# 1 - 1 Statistics is the science of using data to answer...

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1 Statistics is the science of using data to answer questions. We begin the process by first defining a problem and stating the corresponding research question. Then, we plan how to collect relevant data and obtain that data by implementing the plan. Next we analyze the data with numerical summaries and graphs. Finally, we draw conclusions from our data to answer the research question. Statistics is the science of learning from data. Data are numbers with a context. The individual is the basic unit in the population. The variable is the characteristic recorded on EACH individual by the researcher. Categorical variable: not numbers with value, asking respondents to select a category (no matter a number or not) Quantitative variable: a number having value Bar graphs are the recommended plot for categorical data. Pie charts are not recommended by statisticians. Since the bars tail off on the right, we say the distribution is right-skewed. (zuo gao you di) The key concept in statistics: variation 2 ORGANIZING A STATISTICAL PROBLEM: A FOUR-STEP PROCESS STATE: What is the practical question, in the context of the real-world setting? PLAN: What specific statistical operations does this problem call for?

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1 - 1 Statistics is the science of using data to answer...

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