February 27_29_March_5 Vit-Min

February 27_29_March_5 Vit-Min - Vitamins and Minerals...

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Vitamins and Minerals February 27 & 29 and March 5
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Vitamins Organic compounds contain carbon many different structures from simple to complex Non-caloric
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Vitamins Essential Lack of vitamin leads to deficiency syndromes Cannot be synthesized in body (with exceptions) Example: Scurvy & vitamin C Needed in small amounts Milligrams (mg) 10 -3 grams Vitamin C - 60 mg Micrograms (ug) 10 -6 grams Vitamin B-12 - 2 ug
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Limited Synthesis of Vitamins Vitamin D Synthesized in the skin Requires sunlight & 7-dehydrocholesterol Niacin Requires tryptophan Depends on adequate protein status Vitamin K—from bacteria in our gut
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Classification of Vitamins Fat-soluble Vitamins A, D, E and K Absorbed like dietary fat, require bile Carried in blood using protein carriers Can be stored in body fat and mainly in liver
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Classification of Vitamins Fat Soluble Generally have greater body stores than water-soluble vitamins High likelihood of toxicity (A/D most toxic)
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Classification of Vitamins Water Soluble Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Pantothenic Acid , Vitamin B-6, Folate, Vitamin B-12, Biotin and Vitamin C Generally have lower body stores than fat-soluble vitamins Usually excreted in urine Low likelihood of toxicity
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Minerals Mineral elements are Inorganic do NOT contain carbon may contain an electrical charge Noncaloric
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Minerals Essential lack of mineral for prolonged time leads to deficiency syndromes Example: iron deficiency anemia Stored well in body, can be toxic at high levels
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Food vs. Supplements Vitamins and minerals absorbed best from food (bioavailability) Little risk of toxicity from food Other beneficial compounds in food (fiber, phytochemicals) Potential dangers of dietary supplements, lack of regulation Risks of overconsumption
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Bioavailability The amount of a nutrient in a food that is actually available for human use The amount that is absorbed and used Sometimes nutrients are more bioavailable in fortified forms (ex. folate)
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Factors Affecting Bioavailability Non-nutritive components of food Fiber - zinc, calcium, copper Phytate - zinc Oxalic acid - calcium Chemical form of the mineral Elemental versus complexed Example: heme iron versus non-heme iron
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Factors Affecting Bioavailability Mineral-mineral interactions Zinc & iron Copper & zinc Vitamin-mineral interaction Vitamin C & non-heme iron absorption
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Food Processing and Nutrient Content of Foods Some vitamins/minerals break down when exposed to oxygen so the fresher the better, also keep cold Cooking method can impact the nutrient content of foods Generally, cooking for shorter times in little water will help to maintain nutrient content (steam, microwave) Water soluble less stable than fat soluble
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Development and Detection of a Nutrient Deficiency Primary deficiency caused by
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This note was uploaded on 02/28/2012 for the course NFSC 100 taught by Professor Jackson during the Spring '09 term at Maryland.

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February 27_29_March_5 Vit-Min - Vitamins and Minerals...

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