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Unformatted text preview: Development 0-9 10-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 70-79 80-89 _______ ________ _______ ________ _______ ________ _______ ________ _______ ________ _______ ________ _______ ________ _______ ________ _______ ________ ________ _________ ________ _________ ________ _________ ________ _________ _________ EARLY DEVELOPMENT
Genotype: genetic information inherited from one's parents Physical Phenotype Behavioral Psychological features that are the result of the interaction between one's genes and the Prenatal Development Scene 1 egg cell surrounded by tiny sperm cells. Cell division Embryonic growth Prenatal Development (cont'd) Scene 2 Fertilized egg dividing & folding into itself to form the basic structures of the brain Brain development Period of Zygote Begins when egg is fertilized in the fallopian tube 2 weeks later when the zygote is implanted in the wall of the uterus Ends Period of the Embryo from 3 to 8 weeks after conception body parts are formed during Period of the Fetus From 9 weeks after conception to birth Highlights Increase in size, systems begin to function Age of viability 22 to 28 weeks Critical vs Sensitive periods Critical period imply a more restricted period of time and an inability to recover from the effects of the environmental factor Sensitive period
refers to a more diffuse period of time and a potential for recovery (intellectual development) Teratogens Agents such as chemicals or viruses that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm Babies communicate! If you listen to their language they are communicating a lot! Infant Capabilities: Rooting Reflex baby's tendency when touched on the cheek to open mouth and search for the nipple Sucking Reflex causes baby to suck on anything that touches his or her face Grasping Reflex causes babies to clasp their fingers around anything that is put in their hands More...Infant Capabilities Vision Smile Smell Facial lip licking expression Turn head in recognition Infant Capabilities: experiment Sucking: measured in terms of its frequency and duration during exposure to it's mother's voice diminishes to sounds & other voices increases in response to mother's voice... biologically prepared to respond to mother Average Ages 0 Months fetal posture 1 month chin up 2 months chest up 7 months sit alone 14 months stand alone 15 months walk alone Iranian Orphanage: impoverished environment Only 42% sit without support age 2 Only 15% walk unaided age 4 Environmental Skeels and Dye 1939 stimulation is necessary for cerebral cortex to develop breast feeding? Does it provide important psychological benefits to the baby? Emotional Development: Surrogate mothers
baby attached to cuddly mother and then leaned over to wire mother for feeding Harlow's Monkeys Need to attach was based on : Level of Comfort Body Contact Contentment Implications for abuse
Attachment necessary for exploring the environment Monkeys who did not have mother figures were not as adventurous were more nervous Attachment: Ainsworth Secure
-Avoidant -Resistant Types of Attachment: Ainsworth
observed mothers interacting with child 1.came up with three groups 2. then- "stranger situation' Secure Attachment may or may not cry when the mother leaves but when she returns baby wants to be with her SECURE ATTACHMENT Mother is very tuned into child has complete trust in mother largest group of American babies have this type of attachment (60-70%) Infant The Avoidant Attachment This baby is not upset when the mother leaves she returns the baby may ignore her or turn away when Avoidant
Lacks trust 20-25% of American babies have this type of attachment Resistant Attachment this baby is upset when the mother leaves remains upset or angry when she returns and is difficult to console Lacks trust 10% of American babies have this type of attachment Secure Attached 20 years later Adults with this attachment are more likely to provide sensitive care giving to their own children Describe childhood experiences objectively mention positive & negative aspects of parents Secure Child: 20 years later
Autonomous: (independent sense of self esteem) Highest capacity for intimacy Highest mental health Most comfortable with emotion Avoidant Child: 20 years later
Most uncomfortable with intimacy Not comfortable with emotion Lonely Hostile These adults describe childhood experiences in very general terms and often idealize parents Dismissive Resistant Child: 20 years later Seem to seek out something familiar to childhood Describe childhood experiences emotionally and often express anger or confusion regarding relationship with parents Resistant Child in 20 years: relationships tend to be....
Roller-coasters Clingy Jealousy Abusive Self-esteem rides on status of relationship Preoccupied Secure: Best parent = good enough children evaluate realistically (+ and -) Attachment Self Psychology: digestible disappointments are important for self esteem to grow Healthy to see strengths and weaknesses of a person Insecure (Avoidant) = not tuned in children evaluate unrealistically (Perfect!) Disorganized attachment Biologically to stay alive need to stay close to mom (with all being child wants to approach mom) Mom hurts (e.g.,abuses) child No solution for child Approach & Avoid simultaneously (suffering) Borderline Personality Splitting: all good vs all bad in adult relationships ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/27/2012 for the course PSY 120 taught by Professor Donnely during the Fall '08 term at Purdue University-West Lafayette.
- Fall '08