chap4elms - Cognition Sensation,Perception,and States of...

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Unformatted text preview: Cognition: Sensation,Perception,and States of Consciousness Sensation and Perception Sensation: process by which _________ cells are stimulated and transmit their information to higher ______ centers Begins with ______________ stimulus (internal or external) Form of ______ then activates the _______ system __________ threshold: ____________ amount of physical energy needed for individual to notice a stimulus _______________ threshold: _________ level of stimulation required to ______ a change __________ adaptation: tendency of the nervous system to respond less to ___________ that continue __________ change Each of the five senses have ______________ pathways that normally carry information to regions of the brain Example: electrical stimulation of the primary sensory cortex (__________ lobes) produce _______ sensations Stimulation of the __________ lobes are experienced as ________ Example: ______ different types of _____ in the eyes’ retina Each ____ responds to wavelengths but most persistently at a __________ point in the spectrum We can detect more than __________________ People detect smells-goes to __________ complex located in the frontal lobes Taste receptors have two paths: primary ___________ cortex and _______ system Perception: process that organizes various sensations into _____________ patterns How culture influences what we perceive _________________: expectations based on our experiences with the environment Likely to occur due to increasing ______ and _____________ of the perceptual process Common in people of particular cultures and may not be necessarily ___________ in people from other cultures Example: children asked to adjust the size of the circle of light to match size of various coins Children from wealthier families tended to see the coins as _______ than they actually were Children from _____ families tended to overestimate the size of the coins The _________________ among children from poor families influenced their ___________ of the coins Environmental Factors affecting Perception Hunter and gatherer cultures have _______ rates of color blindness than cultures practicing ____________ _____________ to distinguish details may be critical in hunting and gathering societies (___________________________) Individuals would ___________________ Level of noise in surrounding environments People who live in deserts ___________________ to the extent that city dwellers do Absence of ____________ can be a significant factor that affects perception Kittens raised in the dark except for several hours each day Kittens were placed in a cylinder with horizontal or vertical stripes People Perceiving Pictures Perception of pictures is linked to a person’s _____________ and _____________ experience Example: Turkish vs. Austrian children living in Europe Asked to look at photos Turkish children were ________ in matching Turkish faces than were Austrian children No difference in the perception of German faces...
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chap4elms - Cognition Sensation,Perception,and States of...

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