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26 - Statistical significance An observed effect so large...

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Statistical significance: An observed effect so large that it would rarely occur by  chance is called statistically significant. Significance depends on the alternative hypothesis.  The  P    -value      for  a one-sided test is one-half the  P    -value      for the two-sided test of the same  null   hypothesis  based on the same data. The two-sided  P    -value      combines two equal  areas, one in each tail of a Normal curve. The one-sided  P    -value      is just one of  these areas, in the direction specified by the  alternative hypothesis . It makes  sense that the evidence against  H 0  is stronger when the alternative is one-sided,  because it is based on the data  plus  information about the direction of possible  deviations from  H 0 . Significance depends on sample size.
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