10-5 Forensics Notes

10-5 Forensics Notes - Serology-Blood "Out damned...

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Serology--Blood “Out damned spot! Out, I say Here’s the smell of the blood still, All the perfumed of Arabia will not Sweeten this little hand. Oh, Oh, Oh!” --William Shakespeare’s Lady Macbeth, in Macbeth
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Objectives At the end of this powerpoint and discussion, you should be able to: Define new terms related to Serology and Blood Pattern Evidence Identify forensic experts and their field of expertise Describe the fluid and cellular parts of blood Differentiate genotype from phenotype Explain the use of enzymes to differentiate blood Describe characteristics of blood droplets and conditions that will effect the bloodstain shape Describe the information that can be obtained from blood patterns Give class and individual characteristics of blood Describe characteristics and tests that can be used on seminal fluid Introduction Saint Louis University 2
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Serology Deals with the examination and analysis of body fluids . A forensic serologist will deal with a variety of body fluids including saliva, semen, urine and of course, blood. From 1950 to the late 1980’s, forensic serology was a most important part of lab procedures. With the development of DNA techniques, more time, money, and significance was placed in developing DNA labs. On the other hand with limited funds and time needed for DNA tests, most labs still use many of the basic serology testing procedures. Saint Louis University 3
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Properties of Blood Blood Volume- On average, accounts for 8 % of total body weight A 40 percent blood volume loss (exsangunation), internally or/and externally, is required to produce irreversible shock and death. A blood loss of 1.5 liters, internally or externally, is required to cause incapacitation. Saint Louis University 4
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Blood Characteristics Plasma--fluid portion of the blood (55%) Cells (45%) Erythrocytes (red)— responsible for oxygen distribution Leukocytes (white)— responsible for “cleaning” the system of foreign invaders Thrombocytes--platelets; tiny; responsible for blood clotting Saint Louis University 5
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Blood Terminology ABO blood groups--based on having an A, B, both or none of the factors on the red blood cell; analyze antigen to find Rh factor--may be present on the red blood cell; positive if present and negative if not Antigen--a substance that can stimulate the body to make antibodies. Certain antigens (proteins) found in the plasma of the red blood cell’s membrane account for blood type. Antibody– substance that reacts with an antigen Agglutination--clumping of red blood cells; will result if blood types with different antigens are mixed Saint Louis University 6
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Historical Perspective Of Blood Typing Around 1900, Karl Landsteiner discovered that there are four different kinds of human blood based on the presence or absence of specific antigens found on the surface of the red blood cells. In 1940, Landsteiner and Weiner reported the discovery of
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10-5 Forensics Notes - Serology-Blood "Out damned...

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