gw - 1 Ground Water I Source of Ground water Meteoric water...

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1 Ground Water I- Source of Ground water Meteoric water Amount of underground water: 60 times more than water in lakes and rivers. II- Definitions: Zones: (Fig. 1) Zone of aeration: Vadose zone Zone of intermittent saturation Capillary fringe Zone of permanent saturation (Phreatic zone) The water Table (Fig. 1) Perched water table (Fig. 2) Recharge III- Movement of ground water: A- Mode of movement (1) Infiltration: through the vadose zone (2) Percolation: through the phreatic zone down to the level of a local stream or valley (i.e. downslope). Gaining and losing streams (Figs. 3 & 4). B- Velocity of flow: Between 1.5 m/day and 1.5 m/month C- Factors controlling ground water velocity: i- Permeability of the rock ii- Structures of the area iii- Gradient of the water table IV- Rock types based on their ability to transport ground water: Aquifers Aquicludes V- Wells: A- Definitions Cone of depression (Fig. 5) Drawdown (Fig. 5)
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2 B- Types: 1- Ordinary wells (Figs. 5 & 6) 2- Artesian wells: Artesian wells are either flowing or non-flowing.
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