EXAM1 sheet - UNIT1 : two types of knowledge: particular...

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Unformatted text preview: UNIT1 : two types of knowledge: particular knowledge and general knowledge. Particular knowledge is we learn through our five senses. General knowledge is through reasoning. Animals possess particular knowledge. Only humans possess general knowledge. Particular knowledge is certain; only two types of our general knowledge are certainty: our knowledge of self-evident propositions, faith. M ilitary power (force), economic power (positive or negative incentives), and psychological power (felt within the psyche). Six ways governments have attempted to claim legitimacy: religion, wisdom, force, bloodline, ideology, and politics UNIT2 : Hobbes: In [the state of nature] there is no place for industry, nothing could be worse than life without the protection of the state, and that strong government is essential to ensure that we do not lapse into a war of all against all. We are always searching for something; never at rest. A state of war is not constant fighting, but a constant readiness to fight. Locke : did not agree with Hobbes, the State of Nature, and the State of War, which however some men have confounded, are as far distant as a State of Peace, Good W ill, Mutual Assistance, and Preservation, and a State of Enmity, Malice, Violence and Mutual Destruction are from one another. The state of nature is a state of perfect freedom and equality bound by a law of nature. Hobbes principle of equality was a claim about mental and physical capabilities of all people. For Locke it is a moral claim about rights. For Hobbes, the fundamental law of nature was self-preservation. For Locke, there is a theological aspect to the law of nature. Another difference between Hobbes and Locke concerns the idea of natural liberty. Rousseau : like Hobbes and Locke, believed that human beings are primarily motivated by desire for self-preservation. But Rousseau also believed that this is not the end of the story. pity or compassion and so they overestimated the likelihood of conflict in a state of nature. Anarchism No more laws! No more judges! Liberty, equality and practical human sympathy are the only effective barriers we can oppose to the anti-social instincts of certain among us.. Social Contract Theory : I moreover affirm, That all Men are naturally in the state of nature, and remain so, till by their own Consents they make themselves Members of some Politick Society; And I doubt not in the Sequel of this Discourse, to make it very clear. affirm, That all Men are naturally in the state of nature, and remain so, till by their own Consents they make themselves Members of some Politick Society; And I doubt not in the Sequel of this Discourse, to make it very clear....
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