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Unformatted text preview: Extra credit: 10% points to one exam (76%+10%= 86%) Make an observation of people somewhere and then generate a hypothesis about a pattern of behavior In a 5 page paper explore the above question by following the steps described next: 1. Go to google or google scholar and look at a few articles (or find information) that discusses your topic. Summarize, in your own words what you have read and then articulate the specific hypothesis. (1/2 page) (like a funnel). 2. create a survey (5-10 questions) that asks questions about your topic. 1.......2.......3......4......5.........6.........7 Agree Disagree 3. Your subject pool should include at least 10 participants. describe your results. 4. 5. Discussion: here is where based on your results you get to speculate about what the results might mean can mention the literature and also put in your own opinion here. You Social Psychology First Lesson of Social Psychology behavior is powerfully influenced by the SITUATION Our Fundamental Attribution Error The observer Underestimates the effect of the situation And Overestimates inner disposition of the actor Just World Phenomenon An attribution ERROR where the assumption is made that the world is just Blames Bad the victim things happen to bad people things happen to good people Good Suggestibility: Copycat Behavior School Group Shootings suicide Informational Social Influence (`good' conformity) Sherif (1937): Autokinetic Effect A stationary dot of light
the illusion of movement Gave Subjects had to guess how many inches it was moving Three Participants Sherif (cont'd) Day 1: great discrepancy Day 2: came closer together Day 3: even closer Day 4: exactly the same Normative Social Influence
Bad conformity: conform even when you know it's wrong Group Think Group Think = conformity because we want harmony within the group Group Pressure Conformity: Asch 1955 The group is composed of researchers: all lie person, subject, is out of the loop Need 1 to match the standard (C was answer) 8th trial--all said it was "A" Asch continued Asch discovered: People would rather be liked then to be right! Conditions that Strengthen Conformity
1. We are made to feel incompetent or insecure Conditions that Strengthen Conformity 2. Group has at least 3 people increase to group size yields smaller increases in conformity) (further Conditions that Strengthen Conformity 3.Group is unanimous (the support of a single fellow dissident greatly increases our social courage) Conditions that Strengthen Conformity 4. We admire the group's status & attractiveness Conditions that Strengthen Conformity 5. We have made no prior commitment to any response Conditions that Strengthen Conformity
6. Our Behavior will be observed by others in the group Conditions that Strengthen Conformity (cont'd) We have been socialized by a culture that strongly encourages respect for social standards Milgram's Experiment Interested in Hitler & how he was able to get his soldiers to commit such horrible acts was there something about being German? Milgram's Experiment (cont'd) Will pay $4 for participation in memory expt. Role of teacher Student Electric shocks Milgram's Experiment (cont'd) For every time student gets words wrong, we want you to up the voltage Student: screamed Researcher: "It is imperative that you continue." Teacher cont'd to shock the apparent `dead person' Milgram's Experiment (cont'd) 65% of adult males fully complied with experimenter's commands to continue despite hearing cries of protest after 330 volts Milgram's Experiment (cont'd) Distance: manipulated how close: `teacher' was to `student' `researcher' was to `teacher' Participants deceived about: Purpose of experiment of other subject amount of Role Actual shock Milgram's Experiment (cont'd) Fundamental Even Lesson ordinary people who are not usually hostile can become agents of destruction Who's responsible?? (can't say it's insanity) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y6GxIuljT3w Cognitive Dissonance In Miglarm's experiment, the teacher gave: insults to victim Nasty He's a jerk! He deserved it! Why? Action first; attitude second Leon Festinger: Cognitive Dissonance
Prior to Festinger the belief was: Attitude first Behavior follows NOW Behavior first Attitude follows Cognitive Dissonance The Tension produced when people act in a way that is inconsistent with their attitudes is reduced by changing attitude Tension Cognitive dissonance cont'
We want harmony between what we believe & what we do get Attitudes shifted to support what we do Festinger's bottom line about Cognitive Dissonance: come to value & appreciate those things we have to suffer for We Foot in the Door Phenomenon
Once a person has granted a small request .....they are more likely to comply with a larger one Foot in the Door Phenomenon (cont'd) Jim Jones used foot in door Sent out flyers 1st-- free dinners And babysitting LowBall Technique 1. Induce a person to agree to do something Raise cost of compliance after the commitment to behavior has been made 2. Door in the Face Phenomenon Under certain circumstances, a person who has refused to comply with a large request..... may be more likely to comply with a 2nd smaller request 2nd Main Lesson of Social Psychology
We construct the social reality all around us SelfFulfilling Prophecy
The process in which a person's expectation about another person... elicits behavior from that person that confirms the expectation SelfFulfilling Prophecy (cont'd) Teacher told Class #1: You SHOULD be neat told Class #2: Teacher You ARE neat Cooley's "Looking Glass Self": the power of social constructions Prejudice: An unjustifiable attitude toward a group or its members It is interplay of: Social Emotional Cognitive factors Social: Rationalized inequalities Eye of Storm: prejudice & discrimination are learned attitudes, which is the key to their elimination Once prejudice is established, the inertia of conformity helps to maintain it Emotional Factors
Scapegoat Drain anger from frustration self- Boosts Cognitive Factors
Schema is the way we process information By characterizing people by groups they belong to, or by noticing & remembering vivid cases we create stereotypes Altruism Acting in a way that shows unselfish concern for the welfare of others Help for no reason Help even if don't know person Bystander Effect Reluctance Kitty to come to the aid of a person in need when others are present
Genivese Bystander Effect (cont'd)
Diffusion Idea of Responsibility that when we think others are present, our sense of responsibility decreases Why should I do it? There are so many other people 3 Theories of Altruism
Social Social Exchange Norms Evolution 3 Theories of Altruism (cont'd) Social Exchange Theory Maximize Minimize our rewards the costs 3 Theories of Altruism (cont'd) Social Norms Theory Reciprocating the help we receive toward those in need we were in need, we'd expect help from them as well Responsible If 3 Theories of Altruism (cont'd) Evolution Genetic predisposition to preserve our own genes through devotion to kin When do we help?
1. Just observed someone else being helpful
(copycat behavior) 2. Not in a hurry 3. Recipient is similar to us
(we identify with that person) 4. Recipient appears to need & deserve help 5.Feeling guilty (restore self image) 6. Not self-preoccupied (not being
egocentric) 7.Most altruistic when in a good mood Question? If you could.... do *ANYTHING* humanly possible with the complete & absolute assurance that you would *NOT*: get caught or found out Or be held responsible in any way what is it that you would do? Deindividuation Loss of individuality or depersonalization (self awareness) that comes form being in a group If your name is not known, more likely to say what you want http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P60-8mtBvv When do we tend to be altruistic? A. when in a good mood B. when in a bad mood C. When times are mixed D, all of the above In some rape cases, prosecutors describe the victim as partly to blame and evil. It is as if they believe they must have deserved the abuse. This best illustrates _____________. A. the social inequality theory B. the hindsight bias C. the just-world phenomenon D. the fundamental attribution error E. the scapegoat theory ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/27/2012 for the course PSY 120 taught by Professor Donnely during the Fall '08 term at Purdue University-West Lafayette.
- Fall '08