicans nominated Richard M. Nixon a. Spiro Agnew v.p. running mate, aimed to appeal to Southern voters. i. Agnew tough on African Americans and dissidents in his state of Maryland. ii. Part of Nixon’s "Southern strategy" b. Nixon committed to continuing war until enemy settled for "honorable peace." -- Similar to Humphrey’s position 3. Governor George C. Wallace of Alabama: American Independent Party. a. Appealed to fears generated by protesters and big government. b. Had attempted to block segregation in Little Rock in 1963 when he stood in the doorway to prevent two blacks from entering the U of Alabama. c. Advocated putting blacks back into their place while bombing North Vietnam "back to the Stone Age." B. Result 1. Nixon d. Humphrey by 1% of popular vote but by 301 to 191 in electoral votes. 2. Congress remained Democratic 3. Democrats won 95% of the black vote. 4. Nixon a minority president with no clear mandate to do anything. -- Owed his victory to the divisions caused by the war and protest against the unfair draft, crime, and rioting. V. Nixon and Vietnam A. 1969, Nixon publicly claimed he had a secret plan for ending the war. -- He didn’t; it went on for 4 more years at the cost of thousands of American lives. B. "Nixon Doctrine" 1. "Vietnamization" a. Nixon called for a withdrawal of US troops in South Vietnam over a period of time. b. South Vietnam would receive US money, weapons, training, and advice so that they could gradually take over the burden of fighting the Vietcong. -- By 1973, number of US soldiers reduced from 500K to 25K. c. Henceforth, Asians and others would have to fight their own wars without the support of significant numbers of U.S. ground troops. 2. Expansion of the war by stepped-up bombing and ground attacks C. Continuing protests 1. Doves wanted an immediate withdrawal that was complete, unconditional, and irreversible. 2. October 1969, 2 million people across the U.S. protested Nixon’s policies. 3. November 3, Nixon televised his appeal to the great "silent majority," who presumably supported the war. -- Appeal became divisive as Nixon and Agnew verbally attacked the protesters and those who did not support the government’s policies including the media. 4. Mylai Massacre, 1968 (revealed to public in 1969) a. Lt. William Calley massacred 350 civilians in the village of Mylai b. Calley court martialed, convicted of murder, & sentenced to life in prison. c. Calley claimed to follow direct order; sentence lowered to 10 years d. Public outraged and hundreds of thousands protested D. Negotiations in Paris 1. Talks had begun in 1968 between US supported Thieu gov’t and the North Vietnam supported Vietcong. a. US position: all N. Vietnam forces should withdraw from S. Vietnam and Thieu gov’t should remain. b. N. Vietnam: US troops withdraw; coalition gov’t including Vietcong should replace Thieu 2. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger began secret negotiations with North Vietnam -- Negotiations were kept secret from public, press, even Nixon’s own cabinet. E. Bombing of Cambodia -- The Secret War 1. Nixon ordered secret bombing of Cambodia, Laos, & N. Vietnam in March, 1969. a. Purpose was to cut off communist supply lines but ultimately failed. b. Wasn’t made public until 1973. 2. April 1970, Nixon announced on TV he was sending troops into Cambodia to clear out communists who ignored Cambodian neutrality and disrupt Ho Chi Minh Trail -- invasion would be limited to 60 days. F. Protests over Cambodia 1. New wave of protests sparked by US activities in neutral Cambodia. 2. Kent State incident (May 3, 1970) a. Students at Ohio’s Kent State protested; burnt down ROTC building. b. National Guard fired into crowd killing 4 (innocent bystanders) &wounding 11. 3. Jackson State incident, May 1970 (all black school in Mississippi) a. One week after Kent State, rioting in downtown Jackson prompted National Guard to be called out. b. 2 dead, 12 wounded; both dead were innocent bystanders. 4. Several hundred colleges closed down by student strikes; moderates joined radicals. 5. Congress repealed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution 6. Protests wane after Cambodian climax G. "Pentagon Papers" -- 1971 1. Former defense analyst Daniel Ellsberg leaked government documents in regard to war effort during the Johnson years to the New York Times. 2. Classified documents revealed that the government had misled the Congress and the American people regarding its intentions in Vietnam during the mid-1960s. a. Primary reason for fighting was not to eliminate communism but to "avoid a humiliating defeat." b. Gulf of Tonkin truth revealed. 3. White House tried to block publication -- Supreme court overruled Nixon.. 4. Government’s credibility received another heavy blow. VI. Ending the War A. South Vietnamese proved unable to defeat communists despite billions in training money B. American forces were withdrawn from Cambodia in early 1972 but with increased bombing. C. Spring 1972, North Vietnamese equipped with foreign tanks burst through the DMZ separating the two Vietnams. 1. March 1972, Nixon ordered massive bombing of North Vietnam and mining of its ports. 2. Nixon’s diplomacy with China and USSR paid dividends as neither retaliated. 3. North Vietnamese offensive ground to a halt. D. October 1972, Paris Peace Talks reopened. 1. North Vietnam dropped demand that a coalition gov’t replace Thieu. 2. US would allow North Vietnamese troops to remain in South Vietnam. 3. Draft agreement included a cease-fire, return of American POW’s, and US withdrawal from Vietnam. 4. With election of 1972 approaching, Nixon wanted a settlement. -- November -- Kissinger announced "peace is at hand" 5. Settlement fell apart as Thieu wouldn’t sign the treaty. E. Christmas Bombings: Hanoi and Haiphong 1. Dec. 18, Nixon orders intense bombing of North Vietnam’s major cities of Hanoi and Haiphong -- most massive bombing of the war F. Paris Accords (1973) 1. North Vietnam returned to bargaining table and agreed to same deal reached in October of 1972. a. North Vietnam retained control over large areas of the South. b. Agreed to release US POWs within 60 days. c. US would withdraw its forces after prisoners were released. 2. Thieu agreed because Nixon promised him US would back him if there was trouble. 3. Nixon: "Peace with honor" 4. Critics: "Could have come to this agreement 4 years earlier." 5. March 29, 1973, the last American combat troops left South Vietnam G. Fall of Saigon to communists occurs in April 1975 1. South Vietnam surrendered to North Vietnam. 2. Saigon renamed Ho Chi Minh City. H. Costs of the War 1. 58,000 dead Americans, 300,000 wounded; MIA’s -2,583 2. Over 2 million Vietnamese dead; MIAs - 300,000 3. $150 billion spent on the war rather than on social programs. 4. A large percentage of Americans came to distrust their government (even more so after Watergate Scandal) I. 1973, Nixon abolished the draft and established an all-volunteer army. J. 26th Amendment (ratified in 1971) -- Voting age lowered from 21 to 18 years of age. K. July 11, 1995, President Clinton formally recognized Vietnam THE 1970s (and 1980s highlights) I. Foreign policy issues during Nixon's presidency A. Detente: shift in U.S. policy toward communism 1. Sec. of State Henry Kissinger traveled to China and the Soviet Union for secret sessions to plan summit meetings with the communists. 2. Nixon believed USSR and China clashing over their interpretations of Marxism could give U.S. opportunity to play off one against the other. 3. Nixon also hoped to gain their aid in pressuring North Vietnam into peace. 4. Nixon and Kissinger’s policies a. realpolitik: Nation should pursue policies and make alliances based on its national interests rather than on any particular view of the world. b. Balance of power -- "It will be a safer world and a better world if we have a strong, healthy, United States, Europe, Soviet Union, China, Japan -- each balancing the other." -- Nixon in 1971 -- détente was the key to this balance. B. China visit, 1972 1. February 1972, Nixon and Kissinger went to China to meet with Mao Zedong and his associates. 2. Recognition of China a. U.S. agreed to support China’s admission to the United Nations and to pursue economic and cultural exchanges. b. Reversed U.S. policy of not recognizing the Chinese revolution in 1949. c. China officially recognized by U.S. in 1979. C. Soviet Union and détente 1. Czechoslovakia invaded (1968) by Soviets seeking to squash student reform movement. a. Czechoslovakia became one of strictest govt’s in E. Europe for two decades. b. U.S., preoccupied with Vietnam, could do little to aid Czech reformers 2. Nixon’s Moscow visit -- May 1972, Nixon played his "China card" with the Kremlin. a. Soviets wanted U.S. foodstuffs and feared intensified rivalry with a US-backed China. b. Chairman Leonoid Brezhnev approached Nixon about nuclear reduction talks. -- Nixon flew to Russia to sign the historic arms treaty. c. Nixon’s visit ushered in an era of relaxed tensions called détente. i. Policy sought to establish rules to govern the rivalry between the U.S. and the Soviet Union and China. ii. Resulted in several significant agreements. iii. Agreements significant as they were made before US withdrew from Vietnam. 3. SALT I (Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty) signed in May, 1972. a. U.S. and USSR agreed to stop making nuclear ballistic missiles and to reduce the number of antiballistic missiles to 200 for each power. b. Treaties moot by U.S. development of "MIRVs" (Multiple Independently Targeted Reentry Vehicles) -- 1 missile could carry many warheads c. Both U.S. and Soviets had nearly 20,000 warheads by 1990s! 4. Grain deal of 1972 -- 3-year arrangement by which the U.S. agreed to sell at least $750 million worth of wheat, corn, and other cereals to the Soviet Union. 5. Détente evaluated a. Successful overall as U.S. checkmated and co-opted the two great Communist powers into helping end the Vietnam War. b. Did not end the arms race D. Energy Crisis, 1973 (sometimes called "Oil Crisis") 1. Yom Kippur War of 1973 resulted in bitterness among Arabs toward Western nations for their support of Israel. 2. Arab Oil Embargo a. Arab states established an oil boycott to push the Western nations into forcing Israel to withdraw from lands controlled since the "Six Day War" of 1967 b. Kissinger negotiated withdrawal of Israel west of the Suez Canal and the Arabs lifted their boycott. 3. OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) inc. Venezuela, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Iraq, and Iran, raised the price of oil from about $3 to $11.65/ barrel in an attempt to force U.S. to recognize the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and support other Arab demands. a. U.S. gas prices doubled and inflation shot above 10%. b. Nixon refused to ration gasoline and an acute gasoline shortage ensued. II. Nixon’s Domestic Policy A. "New Federalism" 1. Revenue sharing --Congress passed in 1972 a five year plan to distribute $30 billion of federal revenues to the states. 2. Nixon proposed bulk of welfare payments be shifted to the states and a "minimum income" be established for poor families, but did not push the program through Congress. B. Civil Rights 1. Nixon sought to block renewal of the Voting Rights Act and delay implementation of court ordered school desegregation in Mississippi. 2. Supreme Court ordered busing of students in 1971 to achieve school desegregation. -- Nixon proposed an anti-busing bill but Congress blocked it. 3. Nixon furthered affirmative action by establishing goals and timetables for companies to hire women and minorities. C. Appointed Warren E. Burger, a conservative, as Chief Justice of Supreme Court 1. Although more conservative than Warren court, Burger court declared the death penalty, as used at the time, as unconstitutional in 1972. 2. Row v. Wade, 1973 -- Struck down state anti-abortion legislation. D. Congressional Legislation (none of the following supported by Nixon) 1. 18 year olds given the right to vote in 1970 a. 26th Amendment in 1971 b. Congress reasoned a person old enough to die for his country should have right to vote. 2. Social Security benefits and funding for food stamps increased in 1970. 3. Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) -- 1970 -- Agency would monitor worker safety conditions. 4. Federal Election Campaign Act: would reduce campaign contributions E. Environmentalism 1. Earth Day, April 22, 1970 seen as beginning of the nation’s environmental era. 2. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) est. by Nixon in 1970 (to stall the environmental movement) a. Its inception climaxed two decades of environmentalism -- Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring (1962) exposed poisonous effects of pesticides. b. Eventually the EPA stood on the front line of the battle for a clean environment. c. Progress made in subsequent decades on reducing automobile emissions and cleaning up polluted rivers and lakes. d. Nixon & Ford opposed to environmental legislation during their terms due to conservative perceptions of over-regulation of businesses & increased costs. 3. Toxic Waste a. Example: Love Canal, NY i. Soil and groundwater so polluted EPA declared town unfit for habitation. ii. Residents evacuated, homes boarded up, community sealed off by a tall chain-link fence. b. Superfund established in 1980 by President Carter (law aimed at cleaning toxic dumps) -- Impact: Release of selected toxic chemicals down 46% 4. Protest over nuclear power a. Three Mile Island -- March, 1979 in Harrisburg, PA i. Worst nuclear disaster in U.S. history; core released radioactive water and steam. ii. Officials feared massive radiation release but it never came. iii. reactor shut down for 6 years. iv. 100,000 residents evacuated. b. Environmental groups stepped-up their protests but the powerful nuclear power lobby prevented any significant change. 5. Endangered Species Act, 1973 a. Area of protected land and water increased 300% b. Recovered species include bald eagle, peregrine falcon, gray whale. c. Criticism: Wetlands regulations and Endangered Species Act imposed unconstitutional restrictions on landowners. Too much valuable land taken out of production and off the tax rolls. F. Economic Problems and Policy 1. 1969, Nixon cut spending and raised taxes. Encouraged Federal Reserve Board to raise interest rates but the economy grew worse. 2. Unemployment climbed to 6% in 1970 while real gross national product declined in 1970. U.S. experienced a trade deficit in 1971. 3. Inflation reached 12% by 1971 -- Cost of living more than tripled from 1969 to 1981; longest and steepest inflationary cycle in U.S. history. 4. Price and wage controls a. 1970, Congress gave president the power to regulate prices and wages b. 1971, Nixon announced a 90-day price and wage freeze and took the U.S. off the gold standard. c. At end of 90 days, he est. mandatory guidelines for wage and price increases. d. 1973, Nixon turned to voluntary wage and price controls except on health care, food, and construction. e. When inflation increased rapidly, Nixon cut back on government expenditures, refusing to spend funds already appropriated by Congress (impounding). 5. Why did the U.S. economy stagnate? a. Federal deficits in the 1960s during "Great Society" and Vietnam War b. International competition especially from Germany and Japan i. U.S. losing its economic hegemony since the days following WWII. ii. U.S. complacent; saw little need initially to modernize plants and seek more efficient methods of production. c. Rising energy costs esp. due to situation in the Middle East. d. Increase in numbers of women and teenagers in the work force took part-time jobs and were less likely to develop skills in the long-term. e. Shift of the economy from manufacturing to services where productivity gains were allegedly more difficult to achieve. f. Military and welfare spending during 1960s inflationary (in the absence of off-setting taxes) because they give people money without adding to the supply of goods those dollars can buy. 6. Stagflation by mid-1970s (plagued Ford and Carter presidencies) 1. Slowing productivity and rising inflation -- rare. 2. Industry slowed down in the 1970s while inflation hit 11% in 1974 3. Unemployment hit over 9% in 1975 III. Election of 1972 A. Nominees 1. Democrats nominated George McGovern -- McGovern hampered by a party divided over the war and social policies as well as his own relative radicalism. 2. George Wallace ran again as the American Independent candidate -- Shot on May 15 and left paralyzed below the waste. 3. Richard Nixon and Spiro T. Agnew renominated by the Republican party. a. Emphasized that he had wound the "Democratic War" in Vietnam down from 540,000 troops to 30,000. b. Candidacy received boost 12 days before election when Kissinger announced "peace is at hand" in Vietnam and an agreement would be reached within days. -- No agreement occurred and the war lasted almost another year. B. Results 1. Landslide victory for Nixon: 520-17; pop. majority of 47.1 million to 29.1 million. 2. Republicans suffered losses in both houses of Congress -- Reduced Nixon’s mandate for his policies. IV. Watergate -- biggest presidential scandal in U.S. history (forced Nixon to resign) A. Nixon sought to secretly attack political opponents. 1. Nixon surrounded himself with people who almost always agreed with him, thus protecting himself from criticism and making him more isolated. a. "H.R." Haldeman, Chief of Staff: Nixon's closest aide. b. John Erlichman, chief domestic policy advisor 2. 1971, Nixon's men gathered list of 200 individuals and 18 organizations that the administration regarded as enemies. a. Included Edward Kennedy, McGovern, entire black leadership in the House of Reps, college presidents, actors such as Steve McQueen, Paul Newman, Jane Fonda, and 57 members of the media. b. Nixon asked FBI to spy on these individuals and try to discredit them. c. Ordered the IRS to harass them with tax audits. d. FBI blocked an illegal Nixon plan for secret police operation to combat antiwar movement. Would have included FBI, CIA, NSC, & military intelligence. -- Nixon feared antiwar movement might undo him like it did Johnson. B. CREEP -- Committee to Re-Elect the President 1. Nixon worried about the outcome of the 1972 elections. a. Republican party failed to regain control of either House in congressional elections of 1970. b. Past losses to JFK in 1960 and California Gov. Pat Brown in 1962 haunted Nixon. c. Nixon's attorney general set up CREEP and began a massive illegal fund-raising campaign. -- Money was set aside in a special fund to pay for "dirty tricks" operations against Nixon’s Democratic opponents. 2. White House "plumbers" instructed to stop anti-Nixon leaks to the press. a. New York Times published "Pentagon Papers" stating Gulf of Tonkin Resolution had been based on a lie and discredited Johnson's motives for continuing the war. -- Nixon feared leaks of classified documents damaging to his administration. b. CREEP’s special investigations unit, "the plumbers," targeted Daniel Ellsberg, Defense Dept. analyst who leaked "Pentagon Papers." -- Broke into office of Ellsberg’s psychiatrist but found nothing embarrassing. 3. Watergate Break-In, summer 1972 a. Burglars hired by CREEP caught breaking into Democratic Nat’l Headquarters at the Watergate Hotel in Washington D.C. b. Nixon and his aids denied any involvement in the break-in and embarked on a massive coverup while the public initially believed them. C. Bob Woodward & Carl Bernstein, young Washington Post journalists, broke the story. 1. Investigations revealed that two of the Watergate burglars and a White House aide involved in the burglary were employees of CREEP. -- Also discovered other illegal activities conducted by the president’s advisors. 2. "Silence money": Nixon secretly authorized payment of more than $460,000 in CREEP funds to keep the Watergate burglars quiet about White House involvement. D. 1973, Watergate trial and Senate hearings revealed Nixon and other White House officials had covered up their involvement & pressured defendants "to plead guilty and remain silent." -- Nixon announced resignations of his three closest aides who were involved in Watergate. E. Watergate Tapes 1. Senate committee and prosecutor Archibald Cox called on Nixon to surrender tapes of conversations that might pertain to the Watergate break-in. 2. Nixon refused and claimed executive privilege and stating release of the tapes would endanger national security. 3. Saturday Night Massacre: Nixon fired two of his men for refusing to fire special prosecutor Archibald Cox before a third Nixon aide finally fired Cox. -- Public outraged F. Spiro Agnew resigns (October, 1973) 1. Agnew pleaded no contest to charges of income tax evasion and accepting bribes while governor of Maryland and resigned the vice presidency. 2. Nixon nominated Gerald R. Ford, the popular conservative House Minority Leader G. In a non-related matter, Nixon was forced to pay back taxes for tax evasion ($500,000) -- Also accused of using public funds for improvements to his private residencies in CA & FL H. Nixon releases edited transcripts of some tapes but most incriminating portions are erased, especially critical 18 minute gap. 1. When Nixon refused to release unedited tapes, special prosecutor took case to Supreme Court. 2. U.S. v. Nixon:Court ruled unanimously that President Nixon had to release the tapes. I. Impeachment proceedings 1. July 30, House committee voted to recommend impeachment of President Nixon on three counts: a. Obstructing justice by trying to cover up the role of the White House in the Watergate burglary. b. Violating the rights of U.S. citizens by using the FBI, CIA, and IRS to harass critics. c. Defying congressional authority by refusing to turn over the tapes. 2. August 5, Nixon handed over the tapes which revealed a White House cover up -- Impeachment charges seemed certain. J. Nixon resigns as President (August 7, 1974) 1. Following day, Gerald Ford sworn in as president. 2. 25th Amendment (1967) -- made Presidential Succession Act of 1947 an amendment a. In case of removal of the president from office or death or resignation, the vice president shall become President. b. Successor to vice-president provided by presidential nomination and confirmation by a majority of both houses. K. Ford Pardons Nixon in September for any crimes he may have committed while president. 1. Many Americans outraged that Nixon escaped justice. a. Questioned if a deal had been made between Nixon and Ford. b. In light of Vietnam, Americans grew even more skeptical of their gov’t. 2. 31 Nixon administration officials were convicted and went to prison for Watergaterelated offenses. 3. The pardon probably cost Gerald Ford the presidential election of 1976. V. The "Imperial Presidency" A. World War II on, presidents gradually gained more power that belonged to Congress. 1. FDR a. "Court packing" scheme sought to strengthen FDR at expense of Supreme Court. b. WWII: FDR made treaties with foreign nations without the advice or consent or the Senate (Destroyer-Bases deal, Atlantic Charter, Yalta Conference, etc.) 2. Truman fought war in Korea without formal declaration of war by Congress 3. Johnson sent troops into Vietnam without a formal congressional declaration of war B. Nixon took the trend to the next step. 1. Impounded funds for federal programs he opposed, defying the constitutional mandate that Congress control spending. 2. Ordered U.S. troops to invade Cambodia without seeking congressional approval. 3. Used FBI and IRS against political opponents 4. Watergate scandal: tried to sabatoge Democratic Party in 1972 5. By 1970s, some critics called the constitutional presidency "the imperial presidency." C. Congress takes back power from the presidency in light of Vietnam and Watergate 1. War Powers Act (1973): Required the president to consult with Congress before sending troops into action for 90 days or more. 2. 1974, Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act prohibited impounding of federal money by the president. (response to Nixon's impounding of funds) 3. Federal Election Campaign Act of 1972 set limits on campaign contributions (response to CREEP) 4. Privacy Act (Extended the Freedom of Information Act (1966) -- (response to Nixon's abuse of the FBI powers) a. Allowed citizens to have prompt access to the files that the government may have gathered on them. b. Required gov’t to prove its case for classification when attempting to withhold information on grounds of national security. 5. Ronald Reagan: Iran-Contra Scandal (1987) -- continuation of "imperial presidency"? a. Diverted money from secret sale of weapons to Iran to Nicaraguan "Contras" -- Congress had expressly forbidden U.S. money be sent to "Contras" b. Became biggest scandal of Reagan administration and weakened Reagan's influence. VI. Gerald Ford’s Presidency A. Pardon of Nixon brought immediate controversy in September, 1974 -- Nixon accepted offer yet admitted no wrongdoing; had not yet been charged with a crime. B. Economy plagued with "stagflation" 1. Ford called for voluntary restraints on inflation and asked citizens to wear WIN (Whip Inflation Now) buttons. -- Inflation did drop from 12% to 5% in 1976 but drop was temporary. 2. Ford asked for tax cuts to stimulate business and argued against spending for social programs. -- Vetoed more than 50 bills during his brief presidency. C. Helsinki Conference (July, 1975) -- 34 countries present 1. One group of agreements officially ended World War II by finally legitimizing the Soviet-dictated boundaries of Poland and other East European countries. 2. In return, Soviets guaranteed more liberal exchanges of people and information between East and West and the protection of certain basic "human rights." -- Yet, the Soviets reneged on their pledges. 3. U.S. angry that USSR continued to send huge quantities of arms and military technicians to pro-Communist forces around the world. 4. Ford maintained policy of détente but U.S. and USSR relations were deteriorating. D. South Vietnam (Saigon) fell to North Vietnam in April 1975 1. Ford had failed to get from Congress approval to provide more arms for South Vietnam. 2. To many Americans it appeared U.S. involvement in Vietnam had been tragically in vain. E. The Mayaguez 1. May 12, 1975, Cambodia, seized by communists 2 weeks earlier, seized the American merchant ship Mayaguez in the Gulf of Siam. 2. After demanding the ship and crew be freed, Ford ordered a Marine assault on Tang Island, where the ship had been taken. 3. Ship and crew of 39 released but 38 Marines were killed. VII. Election of 1976 A. Nominees 1. Ford narrowly defeated Ronald Reagan for the Republican nomination. -- Ford plagued by his pardon of Nixon and seeming denial of Soviet domination of Eastern Europe. 2. Democrats nominated Jimmy Carter, former governor of Georgia, and peanut farmer. a. Ran as an outsider from Washington (like Reagan did in 1980) -- Emphasized integrity & lack of Washington connections; born-again Baptist; "I’ll never lie to you" b. Carter a conservative Democrat who questioned affirmative government and welcomed increased role of religion in public life. B. Result 1. Carter d. Ford narrowly 297 to 240; 51% of the popular vote. a. Swept every state except Virginia. b. 97% of blacks voted for Carter. 2. Large Democratic majorities in both houses VIII. Jimmy Carter’s presidency: Domestic policy A. Domestic achievements 1. Amnesty -- Pardoned 10,000 draft evaders during Vietnam era (campaign pledge) 2. Created the Department of Education (and the Department of Energy -- see below) 3. Placed the civil service on a merit basis and reduced Civil Service System 4. Environment: created Superfund B. Energy 1. 1977, created Dept. of Energy at the cabinet level (in light of recent energy crisis) 2. Proposed raising the tax on gasoline and taxing autos that used fuel inefficiently in order to reduce U.S. dependence on foreign oil. -- Got only a small portion of this bill through Congress. 3. 2nd fuel shortage in 1979 exacerbated the nation’s energy woes. -- Spurred by the Iranian Revolution and demise of the Shah. C. Economy (stagflation continued) 1. Convinced Congress to pass an $18 billion tax cut in 1978. 2. 1978, proposed voluntary wage and price guidelines to combat inflation a. Somewhat successful but did not apply to oil, housing, and food. b. By 1980 inflation was 12% 3. Federal Reserve Board tightened money supply in order to reduce inflation but interest rates soared to 20%!. -- Sales of automobiles and houses suffered which increased unemployment. 4. By 1980, unemployment reached 7.5% D. Environment 1. Created "superfund" for the cleanup of chemical waste dumps. 2. Established controls over strip mining 3. Protected 100 million acres of Alaskan wilderness from development 4. Three-mile Island nuclear accident occurred in 1979 E. Deregulation 1. Air Transportation Deregulation Act (1978): Ended government regulation of airline fares and routes 2. Action symbolizes Carter as a conservative Democrat. (Perhaps the most conservative since Grover Cleveland) F. Peacetime Draft Registration: 18 year-olds required to register with the Selective Service System to prepare the nation militarily; no one actually drafted. IX. Foreign policy under Carter A. Humanitarian diplomacy -- sought to base foreign policy on human rights but was criticized for inconsistency and lack of attention to American interests. 1. Verbally lashed out at Cuba and Uganda for human rights violations. 2. Cut foreign aid to Uruguay, Argentina, and Ethiopia. 3. Championed black majority in South Africa and denounced Apartheid. 4. Did not punish South Korea or Philippines -- too vital to U.S. security. -- Some saw this as hypocritical. 5. Humanitarian diplomacy ultimately ineffective. B. Panama Canal treaty: Provided for transfer of ownership of the Canal to Panama in 1999 and guaranteed its neutrality. C. Camp David Accords (September 17, 1978) -- perhaps Carter's greatest accomplishment 1. Another conflict imminent between Egypt and Israel. 2. Carter invited President Anwar Sadat of Egypt and Prime Minister Menachem Begin of Israel to a summit conference at Camp David. 3. After 13 days, Carter persuaded them to sign an accord that seemed to place the two countries on a solid road toward peace. 4. Palestinian Liberation Front (PLO) led by Yasser Arafat would use terrorism to protest the existence of Israel. 5. Sadat eventually assassinated by Muslim extremists. D. Recognition of China 1. Carter ended official recognition of Taiwan and in 1979 recognized the People’s Republic of China. 2. Conservatives called the decision a "sell out" 3. UN had recognized Communist China in 1972 as a member of UN Security Council E. Cold War politics 1. SALT II a. SALT I treaty due to expire in late 1977. -- Carter called for a renewing of the SALT accords and extending them to include real reductions in nuclear armaments. b. 1979, Carter signed SALT II with the USSR. c. Not ratified by the Senate in light of Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. 2. Soviet invasion of Afghanistan (end of détente) -- December 1979 a. Carter’s proclaimed U.S. would "use any means necessary, including force," to protect the Persian Gulf against Soviet aggression. b. Stopped shipments of grain and certain advanced technology to the USSR c. Withdrew from SALT II from the senate d. Boycotted the 1980 summer Olympics held in Moscow. -- In retaliation, Moscow boycotted 1984 Olympics in Los Angeles. e. Soviets met stiff resistance in Afghanistan and the war became "Russia’s Vietnam"; Soviet forces pulled out a decade later F. Iran Hostage Crisis: biggest crisis of Carter's presidency and cost him election of 1980. 1. The Iranian Revolution a. In 1978, a revolution forced the Shah of Iran to flee the country. b. Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, a religious leader, became Iran’s leader. -- Reversed many of Shah’s western reforms and established conservative Islamic social order. c. Revolutionaries called the U.S. "the Great Satan" for its support of money and arms to the Shah of Iran. -- CIA had put the Shah in power in 1953 after it overthrew Moussadegh supported the Shah’s regime until his ouster. 2. American hostages a. Carter allowed the Shah to come to the U.S. for medical treatment in Oct. 1979 after Shah was in exile. b. In response, about 400 Iranians (many of them students) broke into the U.S. embassy in Tehran on November 4, taking the occupants captive. -- Demanded Shah be returned to Iran for trial and that his wealth be confiscated and given to Iran. c. Carter froze Iranian assets in the U.S. and est. a trade embargo against Iran. d. Iranians eventually freed the black and women hostages but kept 52 others. e. April 1980, Carter ordered a Marine rescue attempt but it failed after several helicopters broke down and another crashed, killing 8 men. f. Carter perceived as weak, indecisive, and ineffective and suffered for it in the 1980 elections. 3. Release of the hostages after 444 days. a. After extensive negotiations with Iran Carter released Iranian assets and the hostages were freed on January 20, 1980. b. As a final insult to Carter, hostages were released after Reagan took his inaugural oath so that Carter could not solve the crisis during his presidency. X. Election of 1980 A. Nominations 1. Democrats nominated Jimmy Carter after a challenge from Senator Edward Kennedy. -- Kennedy’s Chappaquiddick affair killed his candidacy 2. Republicans nominated Ronald Reagan of California a. The leading spokesman for American conservatism b. Became a B-grade movie star in the 1940s and was a New Deal Democrat until he became a spokesman for General Electric in 1954 (during "red scare") -- President of the Screen Actor’s Guild in the 1950s and helped purge Communists from the film industry. c. California governor from 1966 to 1974 3. John Anderson, an Independent Congressman , ran on a third party ticket. B. Campaign 1. Reagan called for reductions in government spending and taxes, shift in power from the federal gov’t to the states, and advocated "traditional American values" -- family, religion, hard work, and patriotism. a. Blasted the Soviets for their aggression and vowed to rebuild the U.S. military. b. Received vigorous support from the "New Right" incl. evangelical Christian groups like Jerry Falwell’s Moral Majority. i. Denounced abortion, pornography, homosexuality, the ERA, and esp. affirmative action. ii. Championed prayer in schools and tougher penalties for criminals. c. Reagan denounced the activist gov’t and failed "social engineering" of the "Great Society" in the 1960s. d. Promised to get the government off people's backs. 2. Carter defended his record, but was uninspiring in style. a. Inability to control "double digit" inflation especially damaging. b. Iran crisis also damaging. c. Charged that Reagan was a war-monger who might push the country into nuclear war. C. Results: Reagan d. Carter 489 to 49 1. Reagan got over 51% of vote; Carter 41%; Anderson 7%. 2. Carter first elected president to be unseated by voters since Herbert Hoover. 3. Republicans gained control of the Senate for first time in 25 years. 4. Ushered in the conservative "Reagan Revolution" that would continue into the mid-1990s. XI. Reagan and the Cold War A. Reagan’s early rhetoric vis-à-vis Soviet Union harsh. 1. U.S. concerned about Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 2. Sought to deal with Soviets from a position of strength by embarking on a massive new round to the arms race. -- American’s could better bear the burden of the expense while the Soviets couldn’t. 3. October 1981, Reagan seemed to endorse the concept that the U.S. might fight the Soviets in a "limited" nuclear war on European soil. -- Western Europeans horrified B. Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) -- "Star Wars" 1. March 1983, Reagan announced his intention to pursue a high-technology missiledefense system. a. Plan called for orbiting battle stations in space that could fire laser beams or other forms of concentrated energy to vaporize intercontinental missiles on lift-off. b. Reagan claimed SDI offered a nuclear umbrella over American cities. c. Most scientists viewed SDI as impossible and it became the cause of much ridicule in the scientific community. 2. Diplomatically, Reagan sought to use SDI to scare the Soviets. 3. NUTS vs. MAD 1. SDI upset four decades of strategic thinking about nuclear weapons. 2. Nuclear Utilization Theory (NUTs) advocated the winning of a nuclear war. -- Reagan’s staff drew up estimates of so-called reasonable losses in the event of a nuclear war -- some as high as 40%. 3. Hitherto, Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD), had assured a "balance of terror" for 4 decades. 4. Reagan’s dramatic increase in defense spending placed enormous pressures on the Soviet economy. a. When Gorbachev came to power in 1985, he would try to reform the Soviet system rather than outcompete the U.S. b. Some historians today credit Reagan's aggressive policies as winning the Cold War and forcing the disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991. C. "Solidarity" movement in Poland (1982) sought reforms but was ultimately stopped by Polish military that was intimidated by Soviets to restore order. 1. Reagan imposed economic sanctions on Poland and Russia. 2. U.S. grain sales not cut off since it would hurt U.S. farmers. D. KAL 007, September 1983 1. Soviets blew from the sky a Korean airliner carrying hundreds of civilians including many Americans. --Plane had accidently veered into Soviet airspace. 2. By end of 1983, all arms-control negotiations with Russians were broken off. 3. "Evil Empire" speech -- Reagan called the USSR "the evil empire" and the "focus of evil in the modern world." -- Justified his military build-up as necessary to thwart aggressive Soviets. E. Middle East foreign policy challenges 1. Lebanon a. Reagan sent Marines to Lebanon in 1983 as part of an international peacekeeping force after Israeli attacks against Palestinian strongholds in Lebanon caused chaos. b. October 23, 1983, a suicide bomber crashed his truck into a U.S. Marine barracks killing 241 Marines. i. Reagan soon pulled remaining American troops while suffering no political damage from the attack. ii. Opponents called him a "Teflon president" to whom nothing hurtful could stick. 2. Bombing of Libya a. Reagan ordered the bombing of Libya in 1986 in retaliation for an alleged Libyan-sponsored bombing of a West Berlin discotheque that killed a U.S. serviceman. b. Col. Mommar Qaddafi had long been a sponsor for terrorism against the West. 3. Iran-Iraq War -- U.S. backed Iraq and its leader Saddam Hussein as Iran and the U.S. had become bitter enemies since 1979 Iranian Revolution. F. Western Hemisphere foreign policy challenges 1. Nicaragua a. "Sandanistas" were socialist revolutionaries who made practice condemning capitalism and U.S. policies in Latin America; supported by Cuba. b. Reagan accused Sandanistas of turning their country into a forward base for Soviet and Cuban military penetration of all of Central America. c. Reagan sent covert aid including CIA-led mining of harbors to the "contra" rebels ("freedom fighters") opposing the anti-U.S. gov’t in Nicaragua. -- Resulted in the Iran-Contra Scandal 2. El Salvador a. Reagan sent military "advisors" to prop up pro-U.S. (anti-communist) gov’t of El Salvador as well as gaining congressional approval for $5 billion in aid. b. Public opinion soured after news of gov’t "death squads" eliminating hundreds, perhaps thousands of opposition. 3. Grenada a. In 1983, Reagan sends 6,000 troops to tiny Grenada in the Caribbean where a military coup had killed the prime minister and brought a Marxist regime to power. b. U.S. forces successfully overran the island XII. The End of the Cold War A. Mikhail Gorbachev 1. 1985, Gorbachev became a reform-minded leader of the Soviet Union. -- Allowed for free-speech, capitalist economic reforms, and some democracy. 2. Gorbachev courts the West -- Stated Soviets would cease deployment of intermediate-range nuclear forces (INF) targeted on Western Europe if the U.S. agreed to their elimination. 3. INF Treaty signed in Washington, D.C. in December 1987 (after 2 years of negotiations) a. All intermediate-range nuclear missiles from Europe banned. b. Significant break through in the Cold War. c. Reagan & Gorbachev: "Nuclear war cannot be won and must never be fought" B. "Iron Curtain" fell in 1989 1. Costs of maintaining satellite countries, both politically and economically, were too much of a burden for the Soviets too handle. -- Gorbachev's political reforms opened the floodgates for the democratization of Eastern Europe and the decline of Soviet influence. 2. Solidarity prevails in Poland in August 1989 -- Wave of freedom spread through eastern Europe. 3. Hungary in October 4. Berlin Wall torn down in November; Germany reunited in October 1990 5. Bulgaria in November 6. Czechoslovakia ("the velvet revolution") in December 7. Romania in December (most violent of the 1989 European revolutions) C. Reduction of nuclear weapons 1. President George Bush & Gorbachev agree to dramatic cutbacks in ICBMs in 1990s. 2. START -- strategic arms reduction treaty. a. Would cut 10% of U.S. nuclear weapons and 25% of Soviet nukes and limit ICBM warheads to 1,100 each. b. Later treaty called for 50% reductions within a few years. 3. American analysts began discussing possible "peace dividend" which could be used for social programs, rebuilding infrastructure, and reduction of national debt. D. Fall of the Soviet Union (December 25, 1991) resulted in end of Cold War III. Reagan’s domestic policy -- 1st term A. Assassination attempt in March 1981 nearly killed Reagan -- White House Press Sec. James Brady shot in the head and debilitated for years after. B. Reaganomics -- Supply-side economics 1. Reagan cut taxes on the "trickle down" idea that if the people had more money, they would invest rather then spend the excess on consumer goods. a. Results would be greater production, more jobs, and greater prosperity b. Gov’t revenues would increase despite lower taxes. 2. Economic Recovery Tax Act, 1981 -- Congress granted Reagan a 25% cut, spread over three years. 3. Reagan enacted large budget cuts in domestic programs inc. education, food stamps, public housing, and National Endowments for the Arts and Humanities. -- Reagan said he would maintain a "safety net" for the "truly needy" focusing on those unable to work because of disability or need for child care. 4. Defense budget increased by $12 billion. 5. Result: huge budget deficits that resulted in rise in national debt from $1 trillion in 1980 to $3 trillion in 1988 a. Taxes had to be implemented in 1984 in order to make up for budget deficit. b. In mid-1980s, U.S. became a debtor nation for 1st time since WWI. C. Recession 1. By Dec. 1982, economy in recession due to Federal Reserve’s "tight money" policy. a. 10% unemployment. b. Deficit of $59 billion in 1980 reached $159 billion by 1983. 2. Yet, inflation fell from 12% in 1979 to 4% in 1984. -- Helped by lower demand for goods and oversupply of oil. 3. Federal Reserve Board began to lower interest rates which together with lower inflation and more spendable income due to lower taxes, resulted in an increase in business. -- Unemployment fell to less than 8%. D. Deregulation (begun under Carter) 1. Reagan and Congress deregulated AT&T, airline, and trucking industries. -- Consolidation resulted with many smaller companies going under. 2. S & L bailout a. In 1982, many savings and loan institutions were threatened with insolvency. b. Reagan pushed for deregulation of the savings and loan industries paved the way for banks to make riskier loans and for shady administrators to bilk millions. i. Third World countries unable to repay risky loans. ii. Wave of mergers, acquisitions, and leveraged buyouts (LBOs) left companies saddled with heavy debt. -- Bankruptcy became a convenient way to escape debt and became a hefty tax write-off. c. Starting in 1989, the gov’t was forced to bail out over $500 million worth of bank failures; the taxpayers covered the bill. E. Air Traffic Controllers strike 1. August 1981, federally employed air traffic controllers entered an illegal strike. 2. Reagan fired 11,400 of them after they refused to follow his order to return to work. -- Began training replacements and used military controllers during the interim. 3. Air traffic controllers’ union destroyed F. Women and minorities 1. Reagan appointed Sandra Day O’Connor as the first female associate justice to the Supreme Court in U.S. history. 2. Yet, Reagan gave fewer appointments to women and minorities than the Carter administration. 3. Reagan opposed "equal pay for equal work" and renewal of the Voting Rights Act of 1965. G. Election of 1984 1. Democrats nominated Walter Mondale, former v.p. under Carter and former senator a. Geraldine Ferraro nominated as first female v.p. nominee in U.S. history. b. Mondale criticized Reagan for his budget deficits, high unemployment and interest rates, and reduction of spending on social services. 2. Ronald Reagan and George Bush renominated by the Republican party. 3. Reagan d. Mondale 525 to 13 and gained 60% of popular vote. a. Democratic coalition from the days of FDR consisting of industrial workers, farmers, and the poor broken apart. -- Only blacks remained as a Democratic voting block. IV. Reagan’s Domestic Policy -- 2nd Term A. Tax Reform Act of 1986 1. Lowered tax rates, changing the highest rate on personal income from 50% to 28% and corporate taxes from 46% to 34%. 2. Removed many tax shelters and tax credits. B. Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 1. Attempted to deal with problem of illegal immigration a. Escalated penalties on employers hiring undocumented workers b. Increased resources of Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) to enforce the law. 2. Offered resident alien status to any individual who proved they had been living in the U.S. continually since 1982. 3. Result: Reduced flow of immigration until global recession of early 1990s. C. Iran-Contra Scandal (see "Imperial Presidency" above) D. Mergers a. Encouraging by deregulation under Carter and Reagan as well as emerging int’l economy, and fueled by funds released by new tax breaks, mergers became a widespread phenomenon in the 1980. b. Multinational corporations began to dominate the international economy. E. Black Monday, October 19, 1987 a. Stock prices had soared in the early 80s due in part to Reagan’s easing of controls on the stock market, brokerage houses, banks, and savings and loan institutions. b. October 19, 1987, Dow Jones stock market average dropped over 500 points. c. Fearing recession, Congress reduced 1988 taxes by $30 billion. d. By the mid-1990s, stock market indexes doubled in light of a more stable economy. F. Challenger explosion, February 1986 killed 7 astronauts (including 1st teacher in space) -- Damaged NASA’s credibility and reinforced doubts about the complex technology required for the SDI program. G. Supreme Court -- Culture War? a. Reagan sought to demolish two liberal cultural strongholds: affirmative action and abortion. b. Effectively ended affirmative action in gov’t c. Overturned desegregation laws d. Ended voting districts based on race (North Carolina gerrymandering case) H. Reagan’s economic legacy a. Tax cuts and increased military spending created lost revenue of $200 billion per year. b. National debt tripled from about 1 billion in 1980 to about 3 billion in 1988. c. Deficts did not begin to diminish until Clinton's presidency in mid-1990s d. Debt serendipitous for conservatives -- Reduced growth of gov’t and led to cuts in social spending since less money available for gov’t to spend. AMERICAN SOCIETY SINCE WWII I. Demography and economics A. GI Bill of Rights (Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944) 1. Response to fears of unemployment resulting from 15 million returning GIs from WWII. 2. Sent millions of veterans to school. -- Majority attended technical and vocational schools. 3. Veteran’s Administration (VA) guaranteed about $16 billion in loans for veterans to buy homes, farms, and small businesses. 4. Bill contributed to economic prosperity that emerged in late 1940s and into 1950s B. Baby Boom 1. In the 1950s, population grew by over 28 million; 97% in urban and suburban areas. 2. Between 1946 and 1961, 63.5 million babies were born 3. Proportional growth in population unprecedented in American history. C. Economic boom: 1950-1970 -- "The Affluent Society" 1. National income nearly doubled in 1950s; almost doubled again in 1960s. a. Americans had about 40% of world’s wealth despite only 6% of population. b. By mid-1950s, 60% of Americans owned their own homes compared with only 40% in the 1920s. c. Majority of postwar jobs went to women in urban offices and shops. i. By 1990s, women would account for about half of total workers. ii. Clash between demands of suburban domesticity and realities of employment sparked the feminist revolt in the 1960s. d. Economy largely fueled by the growth of the defense industry. -- Accounted for over 50% of the national budget by 1960. e. Cheap energy and increased supply of power facilitated growth. f. Rising productivity (due to increases in education and technology) increased the average Americans standard of living two-fold. 2. Consumerism mushroomed as Americans had more disposable income to purchase on consumer goods (cars, TVs, refrigerators, vacations, etc.) 3. Middle class a. 5.7 million in 1947; over 12 million by early 1960s. b. Suburbs i. Grew 6X faster than cities in 1950s. ii. Resulted from increased car production, white flight from urban areas due to black migration into Northern and Midwestern cities, and gov’t policies that insured both builders and homeowners. c. Cult of domesticity re-emerges i. A few advocated that science supported the idea that women could only find fulfillment as a homemaker. ii. The concept of a woman’s place being in the home was widespread in magazines, TV, and society in general. d. Dr. Benjamin Spock: The Commonsense Book of Baby and Child Care i. Sold an average of 1 million copies per year between 1946 and 1960. ii. Argued that parents should create a nurturing environment for their children and trust their instincts as parents. 4. Labor movement a. 1950s was apex of labor movement. b. Percentage of union workers has decreased from about 30% to below 18% D. Sunbelt vs. Frostbelt (or Rustbelt) 1. Sunbelt is a 15-state area stretching from Virginia through Florida and Texas to Arizona and California (includes all former Confederate states) 2. Advent of air-conditioning spurred enormous growth a. Population increase twice that of the old industrial zones of the Northeast. b. California which became most populous state by 1963. 3. War industries and high-tech industries attracted millions to the west coast. 4. Aerospace industry and huge military installations attracted millions to Texas and Florida. 5. Traditional midwest industrial workers lost ground as many of their jobs were shipped overseas. 6. "Rustbelt" states of the Ohio Valley angered at federal outlays for Southern and Western states -- South and West received $125 billion more than Northeast and Midwest. 7. Every president elected since 1964 has come from the Sunbelt. 8. Sunbelt’s representation in Congress has increased significantly. E. The New Immigration 1. Immigration Act of 1965 spawned a flood of immigration from Latin America (especially Mexico) and Asia (esp. Southeast Asia, Korea, and the Philippines) for the next three decades. 2. Estimated undocumented aliens by 1985: 8 million 3. Sunbelt most impacted esp. California, Texas, and Florida; mostly Hispanic immigrants a. By 1990, Hispanics accounted for 25% of population in Texas, Arizona, and California (over 50% of Hispanic population was Mexican) 4. Resentment among native-born Americans resulted in political backlash against immigrants in the 1990s, especially California F. Shift from manufacturing economy to service economy after 1970 1. Large % of manufacturing jobs went overseas due to cheaper labor there. 2. "Stagflation" plagued the U.S. economy in the 1970s during the Ford and Carter administrations. -- Caused by energy crisis, inflationary spending during the 1960s, and a host of other issues (see 1970s chapter) 3. Service industries grew significantly, especially retail. 4. "Information Age" emerged in the 1980s 5. Personal computer revolution hit in 1980s and continued into 21st century -- Internet became widely available to the public in mid-1990s G.1980s saw significant economic growth and low inflation under Ronald Reagan 1. Tax cuts coupled with increased defense spending stimulated the economy but resulted in huge deficits and a tripling of the national debt by 1988. II. Culture A. Leisure a. TV emerged as the most popular entertainment medium in the 1950s replacing radio (TV hit the consumer market in 1947) b. Some movie stars became icons to the younger generation in 1950s: James Dean, Marilyn Monroe B. Rock n’ Roll: derived from African American blues (before Elvis it was known as "race" music) -- Elvis Presley burst on the scene in 1956 as brought rock n' roll to the masses C. Art 1. Abstract expressionism (1950s) a. Artists attempted spontaneous expression of their subjectivity using splattered paint and color field painting. b. Included Jackson Pollock, Willem deKooning, and Mark Rothko. 2. Pop Art in the 1960s a. Andy Warhol -- Drew subjects from elements of popular culture (e.g. advertising, comics, and hamburgers). b. Also, Roy Lichtenstein and Claes Oldenburg. D. The Beat generation (beatniks) -- late 1950s a. Group of young men alienated by 20th-century life. -- Movement began in Greenwich Village, NY. b. Jack Kerouac: On the Road became the "bible" for restless youth c. Other prominent figures included Allen Ginsburg ("Howl" -- 1956) d. Emphasized alcohol, drugs, sex, jazz, Buddhism, and a vagabond lifestyle. E. Rise of the "New Left" and "counterculture" 1. Impact of baby boom generation a. 1950 -- 1 million went to college; 1960 -- 4 million b. Raised largely in economic security; 75% of college students came from families with income above the national average. c. Student protest movement only a minority of student population -- 10-15% 2. New Left a. By mid-1960s majority of Americans were under age 30. b. Universities became perceived as bureaucracies indifferent to student needs. c. Students for a Democratic Society, headed by Tom Hayden called for "participatory democracy." d. Free Speech Movement i. Students at U.C. Berkeley stated sit-ins in 1964 to protest prohibition of political canvassing on campus. ii. Came to emphasize the criticism of the bureaucracy of American society. -- Police broke up a sit-in in December and protests spread to other campuses 3. SDS would become more militant during the Vietnam War. 4. Counterculture a. Like New Left, felt alienated by bureaucracy, materialism, and the Vietnam War. i. Turned away from politics in favor of an alternative society. ii. In many ways, they were heirs of the Beats. b. "Hippies" i. Experimented with Eastern religions, drugs, and sex. ii. Many involved in urban communes e.g. Haight-Ashbury district; others in rural areas. iii. Leading spokespeople: Timothy Leary, Theodore Roszak -- Charles Reich: The Greening of America iv. "flower children" v. Most unable to establish sustaining lifestyle. c. Music of the counterculture i. Music: Bob Dylan, Joan Baez, Pete Seeger ii. Beatles became influenced by Americans counterculture iii. Woodstock, August, 1969 -- Featured Joan Baez, Jimi Hendrix, Santana. -- Unrestrained drug use and sex d. By early 1970s, counterculture was shrinking as a result of either its excesses or its members re-entering the mainstream. III. Changes in Society A. The Sexual Revolution (began in early 1960s) 1. Birth control pill and antibiotics encourage freer sexual practices beginning in early 1960s. 2. Challenged traditional values of pre-marital sex as taboo. 3. Gay and Lesbian rights activists emerged in the 1960s and 1970s. 4. AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) became an epidemic in the 1980s a. Initially received little attention as earliest victims were gay men and intravenous drug users. b. By end of 1980s, at least 600,000 were infected. -- Many were heterosexual; nation became intensely alerted. c. By mid-1990s drugs to prevent the onset of AIDS showed promise. B. Breakdown of the family 1. Divorce rates doubled in decade after 1965 -- By 1990, 50% of marriages ended in divorce. 2. Proportion of adults living alone tripled between 1950 and 1980. 3. Children born to unmarried mothers -- Whites = 1 out of 6; Hispanics = 1 out of 3; African Americans = 1 out of 2. 4. TVs came to replace many parents as average child watched up to 15,000 hours of TV by age 16. C. Fundamentalist resurgence -- "Religious Right" 1. Born-again Christians began to exert more political influence in late 1970s. 2. "Culture War": Jerry Falwell and the Moral Majority allied with Ronald Reagan during his presidency. i. Denounced abortion, pornography, homosexuality, the ERA, and esp. affirmative action. ii. Championed prayer in schools and teaching of creationism in the public schools. iii. Advocated tougher penalties for criminals and strong national defense. 3. Mid-eighties, Pat Roberston emerged as leading figure as head of Christian Coalition -- Ran an unsuccessful bid the Republican nomination in 1988. 4. The "Religious Right" became an influential minority in the Republican Party -- A significant portion of this group rested in the "Bible Belt" of the Old South. D. Civil Rights 1. African American rights movement in the 1950s and 1960s 2. Women's Rights movement in the 1960s 3. Chicanos in the 1960s and 70s 4. Native Americans in the 1970s 5. Gays and lesbians after 1970 The Resurgence of Conservatism 1980 – 1996 I. II. III. The Triumph of Conservatism 1. President Jimmy Carter’s administration seemed to be befuddled and bungling, since it could not control the rampant double-digit inflation or handle foreign affairs and would not remove regulatory controls from major industries such as airlines. i. Late in 1979, Edward Kennedy (“Ted”) declared his candidacy for the Democratic nomination for 1980, but he was hurt by his suspicious 1969 accident in which a young female passenger drowned. 2. As the Democrats duked it out, the Republicans chose conservative and former actor Ronald Reagan, signaling the return of conservatism, since the average American was older than that during the stormy sixties and was more likely to favor the right. i. New groups that spearheaded the “new right” movement included Moral Majority and other conservative Christian groups. 3. Race was a burning issue, and in the 1974 Milliken vs. Bradley case, the Supreme Court ruled that desegregation plans could not require students to move across school-district lines. i. This reinforced the “white flight” that pitted the poorest whites and blacks against each other, often with explosively violent results. 4. Affirmative action was another burning issue, but some whites used this to argue “reverse discrimination” and gain advantages that way. i. The Bakke case of 1978 saw the Supreme Court barely rule that Allan Bakke had not been admitted into U.C. Davis because the university preferred minority races only and ordered the college to admit Bakke. 5. The Supreme Court’s only black justice, Thurgood Marshall, warned that the denial of racial preferences might sweep away the progress gained by the civil rights movement. The Election of Ronald Reagan, 1980 1. Ronald Reagan was a man whose values had been formed before the turbulent sixties, and in a style resembling his early political hero, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Reagan adopted a stance that depicted “big government” as bad, federal intervention in local affairs as condemnable, and favoritism for minorities as negative. i. He drew on the ideas of a group called the “neoconservatives,” a group that included Norman Podhortz, editor of Commentary magazine, and Irving Kristol, editor of Public Interest, two men who championed free-market capitalism. 2. Reagan had grown up in an impoverished family, become a B-movie actor in Hollywood I the 1940s, become president of the Screen Actors Guild, purged suspected “reds” in the McCarthy era, acted as spokesperson for General Electric, and become Californian governor. 3. Reagan’s photogenic personality and good looks on televised debates, as well as his attacks on President Carter’s problems, helped him win the election of 1980 by a landslide (489 – 49). i. Also, Republicans regained control of the Senate. 4. Carter’s farewell address talked of toning down the nuclear arms race, human rights, and protecting the environment (one of his last acts in office was to sign a bill protecting 100 million acres of Alaskan land for a wildlife preserve. The Reagan Revolution IV. V. 1. Reagan’s inauguration day coincided with the release by the Iranians of their hostages, and Reagan also assembled a cabinet of the “best and brightest,” including Secretary of the Interior James Watt, a controversial man with little regard to the environment. i. Watt tried to hobble the Environmental Protection Agency and permit oil drilling in scenic places, but finally had to resign after telling an insulting ethnic joke in public. 2. For over two decades, the government budget had slowly and steadily risen, much to the disturbance of the tax-paying public, and by the 80s, the public was tired of the New Deal and the Great Society and ready to slash bills, just as Reagan proposed. 3. His federal budget had cuts of some $35 billion, and he even wooed some Southern Democrats to abandon their own party and follow him, but on March 30, 1981, the president was shot and wounded, but he recovered in only twelve days, showing his devotion to physical fitness despite his age (near 70) and gaining massive sympathy and support. The Battle of the Budget 1. Reagan’s budget cost $695 million, and the vast majority of budget cuts fell upon social programs, not on defense, but there were also sweeping tax cuts of 25% over three years. i. The president appeared on national TV pleading for passage of the new tax-cut bill, and bolstered by “boll weevils,” or Democrats who defected to the Republican side, Congress passed it. ii. The bill used “supply side” economics to lower individual taxes, almost eliminate federal estate taxes, and create new tax-free savings plans for small investors. 2. However, this theory backfired as the nation slid into its worst recession since the Great Depression, with unemployment reaching nearly 11% in 1982 and several banks failing. i. Critics (Democrats) yapped that Reagan’s programs and tax cuts had caused this mayhem, but in reality, it had been Carter’s “tight money” policies that had led to the recession, and Reagan and his advisors sat out the storm, waiting for a recovery that seemed to come in 1983. 3. However, during the 1980s, income gaps widened between the rich and poor for the first time in the 20th century (this was mirrored by the emergence of “yuppies”), and it was massive military spending (a $100 billion annual deficit in 1982 and nearly $200 million annual deficits in the later years) that upped the American dollar (as well as the trade deficit, which reached a record $152 billion in 1987) and made America the world’s biggest borrowers. Reagan Renews the Cold War 1. Reagan took a denunciative stance against the USSR, especially when they continued to invade Afghanistan, and his plan to defeat the Soviets was to wage a super-expensive arms race that would eventually force the Soviets into bankruptcy and render them powerless. i. He began this with his Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), popularly known as Star Wars, which proposed a system of lasers that could fire from space and destroy any nuclear weapons fired by Moscow before they hit America—a system that many experts considered impossible as well as upsetting to the “balance of terror” (don’t fire for fear of retaliation) that had kept nuclear war from being unleashed all these years. VI. VII. VIII. 2. Late in 1981, the Soviets clamped down on Poland’s massive union called “Solidarity” and received economic sanctions from the U.S. i. The deaths of three different aging Soviet oligarchs from 1982-85 and the breaking of all arms-control negotiations in 1983 further complicated dealing with the Soviets. Troubles Abroad 1. Israel invaded Lebanon in 1982 to destroy guerilla bases, and the next year, Reagan sent U.S. forces as part of an international peace-keeping force, but when a suicide bomber crashed a bomb-filled truck into U.S. army barracks on October 23, 1983, killing over 200 marines, Reagan had to withdraw troops, though he miraculously suffered no political damage. i. Afterwards, he became known as the “Teflon president,” to which nothing harmful would stick. 2. Reagan accused Nicaraguan “Sandinistas,” a group of leftists that had taken over the Nicaraguan government, of turning the country into a forward base from which Communist forces could invade and conquer all of Latin America. i. He also accused them of helping revolutionary forces in El Salvador, where violence had reigned since 1979, and then helped “contra” rebels in Nicaragua. ii. In October 1983, Reagan sent troops to Grenada, where a military coup had killed the prime minister and brought Marxists to power, to crush the rebels, which happened. Round Two for Reagan 1. Reagan was opposed by Democrat Walter Mondale and VP candidate Geraldine Ferraro, the first woman to appear on a major-party presidential ticket, but won handily. 2. Foreign policy issues dominated Reagan’s second term, one that saw the rise of Mikhail Gorbachev, a personable, energetic leader who announced two new Soviet policies: glasnost, or “openness,” which aimed to introduce free speech and political liberty to the Soviet Union, and perestroika, or “restructuring,” which meant that the Soviets would adopt free-market economies similar to those in the West. 3. At a summit meeting at Geneva in 1985, Gorbachev introduced the idea of ceasing the deployment of intermediate-range nuclear forces (INF); at a second one at Reykjavik, Iceland, in November 1985, there was stalemate; but at the third one in Washington D.C., the treaty was finally signed, banning all INF’s from Europe. i. The final one at Moscow saw Reagan warmly praising the Soviet chief for trying to end the Cold War. 4. Also, Reagan supported Corazon Aquino’s ousting of Filipino dictator, Ferdinand Marcos, ordered a lightning raid on Libya in 1986 in retaliation for Libya’s statesponsored terrorist attacks, and began escorting oil tankers through the Persian Gulf during the Iran-Iraq War. The Iran-Contra Imbroglio 1. In November 1986, it was revealed that a year before, American diplomats had secretly arranged arms sales to Iranian diplomats in return for the release of American hostages (at least one was) and had used that money to aid Nicaraguan contra rebels. i. This brazenly violated the congressional ban on helping Nicaraguan rebels, not to mention Reagan’s personal vow not to negotiate with terrorists. ii. An investigation concluded that even if Reagan had no knowledge of such events, as he claimed, he should have, and this scandal not only cast a dark IX. X. XI. cloud over Reagan’s foreign policy success but also brought out a picture of Reagan as a senile old man who slept through important cabinet meetings. a. Still, Reagan remained ever popular. Reagan’s Economic Legacy 1. Supply-side economics claimed that cutting taxes would actually increase government revenue, but instead, during his eight years in office, Reagan accumulated a $2 trillion debt—more than all his presidential predecessors combined. i. Much of the debt was financed by foreign bankers like the Japanese, ensuring that future Americans would have to work harder or have lower standards of living to pay off such debts for the United States. 2. Reagan did triumph in containing the welfare state by incurring debts so large that future spending would be difficult, thus prevent any more welfare programs from being enacted successfully. 3. Another trend of “Reaganomics” was the widening of the gap between the rich and the poor. Culture Wars 1. Reagan used the courts as his instrument against affirmative action and abortion, and by 1988, the year he left office, he had appointed a near-majority of all sitting federal judges. i. Included among those were three conservative-minded judges, one of which was Sandra Day O’Connor, a brilliant Stanford Law School graduate and the first female Supreme Court justice in American history. 2. In a 1984 case involving Memphis firefighters, the Court ruled that union rules about job seniority could outweigh affirmative-action concerns. 3. In Ward’s Cove Packing vs. Arizona and Martin vs. Wilks, the Court ruled made it more difficult to prove that an employer practice discrimination in hiring and made it easier for white males to argue that they were victims of reverse-discrimination. 4. The 1973 case of Roe vs. Wade had basically legalized abortion, but the 1989 case of Webster vs. Reproductive Health Services seriously compromised protection of abortion rights. i. In Planned Parenthood vs. Casey (1992), the Court ruled that states couldn’t restrict access to abortion as long as they didn’t place an “undue burden” on the woman. Referendum on Reaganism in 1988 1. Democrats got back the Senate in 1986 and sought to harm Reagan with the Iran-Contra scandal and unethical behavior that tainted an oddly large number of Reagan’s cabinet. i. They even rejected Robert Bork, Reagan’s ultraconservative choice to fill an empty space on the Supreme Court. 2. The federal budget and the international trade deficit continued to soar while falling oil prices hurt housing values in the Southwest and damaged savings-and-loans institutions, forcing Reagan to order a $500 million rescue operation for the S&L institutions. i. On October 19, 1987, the stock market fell 508 points, sparking fears of the end of the money culture, but this was premature. 3. In 1988, Gary Hart tried to get the Democratic nomination but had to drop out due to a sexual misconduct charge while Jesse Jackson assembled a “rainbow coalition” in hopes of becoming president, but the Democrats finally chose Michael Dukakis, who lost badly to Republican candidate and Reagan’s vice president George Bush, 112 to 426. XII. XIII. XIV. George Bush and the End of the Cold War 1. Bush had been born into a rich family, but he was committed to public service and vowed to sculpt “a kindler, gentler America.” 2. In 1989, it seemed that Democracy was reviving in previously Communist hot-spots: i. In China, thousands of democratic-seeking students protested in Tiananmen Square but were brutally crushed by Chinese tanks and armed forces. ii. In Eastern Europe, Communist regimes fell in Poland (which saw Solidarity rise again), Hungary, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, and Romania. a. Soon afterwards, the Berlin Wall came tumbling down. 3. In 1990, Boris Yeltsin stopped a military coup that tried to dislodge Gorbachev, then took over Russia when the Soviet Union fell and disintegrated into the Commonwealth of Independent States, of which Russia was the largest member, thus ending the Cold War. i. This shocked experts who had predicted that the Cold War could only end violently. 4. Problems remained, for who would take over the USSR’s nuclear stockpiles or its seat in the UN Security Council (eventually, Russia did). 5. In 1993, Bush signed the START II accord with Yeltsin, pledging both nations to reduce their long-range nuclear arsenals by two-thirds within ten years. i. Trouble was still present when the Chechnyen minority in Russia tried to declare independence and was resisted by Russia; that incident hasn’t been resolved yet. 6. Europe found itself quite unstable when the economically weak former communist countries re-integrated with it. 7. America now had no rival to guard against, and it was possible that it would revert back to its isolationist policies; also, military spending had soaked up so much money that upon the end of the Cold War, the Pentagon closed 34 military bases, canceled a $52 billion order for a navy attack plane, and forced scores of Californian defense plants to shut their doors. 8. However, in 1990, South Africa freed Nelson Mandela, then elected him president four years later; free elections removed the Sandinistas in Nicaragua in 1990, and in 1992, peace came to Ecuador at last. The Persian Gulf Crisis 1. On August 2, 1990, Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein invaded oil-rich Kuwait with 100,000 men, hoping to annex it as a 19th province and use its oil fields to replenish debts incurred during the Iraq-Iran War, a war which oddly saw the U.S. supporting Hussein despite his bad reputation. 2. Saddam attacked swiftly, but the UN responded just as swiftly, placing economic embargoes on the aggressor and preparing for military punishment. Fighting “Operation Desert Storm” 1. Some 539,000 U.S. military force members joined 270,000 troops from 28 other countries to attack Iraq in a war, which began on January 12, 1991, when Congress declared it. i. On January 16, the U.S. and U.N. unleashed a hellish air war against Iraq for 37 days. ii. Iraq responded by launching several ultimately ineffective “scud” missiles at Saudi Arabia and Israel, but it had far darker strategies available, such as XV. XVI. XVII. biological and chemical weapons and strong desert fortifications with oil-filled moats that could be lit afire if the enemy got to close. 2. American General Norman Schwarzkopf took nothing for granted, strategizing to suffocate Iraqis with an onslaught of air bombing raids and then rush them with troops. i. On February 23, “Operation Desert Storm” began with an overwhelming land attack that lasted four days, saw really little casualties, and ended with Saddam’s surrender. ii. American cheered the war’s rapid end and well-fought duration, relieved that this had not turned into another Vietnam, but Saddam Hussein had failed to be dislodged and was left to menace the world another day. 3. The U.S. found itself even more deeply ensnared in the region’s web of mortal hatreds. Bush on the Home Front 1. President Bush’s 1990 American with Disabilities Act was a landmark law that banned discrimination against citizens with disabilities. 2. Bush also signed major water projects bill in 1992 and agreed to sign a watered-down civil rights bill in 1991. 3. In 1991, Bush proposed Clarence Thomas to fill in the vacant seat left by retiring Thurgood Marshall, but this choice was opposed by the NAACP and the National Organization for Women (NOW), since Thomas was supposedly pro-abortion. i. In early October 1991, Anita Hill charged Thomas with sexual harassment, and even though Thomas was still selected to be on the Court, Hill’s case publicized sexual harassment and tightened tolerance of it (Oregon’s Senator Robert Packwood had to step down in 1995 after a case of sexual harassment). ii. A gender gap arose between women in both parties. 4. In 1992, the economy stalled, and Bush was forced to break an explicit campaign promise and add $133 billion worth of new taxes to try to curb the $250 billion annual budget. i. When it was revealed that many House members had written bad checks from a private House “bank,” public confidence lessened even more. 5. The 27th Amendment banned congressional pay raises from taking effect until an election had seated a new session of Congress, an idea first proposed by James Madison in 1789. Bill Clinton: the First Baby-Boomer President 1. In 1992, the Democrats chose Bill Clinton as their candidate (despite accusations of womanizing and draft evasion) and Albert Gore, Jr. as his running mate. 2. The Democrats tried a new approach, promoting growth, strong defense, and anticrime policies while campaigning to stimulate the economy. 3. The Republicans dwelt on “family values” and selected Bush for another round and J Danforth Quayle as his running mate. 4. Third party candidate Ross Perot added color to the election by getting 19,237,247 votes in the election (no Electoral votes, though), but Clinton won, 370 to 168 in the Electoral College. i. Democrats also got control of both the House and the Senate. 5. Congress and the presidential cabinet were filled with minorities and more women, including the first female attorney general ever, Janet Reno, Secretary of Health and Human Services Donna Shalala, and Ruth Bader Ginsburg in the Supreme Court A False Start for Reform XVIII. XIX. 1. Upon entering office, Clinton called for accepting homosexuals in the armed forces but finally had to settle for a “don’t ask, don’t tell” policy that unofficially accepted gays and lesbians. 2. Clinton also appointed his wife, Hillary, to revamp the nation’s health and medical care system, and when it was revealed in October 1993, critics blasted it as cumbersome, confusing, and stupid, thus suddenly making Hillary Rodham Clinton a liability when before, she had been a full, equal political partner of her husband. 3. By 1996, Clinton had shrunk the federal deficit to its lowest level in a decade, and in 1993, he passed a gun-control law called the Brady Bill, named after presidential aide James Brady, who had been wounded in President Reagan’s attempted assassination,. i. In July, 1994, Clinton persuaded Congress to pass a $30 billion anticrime bill. 4. During the decade, a radical Muslim group bombed the World Trade Center in New York, killing six, a terrorist, Timothy McVeigh, had bombed the federal building in Oklahoma in 1995, taking 169 lives, and a fiery standoff at Waco, Texas, between the government and the Branch Davidians ended in a huge fire that killed men, women, and children. 5. By this time, few Americans trusted the government, the reverse of the WWII generation. The Politics of Distrust 1. In 1994, Newt Gingrich led Republicans on a sweeping attack of Clinton’s liberal failures with a conservative “Contract with America,” and that year, Republicans won all incumbent seats as well as eight more seats in the Senate and 53 more seats in the House, where Gingrich became the new Speaker of the House. 2. However, the Republicans went too far, imposing federal laws that put new obligations on state and local governments without providing new revenues and forcing Clinton to sign a welfare-reform bill that made deep cuts in welfare grants. i. Clinton tried to fight back, but gradually, the American public grew tired of Republican conservatism, such as Gingrich’s suggestion of sending children of welfare families to orphanages, and of its incompetence, such as the 1995 shut down of Congress due to a lack of a sufficient budget package. 3. In 1996, Clinton ran against Republican Bob Dole and won, 379 to 159, and Ross Perot again finished a sorry third. Problems Abroad 1. Clinton sent troops to Somalia (where some were killed), withdrew them, and also meddled in Northern Ireland to no good effect, but after denouncing China’s abuses of human rights and threatening to punish China before he became president, Clinton as president discovered that trade with China was too important to waste over human rights. 2. Clinton committed American troops to NAT to keep the peace in the former Yugoslavia and sent 20,000 troops to return Jean-Bertrand Aristide to power in Haiti. 3. He resolutely supported the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) that made a free-trade zone surrounding Mexico, Canada, and the U.S., then helped form the World Trade Organization, the successor to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), and also provided $20 billion to Mexico in 1995 to help its faltering economy. 4. Clinton also presided over historic reconciliation meeting in 1993 between Israel’s Yitzhak Rabin and Palestinian Yasir Arafat at the White House, but two years later, Rabin was assassinated, thus ending hopes for peace in the Middle East. XX. A Sea of Troubles 1. The end of the Cold War left the U.S. groping for a diplomatic formula to replace antiCommunism and revealed misconduct by the CIA and the FBI. 2. Political reporter Joe Klein wrote Primary Colors, mirroring some of Clinton’s personal life/womanizing, while Clinton ran into trouble with his failed real estate investment in the Whitewater Land Corporation. i. In 1993, Vincent Foster, Jr. apparently committed suicide, perhaps overstressed at having to (perhaps immorally) manage Clinton’s legal and financial affairs. 3. As Clinton began his second term, the first by a Democratic president since FDR, he had Republican majorities in both houses of Congress going against him. ...
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