9. Collapse of Europe and Democracy Handout

9. Collapse of Europe and Democracy Handout - HIST 105...

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HIST 105 Spring 09 10/31/2011 1 First World War (1914-1918) Consider the repercussions of nationalism and colonialism in Europe and Japan Examine how the European conflict developed into a global war Consider how the First World War was a turning point in the worldwide distribution of power Consider in what ways the post-WWI peace settlement could fail Total War Treaty of Versailles Alliance system War of attrition Home Front League of Nations Self-Determination
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HIST 105 Spring 09 10/31/2011 2 I. The Drift toward War a. Nationalist Aspirations b. National Rivalries c. Understandings and Alliances II. Global War a. The Guns of August b. Mutual Butchery c. Total War: The Home Front d. Conflict in East Asia and the Pacific e. Battles in Africa and Southwest Asia III. The End of the War a. U.S. Intervention and Collapse of the Central Powers b. After the War c. Challenges to European Preeminence Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria (28 June 1914) Self-determination : idea that peoples with the same ethnic origins, language, and political ideals had the right to form sovereign states. Combination of powerful nationalistic movements, revolutions, and wars: 1830: independence of Belgium from Netherlands 1861: Unification of Italy 1871: Unification of Germany
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HIST 105 Spring 09 10/31/2011 3 At the end of the 19 th century, the issue of nationalism remained unresolved in other areas of Europe: most notably in Eastern Europe and the Balkans Ottoman empire had controlled the Balkans since the 15 th century. 1829: Austria-Hungary annexed the Balkans and confronted the nationalist aspirations of Slavic peoples: Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, Serbs, Croats and Slovenes Most menacing and militant were the Serbs , who pressed for unification with the independent kingdom of Serbia Russia added fuel by promoting Pan- Slavism : a 19 th -century movement that stressed the ethnic and cultural kinship of the various Slav people of eastern and east central Europe and that sought to unite those peoples politically. Aggressive nationalism was manifest in economic competition and colonial conflicts , fueling dangerous rivalries among the major European powers 1870: Britain produced 32 % of the world’s total industrial output (Germany only 13 %) 1914: Britain and Germany produced 14 % each
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10/31/2011 4 It exacerbated tensions between Germany and Britain: they were convinced that naval power was imperative to secure trade routes and protect merchant shipping (on top of the military value) Race to build super battleships known as dreadnoughts . Rivalries during the modern imperialism: Britain and Russia faced off in Persia (modern-day Iran) and Afghanistan Britain and France in Siam (modern-day Thailand) and the Nile valley Britain and Germany in east and southwest Africa Germany and France in Morocco and west Africa. Competition with Germany was the most
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9. Collapse of Europe and Democracy Handout - HIST 105...

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