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Unformatted text preview: Consciousness Altered States of Consciousness Stages of sleep Sleep disorders Dreams Daydreams Hypnosis Meditation Alcohol Psycho-active drugs Near death experience Why do we sleep?? Rhythm Our of sleep bodies are in sync w/24-hr cycle of day & night through a biological clock rhythm Circadian Sleep Cycle Every 90 minutes Stage 4 very brief--REM gets longer Sleep Stages Stage 0 = eyes closed, awake but alert Stage 1 = breathing slows, light sleep, Stage 2 = relax more deeply, easily awoken (~20min) Stage 3 = transition to deeper sleep Stage 4 = deep sleep (~30min) Stage 1 Experience fantastic images like hallucinations, sensation of falling body jerks suddenly EEG = relatively slow alpha waves Stage
brain 2 waves slow further & show irregular waves Lasts ~ 2 minutes Stage
A 3 transitional phase to the deep sleep of stage 4 Stage
Deep 4 sleep Large delta waves (~30 min) Hard to awaken sleep talk, sleep walk, wet the bed Then go back through stages 2 &3 REM sleep Very rapid brain waves (as if awake) Heart rate rises; breathing increases Sexually aroused Eyes dart back & forth rapidly behind lids Begin to dream REM sleep **Paradox**
**Internally aroused---Externally calm** Sleep Deprivation Feel fatigued; effects well-being Impaired creativity, concentration Decreased immune system Irritability Slight hand tremors You need sleep!!!
Restores body tissues Enhances growth process Sleep Disorders
Insomnia = a sleep disorder involving recurring problems in falling or staying asleep cure = relax & drink milk before bed Sleep Disorders (cont'd)
Narcolepsy = periodic uncontrollable attacks of overwhelming sleepiness suddenly lapse into REM sleep
Sleep Apnea = temporary
who are restless, smoking cessation of breathing while asleep People Sleep Disorders (cont'd) Night Terrors Sleep disorder characterized by high arousal & an appearance of being terrified Unlike nightmares, night terrors occur during stage 4 sleep, w/in 2 3 hours of falling asleep Seldom remembered If someone says, "I don't dream," wake him/her after 5 minutes of REM Why do we dream??
4 theories Wish Fulfillment (Freud) Activation Synthesis Problem Solving Threat Simulation Wish Fulfillment Developed Dreaming by Freud is a psychological mechanism for fulfillment of wishes Often sexual in nature Freud: Dream Work Condensation Several things from a person's life condensed into 1 symbol about 1 thing symbolically related to anxiety provoking object, person, event Displacement Dream Latent: what dream really means Manifest: what you remember Activation Synthesis Dreaming is a consequence of random activity that occurs in the brain during REM sleep Brain creates a story to make sense of random signals Problem Solving Dreaming helps us focus on our current problems in order to find solutions Threat Simulation Dreaming evolved to help us practice the skills needed to avoid threats What do we dream?? Vivid, Ordinary, emotional, bizarre common Jumbled sequences Falling Scenes change Attacked suddenly VS. Pursued People appear & Rejected disappear Misfortune Physical laws violated Daydreams: Singer 1. Prepare for future events 2. Playful, increases creativity Scientists, artists, writers 3. Substitutes for impulsive behavior Daydreams Younger can be adaptive people have more than older people Younger people admit to increased sexual fantasies Daydreams (cont'd) Kids: imaginative play Important for social & cognitive development Increase in TV = concern Daydreams (cont'd) Studies of daydreaming indicate people prone to violence, delinquency, & drug usage have fewer vivid fantasies However, fantasy-prone personalities have trouble distinguishing memories of imaginary events from actual experiences Hypnosis Induced dissociation Temporary state of heightened suggestibility (in which some people) are able to narrow their focus of attention & experience imaginary happenings as if they were real Meditation Technique for self-induced manipulation of awareness, often used for the purpose of relaxation & self-reduction Can produce significant reductions in anxiety & improve physical & psychological well-being Research on Meditation
Helps Relieve: Anxiety Physical pain Stress related illness Relaxation Autogenic Focus Relaxation is on directing blood flow toward specific muscle groups, warming & relaxing them Progressive Muscle Relaxation Concentrating on specific muscle groups, noting tension & deliberately relaxing the affected areas **The most commonly used drug: Alcohol
Depressant that can lesson a person's normal inhibitions, but has a temporary stimulating effect Alcohol Alcohol impairs some kinds of perceptions Heightens perception of dim lights Impairs perception of differences between brighter lights, colors, & depth Impairs auditory perception of differences between rhythms & pitches Smell & taste uniformly diminished Alcohol (cont'd) Perception Time of time = distorted passes more quickly Expectation Expt: also determines the effects of alcohol
`think' they're drunk
Became more aggressive Increased sexual arousal Decreased anxiety in social setting Alcohol (cont'd) Disrupts recent experiences getting into long term memory Reduces self awareness Psychoactive Drugs Stimulant Cocaine Nicotine Hallucinogen LSD Marijuana Depressant Alcohol Heroin (opiate) Tranquilizer (barbituate) Psychoactive Drugs (cont'd) Chemicals that change perceptions & moods use of psychoactive drugs produces tolerance: user requires larger & larger dose to experience drug effects Continued Dependence Psychological
A Dependence = drug becomes important part of user's life
way of relieving negative emotions Physical Dependence = body's response to drugs is absent Intense craving for drug Physical pain if drug not taken Withdrawal Withdrawal = when a drug user stops taking a psychoactive drug, they may experience undesirable side effects NearDeath Experience Often similar to drug-induced hallucinogenic experiences
1. 2. 3. 4. Intense feeelings of peace, joy, calm Feeling of departing the body Transition stage--movement through a dark space Entering the light--new land, serene field ExtraSensory Perception (ESP) Telepathy: mind to mind communication perceiving remote events (sensing that a person's house is on fire) Clairvoyance: ExtraSensory Perception (ESP) Pre Cognition: perceiving future events Psycho Kinesis: mind over matter (i.e., levitating a table or influencing roll of dice) ...
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