# 3 - 3 Individual Object described by a set of data...

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3 Individual: Object described by a set of data. Individuals may be people, but they may also be animals or things. Sample: A part of the population that we actually examine in order to gather information. Population: The entire group of individuals that we want information about. Statistical Inference: Conclusions are made about a population based on sample data. A sampling design is a specific method for choosing a sample from the population. Bias: 1.The design of a study is biased if it systematically favors certain outcomes. 2. Systematic errors in the way a sample represents the population. Voluntary response sample: A sample composed of people who choose themselves by responding to a general appeal. Voluntary response samples are biased because people with strong opinions, especially negative opinions, are most likely to respond. Quota sampling is a non-probability sampling method because the probability of selecting each individual cannot be determined.

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