Lecture20_upload

Lecture20_upload - Enthalpy: Hesss Law Lab reactions: 1....

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Unformatted text preview: Enthalpy: Hesss Law Lab reactions: 1. Dissolution of NH4NO3(s) 2. NH3(aq) + HNO3(aq) 3. CH3CO2Na(aq) + HCl (aq) Use data to calculate qrxn and Hrxn. Then use Hesss Law to determine H for 2 reactions: NH3(aq) + HNO3(aq) NH4NO3(s) ENTROPY ( S ) S universe 2nd law of thermodynamics E universe = 0 1st law of thermodynamics Blue water (with ink) White water (without ink) Blue water (with ink) White water (without ink) Pull out the separation luke blue Not spontaneous P = 1/67108864 A mixed state is millions of times more likely than a separated state. For N Avogadros number, a mixed state is millions of millions of millions of millions... times more likely than a separated state. Energy Dispersal Only 4 in 10 chance of all the energy being concentrated on one particle. Example with Larger System Total of 4 particles Total of 6 Q of energy (Q = quanta) Larger System - continued One arrangement: 3 Q on one particle, 1 Q each on three particles 4 ways to achieve this arrangement ( W = 4). Larger System - continued...
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Lecture20_upload - Enthalpy: Hesss Law Lab reactions: 1....

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