Unformatted text preview: Cognitive Psychology Cognitive Psychology Concepts Heuristics Representativeness Availability Framing Confirmation Bias Belief Perseverance Functional Fixedness Overconfidence Phenomenon Thinking Errors What is the Major Lesson of Cognitive Psychology?? A. People tend to be rational B. People tend to be irrational C. Everyone's brain is like a camera D. Everyone's brain is like a tape recorder What is the Major Lesson of Cognitive Psychology?? B. PEOPLE TEND TO BE IRRATIONAL!!** Continuum Perception Mind Perception--Constructivist Illusions Eye sees what's out there Eye = camera Social Reality camera Social Situation in individuals Objective Memory Flashbulb is maleable Memory memories Constructive nature of memory Personality Man Personality--Freud Man is good is evil Cognition--Rational Cognition--Irrational Concepts Our concepts simplify & order the world Organize it into a hierarchy of categories The building blocks of thinking Prototypes Concepts Best form around prototypes example of a category Heuristics Rules of thumb that help in simplifying problems & bringing solutions w/in reach Little tricks We all use them An intellectual female, short and thin and reads much: Is she: A. professor of classics B. truck driver Heuristics The Representativeness Heuristic To judge the likelihood of things in terms of how well they fit/represent particular prototypes Representativeness Heuristic
If someone matches our prototype, we allow that to override considerations of statistics & logic Heuristics (cont'd) Availability When Heuristic we base our judgments on the availability of information in our memories If instances of an event are easily available or if they come to mind readily, we presume such events are common Plane crashes vs. car crashes Availability Heuristic The faster people can remember an instance of some event, the more they expect it to recur `a broken promise' Availability Heuristic (cont'd) Lottery We vividly hear of 1 person who wins Don't hear about 5 million losers Availability Heuristic (cont'd) Prejudice
1 bad act by a person causes use to judge the entire race Framing The way an issue is posed or framed can significantly affect decisions & judgments How you state a question affects the response How issue is posed can affect voting Confirmation Bias Our tendency to search for information that confirms our ideas Irrational A major obstacle of problem solving Belief Perseverance Clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited Ruining someone's reputation, then info is provided to discredit, but opinions continue Belief Perseverance (cont'd) Someone tells you your new roommate is a thief Next day, they then say `Only kidding' You'll always be on the look-out for this potential Belief Perseverance (cont'd) Experiment Lepper, Ross, & Lau--showed confusing film Subjects did poor on problem solving Debriefing--subjects still felt incompetent Belief Perseverance (cont'd) Michael Jackson Difficult to fix negative self-image He will always be stigmatized Functional Fixedness The tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions An impediment to problem solving We tend to not `thing outside the box' 9 Dots Problem 9 Dots Problem Our minds see the dots as a square & set up artificial boundaries that are hard to break through We may have assumed the lines were to pass through the center of the dots (but not part of the problem) Candle Problem Using these materials, how would you mount the candle on the bulletin board?? Matches Candle Tacks Overconfidence Phenomenon The tendency to overestimate the accuracy of our current knowledge Thinking Errors Black & White Thinking Catastrophisizing Discounting Emotional Reasoning Labeling Mind Reading Personalization Black & White Thinking You view a situation in only 2 categories instead of on a continuum Borderline: do 1 thing wrong & they hate you Catastrophisizing Predict the future negatively w/out considering other, more likely outcomes Make mountains out of mole hills GAD (Generalized Anxiety Disorder) Discounting You unreasonably tell yourself that positive experience, deeds or qualities do not count Emotional Reasoning You think something must be true because you `feel' (actually believe?) it so strongly Ignore evidence to the contrary Labeling
A fixed global label on self or others w/out considering all evidence Label an individual & look for characteristics that confirm label Dangerous Labels Gifted Learning disabled Psychiatric patient Hyperactive child Gary Hart--one scandle Jim Baker--it's over Mind Reading You believe you know what others are thinking Basically project your fears onto another person Personalization You believe others are behaving negatively because of you, w/out considering more likely explanations Social Psychology 2 main lessons of social psychology fundamental attribution errors What did Asch find Milgram's experiment 2 questions Social psychology and LOVE Self-fulfilling Prophecy: Foot-in-the-door Phenomena. Cognitive Dissonance Theory deindividuation. informational social influence. normative social influence. groupthink. altruistic social exchange theory equity affiliation the two-factor theory of emotion "Eye of the Storm" predjudice ( 3 theories) Sensation and Perception subliminal message, color cones and blind rods sensory adaptation Shape, size, color constancy visual capture perceptual set The contrast effect Binocular cues: Retinal disparity Convergence law of continuity Closure, linear perspective, proximity, similarity Consciousness sleep apnea, insomnia, narcolepsy. night terrors Hypnosis dream work condensation displacement latent work manifest work Singer: daydreams 4 theories of dreams Memory Loftus Reality Monitoring dj vu. flashbulb memory. Sensory Memory Iconic Memory Echoic Memory Mnemonic Device Context-Dependent Memory State-Dependent Memory Cognition Catastrophizing Discounting Overconfidence framing. confirmation Phenomenon bias. belief perseverance functional fixedness representative heuristic the availability heuristic Irrational thoughts labeling personalization Black and white thinking Emotional reasoning ...
View Full Document