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Unformatted text preview: METHODOLOGY What is the proper attitude of a psychologist? Open mindedness Skepticism Humility Key Components to Science
Observation Explanation What is the Scientific Method? Observe Detect regularities (patterns?) hypothesis Generate Observe again What is a Hypothesis?
An educated guess testable prediction hunch A A I. Descriptive Research Naturalistic observation Case study Survey Psychological testing Statistics What is the relationship between TV violence and Aggression? 1.Naturalistic observation Reactivity: act of observing can distract subject Participant Observation: become a member of group you are observing 2.Case study the observation of one particular person collection of rich Involves material 3. Survey Gather limited responses from many people Problems Biased Social sample desirability (people lie) 4. Psychological testing WAIS-R e.g., "What is the definition of `ominous" Psychological testing Draw a family 5. What are examples of Descriptive Statistics? Descriptive Statistics Joe got a 75% on exam #1 Mean = Average Mode =Most frequent score Variability = How much scores differ from each other Range = Difference between the highest and the lowest Standard Deviation = How much scores differ from the mean Inferential Stats
Are differences based on Chance or groups are really different 2 II. Predicting Behavior
Correlational Research Is there a relationship between 2 variables? 2,300 jr high students 1. list 4 favorite tv shows 2. Deviance score Perfect positive relationship between violent tv & aggression Correlation Coefficients
Vary from +1.00 to -1.00 0 (Zero) = No Relationship = Positive relationship = Negative relationship +1 -1 A correlation coefficient of -.89 predicts what type of relationship between 2 variables? III. Explaining Behavior
Experimental research does a variable CAUSE something Liebert and Baron
Hypothesis: Children who saw a violent film would be significantly more willing to hurt other children..... than children who saw a non-violent film Participants who is being tested? boys and girls ages 5-9 Random assignment to one of 2 conditions 2 Conditions 1.Experimental Condition : The condition that exposes subjects to the independent variable
(violent TV) Violent TV Chase 2 fist fights 2 shootings A knifing Control Condition
A condition identical to the experimental one except that subjects are not exposed to the independent variable Equal length non-violent TV (sports) Dependent variable Willingness to hurt another child looked at in both conditions Inferential Stats
Are differences based on Chance or groups are really different 2 Significant difference Results Children who saw the aggressive program were significantly more willing to hurt another child compared to those who saw the non violent sports sequence Replication To generalize you need replication Hindsight bias The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it...also know as "I knew it all along phenomenon" What's ethics got to do with it? What are the Conditions? Experimental Condition: the independent variable is manipulated Control Condition: is NOT exposed to the independent variable Variables? What are the dependent and independent Independent variable The experimental factor you manipulate The treatment itself Dependent variable how willing is one child to hurt another? The factor that might be affected by changes in the independent variable The behavior observed in both experimental & control conditions In the Liebert and Baron experiment on TV violence, what was the independent variable? A. non violent tv B. violent tv C. none of the above D. both a and b ...
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- Fall '08