Carbohydrates notes

Carbohydrates notes - Carbohydrates: Simple Sugars and...

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Carbohydrates: Simple Sugars and Complex Carbohydrates Chapter 5 The Energy Nutrient Carbohydrates Sugars, starches, and fibers Major food sources: plants Produced during photosynthesis Two main carbohydrate types Simple (smaller) and complex (more starchy) Simple Sugars: Monosaccharides and Disaccharides Simple carbohydrates Monosaccharides Glucose Fructose (occur in nature by itself) Galactose Disaccharides Sucrose (glucose+fructose) Lactose (glucose+galactose) Maltose (glucose+glucose) Monosaccharides Glucose Is most abundant Also is called dextrose Gives food sweet flavor Provides energy to body cells Blood sugar Found in fruits, vegetables, honey Fructose Also called levulose or fruit sugar Tastes the sweetest Occurs naturally in fruits and vegetables Found in fruits, honey, and corn syrup Galactose Primary sugar in milk and dairy products Disaccharides: The Double Sugars Two monosaccharides linked together Sucrose, lactose, and maltose Sucrose: glucose + fructose “Table sugar” Made from sugar cane and sugar beets Listed as “sugar” on food labels Lactose: glucose + galactose “Milk sugar”
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Found in milk and milk products Maltose: glucose + glucose Product of starch breakdown Found in germinating cereal grains Complex Carbohydrates Chains of two or more sugar molecules Oligosaccharides Polysaccharides (long chains. Ex. starches) Structural differences Digestible or nondigestable Complex Carbohydrates Starch How plants store energy Found in grains, legumes, and tubers Long chains of glucose units Amylose—straight chains Amylopectin—branched chains Resistant starch Grains: wheat, rice, corn and oats Legumes: peas, beans, lentils Tubers: potatoes, yams, cassava Glycogen Body’s storage form of carbohydrate Provides glucose when blood glucose levels get low Highly branched chains of glucose units Most stored in our skeletal muscle and liver Carbohydrate “loading” Carbohydrate Loading Maximizing muscle and liver glycogen to enhance endurance
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This note was uploaded on 02/27/2012 for the course NSD 225 taught by Professor Short during the Spring '08 term at Syracuse.

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Carbohydrates notes - Carbohydrates: Simple Sugars and...

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