Gender%20Equity - AGR 201 “Communicating Across...

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Unformatted text preview: AGR 201 “Communicating Across Cultures” Fall, 2009 Dr. P.V. Morris Reinforcement of specific roles ­ for men and women GENDER BIASES GENDER How did the Civil War affect women’s demands for GENDER EQUITY GENDER • Women were hired to work in occupations Women previously denied to them previously • Numbers of women in certain occupations Numbers increased (e.g. teachers, clerical jobs, social workers, nurses) workers, • Women were active in political causes • More women enrolled in college despite studies More warning against it (e.g. health problems, less likely to marry) likely What progress and what resistance What to women’s rights had occurred by the 1920’s 1920’s • Many women worked outside the home Many including 10% of married women including • Half of all college students were women • In 1920 women first voted for President (while In men voted for the first Miss America) men • Women could not persuade Congress to pass Women an Equal Rights Amendment an How did women workers perform How during World War II during • Women constituted the majority of Women the workforce the • Studies showed that women were Studies competent workers competent • Many women lost their jobs after the Many war war What role did the media play in women being forced out of their jobs jobs Polls and magazine Polls and newspaper articles emphasized the role of women as wives and mothers wives What is sexist language? How What does it influence attitudes and behavior? behavior? • Exclusive language (i.e. generic use of Exclusive “man”) influences people to think in terms of men only men Ex. Any student who is not satisfied with his Ex. performance on the quiz may retake the quiz at a later date. quiz We are asking all the mothers to send cookies for our field trip tomorrow. A writer can become so involved in his work that he neglects his family. While lunch was delayed the women gossiped about last night’s meeting. What does it mean to be a What “MALE CHAUVINIST” or a “MALE “FEMINIST” “FEMINIST” MALE CHAUVINIST – MALE men - leaders and decision makers women - subordinate to men women FEMINIST – advocates for personal, social and economic equality of women and men and Sexism is a unique form of oppression because people who belong to the dominant and subordinate groups live together. ◦ True ◦ False Sexism is learned through ◦ A) images portrayed by the media ◦ B) language, e.g., found in the words mailman, fireman,, policeman, and etc. ◦ C) culturally reinforced perceptions that men are more significant in our culture with regards to earning potential, business, and politics. ◦ D) All of the above are ways that sexism can be learned. A feminist is ◦ A) a woman who displays and advocates feminine qualities. ◦ B) a man who displays effeminate behavior. ◦ C) a woman who advocates and promotes legal social equality for women. ◦ D) a person who advocates and promotes legal and social equality for women and men. What kind of abuse do women What encounter in the United States encounter • Over a million women are stalked each Over year year • Over 200,000 women are sexually Over assaulted assaulted • 1 out of 3 women are victims of physical or out sexual abuse sexual • 65,000 women are raped each year (one 65,000 every 8 minutes) every RAPE has been misunderstood in the United States in MYTH: Rape occurs when an attractive woman MYTH: sexually arouses a man sexually REALITY: Rape is an act of violence expressed sexually against any woman sexually MYTH: Rapes occur in dark alleys or other public places when a woman is alone public REALITY: Most rapes occur in a place where the woman feels safe (more than 60% of rapes occur in the victim’s home) occur MYTH: Rapes are committed by violent MYTH: strangers strangers REALITY: Almost 66% of rapes are committed by someone the victim knows by MYTH: Women read romance novels with rape scenes, suggesting that they fantasize about and desire to be raped and REALITY: No research suggest that it is common for women (or men) to fantasize about being brutalized, degraded and raped about Why do women choose not to Why report a rape or attempted rape report THREATS - Rapists threaten to harm the THREATS victim if she reports the rape victim REACTIONS - Victims worry that family and friends may not be sympathetic friends DISBELIEF - Victims fear that a judge or jury may not believe her story may PUBLICITY – Victims worry about losing their privacy by making a public accusation of rape rape Refers to established LAWS, CUSTOMS, and PRACTICES in a society that allow SYSTEMATIC DISCRIMINATION against people or groups based on Gender The wage gap - historic problem! Are we making progress ? making PROBLEM: The wage gap has decreased because male salaries have not increased because “As young women enter the workforce the gap As in entry-level salaries is decreasing” in PROBLEM: The gap increases because women don’t get the same opportunities as men (e.g. the “glass ceiling”) men What about SEXUAL HARASSMENT in the workplace HARASSMENT Sexual harassment creates a hostile work environment for women From 1988 to 1998 sexual harassment claims increased from approximately 8,500 to 17,000 What are the most common behaviors that are regarded as SEXUAL HARASSMENT SEXUAL Persistent requests for a date despite continuing rejection Sexually suggestive remarks (including “jokes”) Workplace Guidelines for SEXUAL HARASSMENT in the SEXUAL United States United If the harassment is NOT SEVERE: Victims must confront the harasser and give him an opportunity to change his behavior If the harassment continues (the “reasonable person” standard), the victim can file a sexual harassment complaint If the harassment is SEVERE: (e.g. demanding sex for a promotion) Victim can immediately file a sexual harassment claim Has GENDER EQUITY in SCHOOLS improved In recent years, studies report that women represent 55% of all college students Women constitute HALF of all students enrolled in law schools and medical schools GENDER EQUITY = EQUAL OPPORTUNITY TO ACHIEVE EQUAL ...
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