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Unformatted text preview: Questions to Ponder Exam 1, Spring 2012 The science of Nutrition 1. What is the definition of nutrition? 2. Why is nutrition classified as a science? 3. What are the study designs that we discussed? What are the strengths and limitations of each? What type of study is considered the “gold standard” in terms of proving cause and effect? Food Labeling 1.
4. What information must be included on the label of all packaged foods? In what order are the ingredients listed on food labels? What information is found on the Nutrition Facts Panel? If the Nutrition Facts Panel on a box of macaroni and cheese states that there are 300 calories per serving of macaroni and cheese, and that there are 3 servings in the package, what is the total number of calories in the package? 5. What is the meaning of the Percent Daily Value listed on the Nutrition Facts Panel? How can a consumer utilize this information to make better food choices? 6. What is the definition of the following nutrient content claims: a. Fat free b. Low fat c. Reduced fat d. Low sodium; sodium free e. Low calorie; calorie free f. A good source 7. What are the three types of health claims allowed on food packages? Food Choices, Human Health 1.
6. What is the difference between hunger and appetite? What are some mechanisms that the body has to regulate hunger? What factors affect our appetite? Describe the four influences on food availability. What are the six classes of nutrients? How many calories per gram are there in carbohydrates, fat and protein? Which is the most concentrated source of calories? 7. If you consumed a meal containing 100 grams of carbohydrate, 25 grams of fat and 15 grams of protein, how many calories did you consume? 8. It is recommended that no more than 35% of your calories come from fat. If your calorie needs at 2200 kcal/day, how many grams of fat should you consume? 9. What is the difference between micronutrients and macronutrients? Which nutrients are micronutrients and which are macronutrients? 10. What are phytochemicals? 11. What are the characteristics of a nutritious diet? 12. What is meant by the term “nutrient density”? Nutrition Standards and Guidelines 1. What is the obesity trend in the US in the last 30 years? 2. What are the three tools for dietary guidance produced by the US government? What is the purpose of each? 3. What is the recommended macronutrient breakdown of the diet? 4. How much cholesteral should one consume each day? How much saturated fat? 5. What are some topics that are emphasized in the newest revision of the Dietary Guidelines? 6. What is MyPlate? What are some of the highlights? 7. Give examples of serving sizes for foods in each of the food categories. 8. What is the difference between a serving and a portion? 9. Define the following terms: DRI, RDA, EAL, UL, AI. 10. For what groups are the RDAs set? 11. Why is the RDA set high to meet the needs for nearly all healthy people in the US? Is it set high in all cases? Is it necessary to consume the RDA for a particular nutrient every day? Why or why not? Nutrition and Physiology 1. What is the basic unit of life? What is the function of the mitochondria, ribosomes, cell membranes, and other organells discussed in class? How do these structures interrelate with nutrition? 2. Why is nutrition an important factor in the function of the cardiovascular, skeletal and endocrine systems? 3. Digestion is a mechanical and chemical process. Describe the entire process of digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Include each organ, what enzymes are produced/released in or by that organ, how the enzymes function and what the end products are. After nutrients are absorbed through the cells of the brush border membrane, where do they go? 4. What are the auxiliary organs involved in digestion? 5. What is Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease? What causes it? How is it treated (consider both medication and lifestyle changes). 6. Where are most nutrients absorbed? 7. What is the main function of the large intestine? 8. What is the function of fiber in our gastrointestinal tract? What happens to the fiber that we consume? Carbohydrates 1. What are the functions of carbohydrates in the human body? 2. What is the difference between a simple and a complex carbohydrate? List the three disaccharides and the three monosaccharides. 3. What is the difference between starch, fiber, and glycogen? 4.
7. What are the benefits of consuming high fiber foods? What is lactose intolerance? Explain how blood glucose is regulated (including which hormones are involved). Compare and contract Type I and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. What are the long term side effects of the disease? Lipids 1. What are the functions of lipids in our bodies and in foods? 2. What are the three main types of lipids? 3. What are the differences between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in terms of chemical structure, where they are found in our diet, and their impact upon human health? 4. What is trans fat? Where is trans fat found in the human diet? Why are we advised to eat minimal trans fat? 5. What are the two essential fatty acids? Where are they found in our diet? Why is it important to have the proper balance of these two fatty acids in the diet? 6. How lipids are digested and absorbed in the body? 7. What is the function of a lipoprotein? List the three main types of human lipoproteins and describe the function of each. 8. What are the desirable values for total cholesterol, HDL and LDL in our blood? Proteins and Amino Acids 1. What are the functions of proteins in the body? How much protein does the average person need? 2. What is an essential amino acid? What are the nine essential amino acids? 3. What is the structure of proteins and amino acids? 4. How proteins are digested and absorbed in the body? 5. What are marasmus and kwashiorkor? What causes each? What are the symptoms of each? 6. Why might a vegetarian diet be healthier than that of a meat eater? Why might it be less healthy? 7. What are complimentary proteins? 8. What is a vegan? What is a lacto‐ovo vegetarian? 9. What are the problems associated with protein excess? ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/28/2012 for the course NFSC 100 taught by Professor Jackson during the Spring '09 term at Maryland.
- Spring '09