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D.4.120.bio.outline - NEUROSCIENCE Understanding Brain&...

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Unformatted text preview: NEUROSCIENCE: Understanding Brain & its Relation to Behavior Bio Psycho Social Spirit model Biological Processes Oliver Sacks, MD: The Man who Mistook his Wife for a Hat We all have in our bodies an... Electro Chemical Communication System... ......... "The NERVOUS SYSTEM" The Nervous System has 2 parts: Part 1: Central Nervous System (CNS) Brain & Spinal Cord 2. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) network of nerves that link the CNS with the body Neurons: Building blocks (cells) of Nervous System Neurons talk to each other Synaptic Gap Mirror Neurons Frontal lobe neurons that fire when Performing certain actions or when observing another do so Implicated in: Imitation Language Learning Empathy Empathy Mirror neurons fire when observing another Neurons Sensory Neurons receive Inter transfer information from one neuron to another Neurons Motor react Neurons Neurotransmitters = Chemical Messengers that relay information from one neuron to the next 3 Neurotransmitters implicated in cocaine, love, depression 1. Serotonin: affects mood (depression) hunger (eating disorders) sleep (dreaming) arousal (OCD) 2. Dopamine: linked to emotion intense pleasure high levels in schizophrenia low levels linked to Parkinson's disease 3. Norepinephrine: Alertness Arousal low levels depress mood Other neurotransmitters Acetylcholine: linked to learning, memory (Alzheimer's) GABA: low levels linked to anxiety, seizures, tremors, insomnia Endorphins: morphine within, "chemical painkillers" Glutamate: involved in memory (high levels migraines and seizures) Neuroimaging: Technology to Investigate Brain Structure CAT scan (X-ray structural abnormalities) MRI...better resolution than CAT More dramatic...PET scan depicts brain activity "hot spots" Activity of different brain areas e.g., glucose in Schizophrenia fMRI: (functional MRI) Internal scanning technique that measures changes in blood flow to specific areas of brain tissue Psychophysiology EEG: records electrical brain activity Helen S. Mayberg, M.D. (Distinguished Investigator 2002) of Rotman Research Institute research shows that cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) affects the front part of the brain, the thinking part (left, blue) while the SSRI anti-depressant Paxil works on a more primitive region at the back of the brain (right, red) Me and My Brain The Brain: Each part of the brain is built on top of the other part Cerebral Cortex: Last part Evolved like NY City Stages of Brain Evolution 1. Brain Stem= Survival (Hind Brain) 2. Limbic System= Emotion +Memory (Mid brain) 3.Cerebral Cortex = Information Processing, Foresight (Forebrain) Brain Stem (old brain): oldest & innermost part, central core Begins where spinal cord enters skull and swells a bit forming the Medulla Brain Stem consists of 1. Medulla Cerebellum (pons) 2. 3. Reticular Formation Thalamus 1. Medulla: Controls heartbeat & breathing. Cross over point At Cross-over point nerves in brain connect with opposite side of the body Damage to Medulla can be fatal Influences flow of information between spinal cord & brain swallowing, coughing, sneezing blood pressure, breathing & heartbeat Coordinates Regulates 2. Cerebellum (little brain): extends from rear of brainstem: 2 wrinkled hemispheres in charge of muscular control motor behavior (e.g. walking, running) Some influence on learning & memory Cerebellum Injury here: trouble walking, shaking hands movements=jerky and exaggerated Cerebellum Dysfunction: A smaller than normal cerebellum is linked to autism alcohol exerts strong effect on cerebellum can produce ataxia Damage speech severe tremors loss of balance similar to alcohol intoxication slurred Pons Connects plays the 2 halves of the cerebellum role in integrating movements in left & right side of the body 3. Reticular Formation Inside the brain stem, extends from spinal chord to thalamus of neurons: helps controls arousal & attention Network Reticular Formation continued If electrically stimulate here= instantly alert and awake cut=coma (even with loud noise pitch) higher brain to dream When Frees Thalamus: on top of brain stem (pair of egg shaped structures) Thalamus like a telephone switchboard sensory neurons orients ...
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