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Unformatted text preview: Sensation (4) & Perception (5) Sensation vs. Perception Blurry baseball coming at you?? SENSATION Once you realize the blob is a baseball?? PERCEPTION Definitions
Sensation = process by which stimulus energies are detected & encoded = processes used to arrive at a meaningful interpretation of sensations/organization of sensations Perception Subliminal Messages Messages presented below the absolute threshold for awareness Can influence, but never control behavior Sensory Adaptation Sensory Adaptation = diminished sensitivity to a prolonged unchanged stimulus Photoreceptor Cells Cones Color sensitive Concentrated around fovea (the central focus on the retina) Photoreceptor Cells (cont'd) Rods Color blind Predominate in the periphery The eye is not a camera! Visual Capture Vision dominates over other senses Perception Perceptual Direct Organization (Gibson) Constructivist Perceptual Set Perceptual set can be influenced by context & culture Younger people tend to see younger woman Older people tend to see older person Depth Perception Monocular Only Cues Binocular Use Cues use 1 eye of 2 eyes Monocular Cues Relative If Size we assume 2 objects are similar size, we perceive the one that casts the smaller image as farther away Monocular Cues (cont'd) Overlap When 1 object is partially covered by another, we perceive it as farther away Monocular Cues (cont'd) Linear We perspective/distance perceive the convergence of what we know to be parallel lines as indicating increased distance Monocular Cues (cont'd) Texture We Gradient perceive a gradual but continuous change from a coarser, more distinct, to a finer, less distinct textural element as indicating increasing distance Seeing things that are not there Binocular Cues Retinal Disparity Refers to the somewhat different images our 2 eyes receive of the same object Binocular Cues (cont'd) Convergence Extent to which the eyes converge inward when looking at an object Gestalt Principles of Organization Proximity Near each other, we group together (ex: 2 people on a bus--perceived as a couple who get on & off at the same stop) Gestalt Principles of Organization Similarity If similar, we group together Gestalt Principles of Organization Closure If a figure has gaps, we complete it
Cube Necker Gestalt Principles of Organization Continuity We perceive smooth, continuous patterns, not discontinuous ones Perceptual Constancy Shape Constancy
of movement, shape is still the Regardless same Example: open vs. closed door Perceptual Constancy (cont'd) Color Constancy Color looks different in different lights, but is the same Perceptual Constancy (cont'd) Size Constancy Objects/people far away--still the same size, although look smaller Contrast Effect Although they are identical, the perceived lightness of the interior rectangle differs depending on their surroundings Consciousness (6) Altered States of Consciousness Stages of sleep Sleep disorders Dreams Daydreams Hypnosis Meditation Alcohol Psycho-active drugs Near death experience Sleep Stages Stage 0 = eyes closed, awake but alert Stage 1 = breathing slows, light sleep, Stage 2 = relax more deeply, easily awoken (~20min) Stage 3 = transition to deeper sleep Stage 4 = deep sleep (~30min) REM dream Sleep Disorders
Insomnia = a sleep disorder involving recurring problems in falling or staying asleep cure = relax & drink milk before bed Sleep Disorders (cont'd)
Narcolepsy = periodic uncontrollable attacks of overwhelming sleepiness suddenly lapse into REM sleep
Sleep Apnea = temporary
who are restless, smoking cessation of breathing while asleep People Sleep Disorders (cont'd) Night Terrors high arousal & an appearance of being terrified Unlike nightmares, night terrors occur during stage 4 sleep, w/in 2 3 hours of falling asleep Seldom remembered If someone says, "I don't dream," wake him/her after 5 minutes of REM Why do we dream??
4 theories Wish Fulfillment (Freud) Activation Synthesis Problem Solving Threat Simulation Freud: Dream Work Condensation Several things from a person's life condensed into 1 symbol about 1 thing symbolically related to anxiety provoking object, person, event Displacement Dream Latent: what dream really means Manifest: what you remember Activation Synthesis Dreaming is a consequence of random activity that occurs in the brain during REM sleep Brain creates a story to make sense of random signals Problem Solving Dreaming helps us focus on our current problems in order to find solutions Threat Simulation Dreaming evolved to help us practice the skills needed to avoid threats Daydreams: Singer 1. Prepare for future events 2. Playful, increases creativity Scientists, artists, writers 3. Substitutes for impulsive behavior According to Singer, studies of daydreaming indicate that: people tend to daydream about issues that are missing in their lives. daydreaming can be important to a child's social and cognitive development. people prone to violent behavior tend to have fewer vivid daydreams. Hypnosis Induced dissociation Temporary state of heightened suggestibility (in which some people) are able to narrow their focus of attention & experience imaginary happenings as if they were real----- Video clip: arms in ice water especially helpful w/pain reduction MEMORY (7) MEMORY is not a tape recorder!!! Memory Construction Loftus Memory Construction Reality monitoring (source memory confusion) Johnson Marcia Memory Construction SCREEN As memories We see ourselves in memory
if it is on TV See a good amount of details Flashbulb Memory
A clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event Very Vivid You detailed know exactly what you did Memory is... Bits of Veridical...relics form the past the Frontal Lobe (story teller) fills in the gaps Library Analogy of Memory ENCODE STORE RETRIEVAL Library Analogy of Memory ENCODE Books put on shelf Sensory Memory Shortest form of memory Iconic Memory
Brief memory of a large amount of VISUAL information (quarter of second) Echoic Memory Brief memory of auditory information
3.5 4 seconds Lasts Mnemonics Memory Aids that involve the use of vivid imagery or Clever ways of organizing the material Mnemonics (cont'd) Acrostic--a series of written lines in which the 1st, last, or other particular letters form a word phrase Roy G Biv `Every good boy does fine' Mnemonics (cont'd) Acronym--a SCUBA FBI IRS word formed from the initial letters of words in a phrase Storage Problems Amnesia Trauma DID in store: forgetting Repression Retrieval STM LTM
Procedural Memory Episodic Memory Semantic Memory Memory Systems (cont'd) Long Term Memory (LTM)--memory system used to maintain information for long periods of time Retrieval Context Dependent Memory--memory depends on certain situation or environment Dependent Memory--memory dependent on mood or mental state State De ja vu' ???? ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/27/2012 for the course PSY 120 taught by Professor Donnely during the Fall '08 term at Purdue.
- Fall '08