16 - ASSOCIATION IS NOT CAUSE! (OBSERVATIONAL STUDAY CAN...

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ASSOCIATION IS NOT CAUSE!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! (OBSERVATIONAL STUDAY CAN NOT MAKE CAUSE CONCLUSION!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!) To analyze categorical data, we use the counts or percents of individuals that fall into various categories. Two-way table: Count table used to organize data about two categorical variables. Values of the row variable label the rows that run across the table, and values of the column variable label the columns that run down the table. Two-way tables are often used to summarize large amounts of information by grouping outcomes into categories. The row totals and column totals in a two- way table give the marginal distributions of the two individual variables. Distribution: The values and the frequency of values taken by a variable. The distribution of a categorical variable says how often each outcome occurred. Percents are often more informative than counts. We can display the marginal distribution of opinions in percents by dividing each row total by the table total and converting to a percent. The total should be 100% because everyone holds one of the five opinions. In fact, the percents
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16 - ASSOCIATION IS NOT CAUSE! (OBSERVATIONAL STUDAY CAN...

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