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review.exam.outline - Review for Exam 1 Zeitgeist= Spirit...

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Unformatted text preview: Review for Exam 1 Zeitgeist= Spirit of the times Plato: Nature knowledge is present at birth Aristotle: NURTURE Mind is like a blank slate EXPERIENCE does writing Dark Ages (1st major decline within) St. Thomas Aquinas Accepted both reason & faith as a way of knowing God Phineas Gage 1st school of PSYCHOLOGY 1879 Wundt Structuralism science of mental life (2nd major decline within Structuralism) Perky imageless thought controversy (3rd major decline within Behaviorism) Skinner Brelands instinctive drift overrides reinforcement biology What is the cognitive revolution? What is the proper attitude of a psychologist? Open mindedness Skepticism Humility What is the Scientific Method? Observe Detect regularities hypothesis Generate Observe again What is a Hypothesis? An educated guess testable prediction hunch A A Descriptive Statistics Mean Average Mode Most frequent score Median Middle point (half below, half above) Variability How much scores differ from each other Range Difference between the highest and the lowest Standard Deviation How much scores differ from the mean Correlation Coefficiants Vary from +1.00 to -1.00 0 (Zero) = No Relationship = Positive relationship = Negative relationship +1 -1 2 Conditions Experimental Condition : The condition that exposes subjects to the independent variable (violent TV) Control Condition A condition identical to the experimental one except that subjects are not exposed to the independent variable Equal length non-violent TV (sports) Dependant Variable Measured in both conditions NEUROSCIENCE: Understanding Brain & its Relation to Behavior Serotonin: affects mood (depression), hunger (eating disorders), sleep (dreaming), arousal (OCD) 3 Neurotransmitters implicate in cocaine, love, depression Dopamine: linked to emotion, high levels in schizophrenia, intense pleasure, low levels linked to Parkinson's disease alertness & arousal (low levels depress mood) Norepinephrine: Other neurotransmitters Acetylcholine: linked learning, memory (Alzheimer's) GABA: low levels linked to anxiety, seizures, tremors, insomnia Endorphins: morphine within, "chemical painkillers" Glutamate: involved in memory (high levels migraines and seizures) Stages of Brain Evolution 1. Brain Stem= Survival (Hind Brain) 2. Limbic System= Emotion +Memory (Mid brain) 3.Cerebral Cortex = Information Processing, Foresight (Forebrain) Brain Stem consists of 1. Medulla Cerebellum (pons) Reticular Formation 2. Thalamus Limbic System (Midbrain) Emotion Motivation Memory Limbic System (cont'd) Amygdala aggression fear Limbic System cont' Nucleus Accumbens pleasure center Endocrine system Limbic System (cont'd) Hypothalamus Controls endocrine system Hunger & thirst Sex behavior **sleep **body temperature **movement Corpus callosum genotype phenotype Physical Behavioral Psychological features that are the result of the interaction between one's genes and the environment Zygote, embryo, fetus Teratogens Agents such as chemicals or viruses that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm Emotional Development:Surrogate mothers baby attached to cuddly mother and then leaned over to wire mother for feeding Attachment: Ainsworth Secure Insecure Avoidant Resistant Erickson stages CONCEPTS Schema Simple ideas about how the world works Assimilate (maintain schema) Accommodate (change schema) Piaget's Stages (cont'd) 2-6 Years Preoperational Phase Child represents things w/words & images, but cannot connect w/logic. Ability to pretend, experimentation Piaget Object permanence Stranger anxiety conservation Kohlberg Moral Thinking Pre-Conventional Conventional Morality Morality Morality Post-Conventional 3 Styles of Discipline Authoritarian Parenting Authoritative Parenting Permissive Parenting Warmth control Puberty a period of rapid skeletal & sexual maturation that occurs mainly in adolescence Otto Rank Wanted to know who becomes the most creative person in their field Klinefelter Syndrome XXY very tall, long arms & legs, some develop breast Unusually high pitched voice Little beard growth Sterile 1. 2. Biological sex dictates gender Gender--the social definition of male & female Gender Identity one's sense of male or female gender typing 3. 4. Theories of Gender Typing Freud's Social Gender Identification Theory Learning Theory Developmental Theory Cognitive Gender Schema Theory Psychological Androgyny Possession of desirable psychological traits traditionally associated with both men & women DEATH Kubler-Ross's 5 Stages Marriage satisfaction Ration of their positive to negative interactions with each other Levinson 1. Define your dream of adult accomplishment 2. Find a mentor mixture of parent & friend Boss, older student, teacher Someone who is living your dream. 3. Develop a vocation 4. Open up to new intimate relationships Personality Freud Defense mechanisms Self psychology 5 concepts ...
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