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7. Crisis and Modernity in Asia and in the Ottoman Empire

7. Crisis and Modernity in Asia and in the Ottoman Empire -...

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9/30/2011 1 Crisis and Modernity in Asia 1800-1914 Objectives Examine the refocusing of racism in the nineteenth-century West. List the effects of Western dominance on the empires of Asia Explore the reasons behind the collapse of the Chinese empire Investigate the reasons for Japan’s rise to its position as an industrial superpower and to compare Japan’s experience with that of China. Key Terms Opium Wars Meiji Restoration Unequal Treaties Cohong Boxer Rebellion Informal empire Self-strengthening movement Meiji Restoration Taiping Uprising Tokugawa Shogunate
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9/30/2011 2 Outline I. The Chinese Empire under Siege A. The Opium War and the Unequal Treaties B. The Taiping Rebellion C. Reform Frustrated II. The Transformation of Japan A. From Tokugawa to Meiji B. Meiji Reforms I. The Chinese Empire under Siege A. The Opium War(s) and the Unequal Treaties 1759: the Qianlong emperor enforced the cohong system specific licensed Chinese firms (called Cohong) set prices strict supervision of the government How inconvenient was it to European merchants?
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9/30/2011 3 The Opium Trade Britain sought alternatives to bullion to exchange for Chinese goods. The Opium Trade Opium trade expanded rapidly: Early 19 th cent: 4,500 chests (600,000 lbs)/ year 1839: 40,000 chests (5,3 M lbs)/ year At first, Chinese authorities were inefficient in enforcing the law. 1838: Chinese campaign against the trade and drug problem
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9/30/2011 4 Lin Zexu (1837-1901) 1839: Lin Zexu confiscated and destroyed some 20,000 chests of opium. Primary documents: The Opium War 1. What were Lin’s objections to the Opium trade? What were his demands? 2. How does Palmerston’s letter differ from Lin’s? 3. Was there any basis for compromise between the two countries?
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9/30/2011 5 The Opium War (1839-1842) Outraged by the Chinese action, British commercial agents pressed their government into a military retaliation British naval vessels demonstrated their superiority on the seas. Chinese defenders were no match for the controlled firepower of well-drilled British infantry But neither of those persuaded the Chinese to sue for peace. May 1842: British Armada on the Yangzi River Unequal Treaties Series of pacts which curtailed China’s sovereignty Treaty of Nanjing (1842): ceded Hong Kong Island in perpetuity to Britain Opened five Chinese ports to commerce and residence Compelled the government to extend most- favored-nation to Britain Granted extraterritoriality to British subjects
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9/30/2011 6 Treaty of Nanjing (1842) Unequal Treaties Collectively these treaties: Broadened the concessions given to foreign powers Legalized the opium trade Permitted the establishment of Christians missions Opened additional treaty ports Released Korea, Vietnam and Burma (Myanmar) from Chinese authority.
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