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Unformatted text preview: Greatest Sex Organ= Brain Gender difference Normal Sexuality Phase I: Desire Phase (fantasies about sexual desire, sense of desire for sex) Phase II: Excitement Phase (subjective pleasure and physiological changes) Phase III: Orgasm (release, sex pleasure) Resolution: Relaxation, sense of well being Impairment in: 1)Desire for sex.. or 2) Ability to achieve it This is an inhibition within the sex response cycle Sexual Dysfunction Masters & Johnson
Last 405 years there has been considerable research on treating specific dysfunctions Much is known here Performance Anxiety: I feeling anxious around the process of sexual intercourse comprised of: arousal cognitive processes negative affect Performance Anxiety: II ...continued i.e.,too much drinking resulting is performance difficulties resulting in worry about performance next time creating Self fulfilling prophecy Performance Anxiety: III ...continued Spectatoring: Watching oneself, not participating Solution: Sensate Focus: stage 1 Couple instructed to NOT have intercourse (or genital touching) Rather (for several days) enjoy: Kissing hugging Massaging and explore (present moment subjective pleasure) Solution: Sensate Focus: stage 2 "Genital pleasuring" but prohibits intercourse or orgasm Purpose is to allow sexual experience without anxiety of performance Solution: Sensate Fous: stage 3 As couple completes stage 2 they are instructed to slowly begin sexual activity continuing nondemand pleasuring as they progress in USA, incidence: : 43% women 31% men DSM: Sexual Dysfunctions
Sexual Desire Disorders Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder Sexual Aversion Disorder Sexual Arousal Disorder Female Sexual Arousal Disorder Male Erectile Disorder (30% of Viagra users experience severe headache) Orgasmic Disorders Female Orgasmic disorder Male Orgasmic disorder Premature Ejaculation (most common) Sexual Pain Disorder Dyspareunia: genital pain with intercourse Vaginismus: involuntary spasms of muscle of outer third of vagina Sexual Dysfunction due to General Medical SubstanceInduced Sexual Dysfunction Sexual Dysfunction NOS Approximately 75% of individuals taking SSRI medication experience some degree of sexual dysfunction Primary Psychological cause of sexual dysfunction = Distraction Erotophobia = negative feelings towards sexuality unconventional sex an attraction to inappropriate individuals or objects Not understood as well as dysfunctions persistent sexual unusual objects or situations are required for sexual satisfaction behavior patterns in which: Limited research due to and political controversies surrounding sexual topics Self Psychology: vulnerable to fragmentation, attempting to attain self cohesion These illustrate a theme in abnormal psychology, better than any other category of disorder with the difficulty in defining the boundaries of Normal and Abnormal (especially those that do not involve harm to another ................................................................______ Homosexuality was first seen as a pathological escape from heterosexuality Now, not in DSM, no longer considered a disorder Sexual Orientation The percentage of identical (monozygotic) twins in which both are homosexual is 50% This means genes are only one influence for sexual orientation Biological/genetic, psychological & social factors all influence sexual orientation Of the Various hypothesized influences of paraphilia the ones that we know the about involve: biological influences genetics neurotransmitters Paraphilias: Exhibitionism A. At least 6 mo. Recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving the exposure of one's genitals to an unsuspecting stranger B. Acted upon, or urges or fantasies cause distress (most common sexual offense reported to police) Paraphilias: Fetishism (M>F)
A. At least 6 mo. Recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving the use of nonliving objects (e.g., female undergarments) B. Above causes significant distress C. fetish objects not (e.g. vibrator, or limited to female clothing used in cross dressing) (one of the most common paraphilias) Paraphilias: Frotteurism A. At least 6 mo. Recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving touching & rubbing against a nonconsenting person B. Acted upon, or urges or fantasies cause distress or interpersonal difficulty A. At least 6 mo. Recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving sexual activity with a prepubescent child or children (age<14) B. Acted upon, or urges or fantasies cause distress or interpersonal difficulty C. Person is at least 16 yrs old and at least 5 yrs older than child or children Paraphilia: Pedophilia (M>F) involves fondling, relatively indifferent to the sex of victim Pedophilia, continued Typical perpetrator is unskilled interpersonally & feels in control when dominating a child believe partners will benefit from sexual contact some tend to idealize partner for simplicity & innocence Paraphilia: Sexual Masochism A. At least 6 mo. Recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving the real act of being humiliated, beaten, bound, or otherwise made to suffer B. the fantasies, urges, behaviors cause significant distress or impairment in social, occupational or other important area of life Masochism continued the masochist desires pain and degradation they sometimes engage in: autoerotic asphyxia (enhances the sexual experience by depriving the brain of oxygen) A. At least 6 mo. Recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving the real act in which the psychological or physical suffering (including humiliation) of the victim is sexually exciting to the person Paraphilia:Sexual Sadism B. Person has acted on these sexual urges with a nonconsenting person, or urges or fantasies cause significant distress or interpersonal difficulty Sexual Sadism continued When sexual sadism is associated with Antisocial Personality Disorder, the victim may be seriously injured or killed most are heterosexual men The concurrent existence of masochistic and sadistic desire within the same person is common Paraphilia:Transvestic Fetishism
A. At least 6 mo., in a heterosexual male, Recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving cross dressing B. the fantasies, urges, behaviors cause significant distress or impairment in social, occupational or other important area of life Paraphilia: Voyeurism A. At least 6 mo. Recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving the act of observing an unsuspecting person who is naked, in the process of disrobing, or engaging in sexual activity B. the person has acted on these urges, or urges or fantasies cause significant distress or interpersonal difficulty Paraphilia NOS, included but not limited to the following: Telephone scatologia (obscene phone calls) Necrophilia (corpses) Partialism (exclusive focus on part of body) Zoophilia (animals) Gender Identity Disorder: incidence is low, less than 1% of population A. A strong & persistent crossgender identification (not for cultural advantage) Gender Identity Disorder: Gender Identity Disorder: "I feel like a woman trapped in a man's body" Gender Identity Disorder, continued
. strong & persistent preference for crosssex roles in make believe play or persistent fantasies of being the other sex Autogynephilic transsexuals:
differ from homosexual transsexuals (not especially feminine) only effective treatment in treating gender dysphoria is surgical sex reassignment
*An important determinant of satisfactory outcome from sex reassignment surgery appears to be the extent to which an individual was psychologically well adjusted before the surgery Common criticism: should surgery be used to treat a psychological disorder??? Final Categories Gender Identity Disorder NOS Sexual Disorder NOS Sociocultural influences on sexual practices it is universal that males value physical appearance more than females Dr. Money and others have suggested that men are more vulnerable to paraphilias because sexual arousal in men is more visually based then the sexual arousal of woman there is a universal taboo regarding sex between close relatives Eating Disorders http://uk.youtube.com/watch?v=VS2mfW Eating Disorders: An Overview Two Major Types of Eating Disorders:
Anorexia nervosa Bulimia nervosa Eating Disorders NOS: e.g. Bingeeating disorder (eating is out of control) Obesity (not in DSM) Self Psychology towards Eating Disorders
When a person has fragility to the cohesion to their self... they will be looking for one way to regulate their self esteem to feel good about themselves... & to feel connected somehow to something This leads to the risk for some addictive disorder including eating disorders Eating Disorders and Obesity
The death rate (including suicide) due to eating disorders is higher than that of most psychological disorders Eating disorders are most prevalent in Western cultures where food is plentiful Obesity accounts for more morbidity and mortality than all eating disorders combined The prevalence of Obesity is highest in USA (20% of adult population in year 2000) Sociocultural climate We are living in a cultural milieu in which thinness is highly valued for woman in particular Rates have increased for males Common among male models, actors Men at risk for eating disorder: childhood obesity Wrestling homosexuality Puberty brings boys' bodies closer to the societal ideal Why the Gender difference? & girls' bodies further from it Given the large number of young women who indulge in dieting, the distinction between normal & disordered eating is blurred Eating Disorderdiet Perfectionism is an enduring personality trait of people who are susceptible to developing an eating disorder weight considered `ideal' fluctuates over time (based on examination of past & cross cultural weight ideals as seen in Art) Why more bulimia & Anorexia in last 40 years? there has been a decrease in the weight of models (miss America contestants, playboy centerfold models) Similarities: Anorexia & Bulimia
1.Typical profile: young (age 1319) white, female, upper SES, socially competitive environment 2.Preoccupation with dieting, food, weight & body size 3.Discomfort when eating with others 4.Severe changes in habits, mood, personality Similarities: Anorexia & Bulimia
5.Hyperactivity, difficulty with sleep & concentration 6.GI complaints, fatigue, headaches, edema and 7.Approval seeking 8.Problems with interpersonal relationships 9. Motivated by an overwhelming urge to be thin paraesthesia Differences in Anorexia & Bulimia
1. Anorexia: denial of abnormal eating pattern (intentional weight loss,15%, or more, of body weight) Bulimia: recognizes abnormal eating pattern (of fairly normal body weight) 2. Anorexia: introverted Bulimia: extroverted 3. Anorexia: turns away from food to cope Bulimia: turns to food to cope 4. Anorexia: distorted body image Bulimia: dissatisfaction w/ body weight & shape 5. Anorexia: preoccupied with losing more & more lbs Bulimia: preoccupied with attaining an ideal (even if unrealistic weight) If one twin has had an eating disorder the other twin is more likely to develop the same disorder Susceptibility to all eating disorders may be inherited ....greater in anorexia as compared to bulimia A dysfunction in the neurotransmitter SEROTONIN has been observed in both anorexics & bulimics Background of Bulimics Ex. Mother prone to weigh @ 200 lbs & has struggled with her weight & then has a lot of preoccupation with the weight of her daughter Eating Disorder NOS: Binge Eating Disorder (BED) experience loss of control of their (large quantities) eating No attempt to compensate for their binge Typical description of an anorexic's parents: Issues of CONTROL are central "My father is emotionally absent" `My mother is demanding" Anorexia Evaluated over long run: 20% die from anorexia 50% of deaths = suicide http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=94c43AlwLKo 1. Stiffler has recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving apple pies. He would be diagnosed as having which type of paraphilia? A) Fetishism B) Frotteurism C) Pedophilia D) Exhibitionism 2. Anorexia and bulimia nervosa are different in which ways? A. Anorexics recognize abnormal eating pattern. B. Bulimics are more comfortable eating food in front of others. C. Anorexics avoid food in order to cope. D. Bulimics experience severe changes in mood and personality. ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/27/2012 for the course PSY 120 taught by Professor Donnely during the Fall '08 term at Purdue.
- Fall '08