Unformatted text preview: What is Learning?? Learning the process by which experience or practice results in a relatively permanent change in behavior Much of the terminology used by behaviorists today is based on animal learning experiments conducted by: Pavlov Skinner Ivan B.F. Pavlovian Conditioning Classical conditioning: Pavlov Watson Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning =leads to the = learning of relations between events that occur outside of one's control Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) Unconditioned response (UCR) conditioned food salivation bell salivation stimulus (CS) conditioned response (CR) Definitions Unconditioned Stimulus (US) = stimulus that automatically produces (or elicits) a response prior to any training Unconditioned Response (UR) = observable response that is produced automatically Conditioned Conditioned Stimulus (CS) = neutral stimulus Response (CR) = acquired that is paired w/the US during conditioning response that is produced to the conditioned stimulus Higher Order Conditioning Higher Order Conditioning responding to a stimuli that has been connected to the CS Generalization Generalization = a new stimulus produces a response similar to the one produced by the conditioned stimulus (CS) Bell (CS) Salivation Alarm Clock Salivation Discrimination Discrimination = the response to a new stimulus is different from the response to the original CS Bell (CS) Salivation Light No Salivation Extinction Extinction = after repeated absence of UCS, CR stops Bell (CS) Food (US) Salivation (CR) Spontaneous Recovery Spontaneous Recovery = conditioned responding that has disappeared in extinction recovers spontaneously w/the passage of time Resting Period Bell (CS) Salivation Inhibition learning to suppress a learned response the inhibition Inhibiting John B.Watson is considered the father of behavior psychology Watson: The appropriate subject of psychological science is behavior, as distinct from mind mental events or states do not play a role at all into the chain of causal events leading to behavior they are altogether irrelevant to the proper enterprise of psychology Private Therefore, Watson: Tabla Rasa= blank slate "Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select doctor lawyer artist merchant-chief even beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors--." (1930) The process of developing the conditioned response is called "classical conditioning" emotions E.g. Conditioned & unconditioned responses elicit what are called "respondent behaviors" behaviors are typically glandular or autonomic & not under voluntary control sweating, heart racing) These (shaking, Exposure-based treatments Counter conditioning (desensitization) Extinction (flooding) Virtual Reality Exposure therapy: With technology pt is exposed to vivid simulations of a feared stimulus 3.Operant Conditioning Instrumental learning/Operant conditioning: Thorndike (Law of Effect) Skinner (Schedules of Reinforcement) Law of Effect: Thorndike response followed by a satisfying consequence, it will be strengthened followed by an unsatisfying consequence, it will be weakened response Skinner: Radical Behaviorism Behavior should be described & explained in terms of the (external) environmental conditions that prompt it (internal) mental states or events not Skinner's Box B. F. Skinner is known for the following prototypical experiment: Shaping
reinforcing successive approximations (partial responses) to a desired behavior B.F. Skinner Operant Conditioning Procedure for studying how organisms learn about the consequences of their actions They learn that their behaviors are instrumental in producing reward & punishments also called Instrumental Conditioning clinical application "Operant behaviors" tend to involve the skeletal musculature, which are often under voluntary control Reinforces can be negative or positive: In positive reinforcement a stimulus is added (e.g. food) negative reinforcement a stimulus that is part of the establishing operation is removed In Negative Reinforcement Strengthens a response by reducing or removing an aversive stimuli something Subtracting Stimulus Presentation: Repeated presentations of the same stimulus can have 2 consequences: (increase in responding) Sensitization Habituation (decrease in responding) Schedules of reinforcement Fixed ratio: behavior reinforced after a certain number of responses have been made (most motivated) Fixed interval: behavior reinforced after a certain time interval has passed (least motivated) Variable ratio: number of responses required for reinforcement varies (hardest to extinguish) interval: amount of time that passes between possible reinforcement opportunities varies Variable Variable ratio If widely variable, animal will respond at a high rate with very little pausing
Very difficult to extinguish! Aversive Control Influencing behavior by the use of unpleasant stimuli Aversive Conditioning
A type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (e.g., nausea) with an unwanted behavior (e.g., smoking). Token economy An operant conditioning procedure that rewards desired behaviors patient exchanges a token, earned for exhibiting the desired behavior various privileges or treats A for Forms of relaxation therapy: Progressive Muscular Relaxation Autogenic Training Biofeedback Mindfulness Practice Applied Relaxation Breathing Retraining Modeling & Observational Learning Modeling
natural tendency to imitate the behavior of significant others The person being observed is called the "model" also occurs with written instructions, videotape and so on is the primary method of teaching new behaviors such as social skills Modeling Modeling Observational Learning Learning new behaviors by means of observations is called "observational learning" Also called `social learning' Interpersonal modes: communication has 2 "Verbal Behavior" This has to do with the meaning carried by the words & sentences themselves "Evocative Signals" This has to do with emotion & non-verbal meanings that are communicated (which are more likely to provoke an emotional response) Behavioral therapists provide treatment for deficits in social behavior treatments
Training Specific include: Assertiveness Social Skills Training Skills Communication Training ...
View Full Document