6. Revolutions of Industrialization in Europe

6. Revolutions of Industrialization in Europe - 9/26/2011...

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9/26/2011 1 Revolutions of Industrialization in Europe 1750 - 1914 Objectives Explore the causes and consequences of the Industrial Revolution Examine the question of why industrialization first took off in Great Britain Root Europe’s Industrial Revolution in a global context Examine some of the ways in which nineteenth- century industrial powers exerted an economic imperialism over their non-industrialized neighbors Key Terms Bourgeoisie Proletariat Marx, Karl Socialism Owens, Robert Russian revolution of 1905 Guano Progressivism Steam engine Middle-class values Demographic transition Zaibatsu Transportation and industry International division of labor.
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9/26/2011 2 Outline I. Patterns of Industrialization A. Foundations of Industrialization B. Early Spread of Industrialization II. Industrial Society A. The Fruits of Industry B. Urbanization and Migration C. Industry and Society D. Socialist Challenge III. Global Effects of Industrialization A. The Continuing Spread of Industrialization B. The International Division of Labor I. Patterns of Industrialization Industrialization : process that transformed agrarian and handicraft-centered economies into economies distinguished by industry and machine manufacture. A. Foundations of Industrializations
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9/26/2011 3 Why Britain? Coal Why Britain? Colonies Why Britain? Calicoes
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9/26/2011 4 Mechanization of the Cotton Industry 1733: flying shuttle (device speeded up the weaving process and stimulated demand for thread) 1785: water-driven power loom (mechanical weaving) 1830: ½ M people worked in the cotton business, Britain’s leading industry, 40% of exports. Watt’s steam engine (1765) Most crucial breakthrough
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9/26/2011 5 Steam Power 1765: James Watt (instrument maker at the University of Glasgow in Scotland) Steam engines burned coal to boil water and create steam, which drove mechanical devices that performed work. 1800: > 1,000 of Watt’s steam engines were in use in the British isles. Iron and Steel After 1709: British smelters began to use coke (a purified form of coal) rather than charcoal Coke made it possible for producers to build bigger blast furnaces and turn out larger lots of iron. British iron production skyrocketed during the 18 th century. Iron became common in bridges, buildings and ships. 19 th century was an age of steel rather than iron. Steel is much harder, stronger and more resilient than iron. 1856: Bessemer converter made possible to produce steel cheaply and in large quantities.
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9/26/2011 6 Transportation 1815: first steam-powered locomotive. 1829: Rocket reached a speed of 28 miles/hour, but it burned too much coal for use at sea. Sailing ships remained the most effective means
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This note was uploaded on 02/27/2012 for the course HIST 105 taught by Professor Michaelg.smith during the Fall '08 term at Purdue University-West Lafayette.

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6. Revolutions of Industrialization in Europe - 9/26/2011...

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