# Lecture20_upload - Enthalpy Hess’s Law Lab reactions 1...

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Unformatted text preview: Enthalpy: Hess’s Law Lab reactions: 1. Dissolution of NH4NO3(s) 2. NH3(aq) + HNO3(aq) 3. CH3CO2Na(aq) + HCl (aq) Use data to calculate qrxn and ∆Hrxn. Then use Hess’s Law to determine ∆H for 2 reactions: NH3(aq) + HNO3(aq) → NH4NO3(s) ENTROPY ( S ) Δ S universe ≥ 2nd law of thermodynamics Δ E universe = 0 1st law of thermodynamics Blue water (with ink) White water (without ink) Blue water (with ink) White water (without ink) Pull out the separation “luke blue” Not spontaneous P = 1/67108864 A mixed state is millions of times more likely than a separated state. For N → Avogadro’s number, a mixed state is millions of millions of millions of millions... times more likely than a separated state. Energy Dispersal Only 4 in 10 chance of all the energy being concentrated on one particle. Example with Larger System • Total of 4 particles • Total of 6 Q of energy (Q = quanta) Larger System - continued • One arrangement: 3 Q on one particle, 1 Q each on three particles • 4 ways to achieve this arrangement ( W = 4). Larger System - continued...
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## This note was uploaded on 02/27/2012 for the course CHEM 116 taught by Professor Stevenson during the Spring '08 term at Purdue.

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Lecture20_upload - Enthalpy Hess’s Law Lab reactions 1...

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