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Unformatted text preview: OUTLINE: DEVELOPMENT Emotional IQ dev, cont': (Mahler, Erickson) dev: (Piaget, Vygotsky, Harris) dev: (Kohlberg, discipline) development Moral Sexual Object Relations Margaret Mahler 0-1 month completely with in self (normal autism) 2-3 months symbiotic fusion (mom + I = one) Margaret Mahler (cont'd) 4-8 months: separation individuation Baby takes 1st step at separation Explores environment Frequently checks back with mom Margaret Mahler (cont'd) 9-15 months Practicing Temporary separation increases Margaret Mahler (cont'd) 15-24 months Rapprochement Conflict between dependence & independence Fear of engulfment, smothered Margaret Mahler (cont'd) On the way to object constancy Develops sense of self & a permanent emotional representation of others Erick Erickson
8 stages Infancy Toddler Pre-school Elementary school Adolescence Young Adult Mid Adult Late Adult Stage 1 INFANCY Trust vs. Mistrust 1st Year Stage 2 TODDLER Autonomy vs. Shame/Doubt 2nd Year Stage 3
Initiative vs. Guilt Learns to initiate tasks and deals with self control Stage 4 Elementary School Competence vs. Inferiority Learns how to make it in the world 6 yr - puberty Stage 5 Adolescence Identity vs. Role Confusion People who did not deal w/this issue would have identity confusion Teen yrs. 20's Stage 6 Young Adult Intimacy vs. Isolation 20's 40's Stage 7 Mid-Adult Generativity Stagnation vs. To feel that you made a contribution in the world 60's 40's Stage 8 Late Adult Integrity vs. Despair 60's - on Joan Erickson (1997): in her 90's
9th stage :Disgust: Wisdom 80's and 90's: can move towards gero-transcendence: shift from a materialistic & rational vision to peace of mind & spirituality PIAGET First person to have the most thorough theory of how thinking evolves CONCEPTS
Schema : a concept or framework that organizes & interprets information Assimilate : maintain schema Accommodate : change schema 1. Sensorimotor: Birth 2 Years Infant Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development experiences the world through senses & actions (looking, touching) Object permanence (9 mo) Stranger anxiety Piaget's Stages: 2. Preoperational
2-6 Years Child represents things with words & images, but cannot use logic. Ability to pretend Preoperational Stage Cannot reverse information Egocentric Cannot understand negative instructions Animism acting as though nature was alive Preoperational Stage (cont'd) Artificialism: natural phenomenon are created by humans Realism Trouble with cause & effect Concrete Operational 7-12 Years Child thinks logically about concrete events can grasp concrete analogies Concrete Operational (cont'd) Conservation Mathematics Formal Operational Teen years Teenager discovers abstract reasoning Scientific reasoning, potential for moral reasoning Vygotsky
Development comes from: interaction between parent & child Scaffolding Harris Our friends have more influence on who we become & how we think than primary caregivers Kohlberg Moral Thinking Pre-Conventional Conventional Morality Morality Morality Post-Conventional Pre-Conventional Morality Infancy Avoid Gain Age 9 Punishment Rewards Conventional Morality Adolescence Gain approval, avoid disapproval Do duty to society, avoid dishonor or guilt Post-Conventional Morality 20 yr old or older Affirms agreed upon rights Universal ethics even if it conflicts with society's rules 3 Styles of Discipline Authoritarian Parenting Authoritative Parenting Permissive Parenting 2 important variables Control Warmth Authoritarian Parenting A style of parenting that combines: high levels of control low levels of warmth Authoritative Parenting (firm control) moderate control Warmth have highest levels of: self-esteem self control the most competent. Permissive Parenting: A No control NO warmth Permissive Parenting: B No control Warmth FEMALE MALE Sexual Development Normal chromosome arrangement XX = female XY = male Turner's Syndrome: female X0
Infertile Won't develop properly without estrogen Short & immature in appearance Above average intelligence. Klinefelter Syndrome: male XXY
very tall, long arms & legs, some develop breast Unusually high pitched voice Little beard growth Sterile Double Y Syndrome: male XYY Correlated with IQ impairment XXX abnormality: female XXX 1 in 500-1000 females average height problems with language development Problem with motor development GENDER:Definitions 1. Biological sex dictates gender 2. Gender--the social definition of male & female 3. Gender Identity one's sense of male or female 4. Gender Roles the expected behaviors for males & females 5. Gender-Typing
the acquisition of masculine or feminine gender identity & roles Theories of Gender Typing Freud's Social Gender Identification Theory Learning Theory Developmental Theory Cognitive Gender Schema Theory Freud's Theory
Gender Identification Theory Sexual Anxiety identifying with the same sex parent Social Learning Theory Rewards & punishments observance & imitation of models (parents) Rewarded when imitation is correct, punished when wrong Cognitive Developmental Theory Child's struggle to comprehend the self & world concept of gender imitation of same sex models is rewarding Gender Schema Theory Cultural emphasis on gender Gender schema looking at self & world through a gender "lens" Gender Schema Theory gender gender organized thinking organized behavior Bem FEMALE Considerate Forgiving Sensitive Emotional Compassionate Warmth Expressive MALE Assertive Active Objective Rational Aggressive Confident Androgyny Possession of desirable psychological traits traditionally associated with both men & women Males and Females
Are Equal in Intelligence Sex Differences Preference Females verbal abilities Males spatial abilities Males math abilities Biological Males More physically aggressive (biologically based) Adolesence :Puberty a period of rapid skeletal & sexual maturation that occurs mainly in adolescence Testosterone Hormone associated with: Development of genitals Increased height Change in voice in boys Increases 18 fold in males, 2 fold in females Estradiol: Hormone associated with: Breast development Uterine development Skeletal development Estradiol (cont'd) Increases 8 fold in females, 2 fold in males 1900 average age for 1st period 14.2 1991 average 12.5 due to higher standard of living, better diet, vitamins, working out, etc. Adolescence is a time of... Evaluation Decision making Commitment Early Adolescence Highly idealistic Egocentric They think others are as preoccupied w/adolescent as they are w/themselves Unique Indestructible Otto Rank Wanted to know who becomes the most creative person in their field Otto Rank (cont'd) 100% Comply Gives in because they don't want conflict Least creative No anxiety, but no creativity (cont'd) Otto Rank 50-50% - Highest level of anxiety more creative then former group Otto Rank (cont'd) 100% Assert own preference (with or without parents approval) Wind up being most creative in their field Early Adulthood
Levinson--4 Levinson tasks for early adulthood Levinson's Tasks
1. Define your dream of adult accomplishment 2. Find a mentor
Mixture & friend of parent Boss, older student, teacher who is living your dream Someone 3. Develop a vocation 4. Open up to new intimate relationships Marriage Children The best predictor of a couple's marital satisfaction is the: ratio of their positive to negative interactions with each other Mid Life Generativity Marital vs Stagnation Satisfaction Empty Nest Midlife Crisis? Menapause, Male Menapause?? Integrity vs Despair Happiest Health Spiritual Friends married old people: Thing to Remember...
"Use it or lose it." with age, people who do not use their minds, bodies, etc. will lose them 2 Types Intelligence Crystallized Intelligence Increases with age Fluid Intelligence Decreases with age Recognition Stays the same w/old age Recall Decreases w/age Staying active promotes better mental functioning ex: rats in stimulating environment had more brain connections than those that did not DEATH
Kubler-Ross's 5 Stages KublerRoss's Stages Stage1 Denial of the terminal condition KublerRoss's Stages (cont'd) Stage 2 Anger & resentment (why me?) KublerRoss's Stages (cont'd) Stage 3 Bargaining w/God (or physicians) for more time KublerRoss's Stages (cont'd) Stage 4 Depression stemming from the impending loss of everything & everyone KublerRoss's Stages (cont'd) Stage 5 Peaceful acceptance of one's fate Not everyone gets to the last stage The best predictor of a couple's marital satisfaction is the: A. frequency of their sexual intimacy. B. intensity of their passionate feelings. C. ratio of their positive to negative interactions with each other. D. experience or non-experience of a prior marriage ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/27/2012 for the course PSY 120 taught by Professor Donnely during the Fall '08 term at Purdue University-West Lafayette.
- Fall '08