5. Atlantic Revolutions and their Echoes

5. Atlantic Revolutions and their Echoes - Atlantic...

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9/19/2011 1 Atlantic Revolutions and their Echoes 1750-1914 Objectives Explore the diversity of Atlantic revolutions in the 18 th and 19 th centuries Explore the cross-pollination between revolutionary movements Investigate the real impact of the Atlantic revolutions Consider the broader long-term implications of the revolutionary movements for sweeping social change. Key Terms Declaration of the Rights of Man Estates General French Revolution Haitian Revolution Hidalgo-Morelos Rebellion Abolitionist movement Gens de couleur libres Haitian Revolution Latin American revolutions Louverture, Toussaint Napoleon Bonaparte North American Revolution The Terror Louverture, Toussaint Napoleon Bonaparte Nation Nationalism Stanton, Elizabeth Cady
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9/19/2011 2 Outline I. Popular Sovereignty and Political Upheaval A. Enlightened and Revolutionary Ideas B. American Revolution C. French Revolution D. The Reign of Napoleon II. The Influence of Revolution A. The Haitian Revolution B. Wars of Independence in Latin America C. Testing the limits of Revolutionary Ideals: Slavery D. Testing the Limits of Revolutionary Ideals: Women’s Rights III. The Consolidation of National States in Europe A. Nations and Nationalism B. The Emergence of National Communities C. The Unifications of Italy and Germany I. Popular Sovereignty and Political Upheaval Discussion: - What were the characteristics of the pre- revolutionary (old regime) western governments? A. Enlightened and Revolutionary Ideas
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9/19/2011 3 Popular Sovereignty Popular sovereignty : notion that legitimate political authority resides not in kings but, rather, in the people who make up a society. Philosophes rarely challenged monarchy as a political model. They sought to make kings responsible to the people they governed They regarded government as the result of a contract between rulers and ruled . John Locke (1632-1704) Second Treatise of Civil Government (1690) Individual Freedom Voltaire (1694-1778) resented the persecution of religious minorities and the censorship of royal officials. Philosophes called for religious toleration and freedom to express their views openly Role of printing
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9/19/2011 4 Political and Legal Equality Philosophes condemned the legal and social privileges enjoyed by aristocrats Rousseau (1712-1778) recommended the creation of a society in which all individuals would be equal before the law ( The Social Contract , 1762). B. American Revolution By 1750, no sign of revolution Tightened British Control of the Colonies Financial difficulties for the British Crown who passed legislation to levy new taxes 1764: Sugar Act 1765: Stamp Act, Quartering Act 1767: Townshend Act 1773: Tea Act
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9/19/2011 5 “No taxation without representation” The Declaration of Independence July 4 th , 1776: Continental Congress adopted “the unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America” Inspired from Enlightenment political thought.
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