REVIEW.final_A - FINAL EXAM Friday:20 12:20 STEW 183 Social...

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Unformatted text preview: FINAL EXAM Friday, December 19, 10:20 - 12:20, STEW 183 Social Psychology 14 q's First Lesson of Social Psychology behavior is powerfully influenced by the SITUATION Our Fundamental Attribution Error The observer Underestimates the effect of the situation And Overestimates inner disposition of the actor Just World Phenomenon An attribution error where the assumption is made that the world is just Blames the victim Bad things happen to bad people Good things happen to good people Suggestibility: Copycat Behavior High School Shootings suicide Group Informational Social Influence (`good' conformity) Sherif (1937): Autokinetic Effect A stationary dot of light Gave the illusion of movement Subjects had to guess how many inches it was moving Three Participants Normative Social Influence Bad conformity: conform even when you know it's wrong to get along! Conform Group Think Group Think = conformity because we want harmony within the group Group Pressure Conformity: Asch 1955 The group is composed of researcher: all lie 1 person, subject, is out of the loop Need to match the standard (C was answer) 8th trial--all said it was "A" Asch continued Asch discovered: People would rather be liked then to be right! Milgram's Experiment Interested in Hitler & how he was able to get his soldiers to commit such horrible acts was there something about being German? Milgram's Experiment (cont'd) 65% of adult males fully complied w/experimenter's commands to continue despite hearing cries of protest after 330 volts Milgram's Experiment (cont'd) Fundamental Even Lesson ordinary people who are not usually hostile can become agents of destruction Who's responsible?? (can't say it's insanity) Subjects were deceived: Role of the learner Amount of shock Purpose of the research Cognitive Dissonance The Tension produced when people act in a way that is inconsistent with their attitudes is reduced by changing attitude Tension Leon Festinger: Cognitive Dissonance Prior to Festinger the belief was: Attitude first Behavior follows NOW Behavior first Attitude follows Foot in the Door Phenomenon Foot in the Door = once a person has granted a small request .....they are more likely to comply with a larger one Foot in the Door Phenomenon (cont'd) Jim Jones used foot in door Sent out flyers 1st-- free dinners And babysitting LowBall Technique 1. Induce a person to agree to do something Raise cost of compliance after the commitment to behavior has been made 2. Door in the Face Phenomenon Under certain circumstances, a person who has refused to comply with a large request..... may be more likely to comply with a 2nd smaller request 2nd Main Lesson of Social Psychology We construct the social reality all around us SelfFulfilling Prophecy The process in which a person's expectation about another person elicits behavior from that person that confirms the expectation SelfFulfilling Prophecy (cont'd) Teacher told Class #1: You SHOULD be neat #2 Class You ARE neat Cooley's "Looking Glass Self": the power of social constructions Prejudice: An unjustifiable attitude toward a group or its members It is interplay of: Social Emotional Cognitive factors Social: Rationalized inequalities Eye of Storm: prejudice & discrimination are learned attitudes, which is the key to their elimination Once prejudice is established, the inertia of conformity helps to maintain it EmotionalFactors Scapegoat Drain anger from frustration self- Boosts Cognitive Factors Schema is the way we process information By characterizing people by groups they belong to, or by noticing & remembering vivid cases we create stereotypes Altruism Acting in a way that shows unselfish concern for the welfare of others Help for no reason Help even if don't know person Bystander Effect Reluctance Kitty to come to the aid of a person in need when others are present Genivese Bystander Effect (cont'd) Diffusion Idea of Responsibility that when we think others are present, our sense of responsibility decreases Why should I do it? There are so many other people 3 Theories of Altruism Social Social Exchange Norms Evolution When do we help? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Just observed someone else being helpful (copycat behavior) Not in a hurry Recipient is similar to us (we identify w/that person) Recipient appears to need & deserve help Feeling guilty (restore self image) Not self-preoccupied (not being egocentric) Most altruistic when in a good mood (weather) Deindividuation Loss of individuality or depersonalization (self awareness) that comes form being in a group Bank robbers hide face Tortures torture more when wearing mask Identity as a group (lose individuality) LOVE Proximity Geographical nearness Mere exposure effect #1 predictor for developing relationships Emotions Conditioning Music effects can have an effect Affiliation (traits) Extrovert--high Extrovert affiliation for other people Introvert--low affiliation for other people Introvert **Need to be aware of partner's affiliation style Attractiveness Halo effect: unfair advantage of attractive Matching Hypothesis: All things being equal, you tend to marry someone who is similar in level of attractiveness Similarity: Social Validation Do birds of a feather flock together? do opposites attract? Or Social Validation When it comes to: Values Attitudes Beliefs be birds of a feather When it comes to more superficial things-- opposites can be complementary Reciprocal Judgment We like those who like us Equity A condition in which what people receive from a relationship is proportional to what they contribute to it Complementary Schismogenesis Complementary Schismogenesis = just let person be & come to you when they are ready The more you push, the more the other pulls away Falling in Love 3 things needed to fall in love: Culture Appropriate person 2-factor theory of emotion Falling in Love (cont'd) 1. Culture to be raised in a culture that teaches it to their young Need Falling in Love (cont'd) 2. Appropriate Person presence of someone you find attractive Need Falling in Love (cont'd) 2-Factor Theory of Emotion Attributing an arousal to the emotion of love Emotions are diffuse, physiological arousals Breaking Up #1 factor that causes break-ups: things that contributed to initial friendship go away ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/27/2012 for the course PSY 120 taught by Professor Donnely during the Fall '08 term at Purdue.

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