Week15 - Chapter 8 Chemical Bonding 1 2 3 4 Types of Bonds...

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Chapter 8. Chemical Bonding 1. Types of Bonds 2. Ionic Bonding 3. Covalent Bonding 4. Shapes of Molecules
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8.1 Types of Bonds Chemical bond: A force that holds atoms together in a molecule or compound Figure 8.2 Ionic Bonds Occurs between a metal and a nonmetal. Electrons transferred from a metal to a non metal forming a metal cation and a non metal anion, each with a stable noble gas electron configuration. The ions are held together by electrostatic forces. Covalent Bonds Occurs between two nonmetals. A bond created by the sharing of electrons between atoms (no electron transfer between atoms). Electrons typically shared in pairs.
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Q> Identify the type of bonding in each of the following substances: 1. CaCl 2 2. NO 2 3. NaNO 3
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Polar vs. Nonpolar Covalent Bonds Nonpolar covalent bond Equal sharing of electrons Occurs only when the same kind of atoms are covalently bonded. Polar covalent bond Unequal sharing of electrons Occurs when different elements are covalently bonded to one another (Different elements have different electronegativities). This result in unequal sharing which can be described as partial electron transfer. Partial charges are developed on the atoms sharing electrons. Polarity: The degree of transfer of electrons in a covalently bonded molecule composed of different element’s atoms.
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Electronegativity Ability of an atom to attract bonding electrons. A difference in electronegativity between the atoms in a covalent bond results in a polar covalent bond. The more electronegative element pulls bonding electrons more strongly and obtains a partial negative charge ( δ- ). The less electronegative element loses electron density in the bond and therefore obtains a partial positive charge ( δ +).
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